Vol.118, No.6, 2021, pp.1641-1658, doi:10.32604/EE.2021.017464
OPEN ACCESS
ARTICLE
Optimal Configuration of an Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Hydrogen Energy System: Comparison of Two Systems
  • Zekun Wang1,2,4, Yan Jia1,2,3,*, Yingjian Yang1, Chang Cai4,5, Yinpeng Chen1
1 School of Energy and Power Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051, China
2 Key Laboratory of Wind Energy and Solar Energy Technology (Inner Mongolia University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Hohhot, 010051, China
3 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Wind Power Technology and Testing Engineering Technology Research Center, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051, China
4 Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
5 Key Laboratory of Wind Energy Utilization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
* Corresponding Author: Yan Jia. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
Received 12 May 2021; Accepted 28 July 2021; Issue published 10 September 2021
Abstract
Due to the uncertainty of renewable energy power generation and the non-linearity of load demand, it becomes complicated to determine the capacity of each device in hybrid renewable energy power generation systems. This work aims to optimize the capacity of two types of the off-grid hybrid wind-hydrogen energy system. We considered the maximum profit of the system and the minimum loss of power supply probability as optimization goals. Firstly, we established steady-state models of the wind turbine, alkaline electrolyzer, lead-acid battery, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell in matrix laboratory software to optimize the capacity. Secondly, we analyzed the operating mode of the system and determined two system structures (system contains batteries whether or not). Finally, according to the wind speed and load in the sample area, we compared the economics of the two systems and selected the optimal configuration for the area. In the same calculation example data, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) is used to optimize the capacity of each device in the two systems. The results showed that the profit of the without battery-equipped system is 32.38% higher than another system. But the power supply reliability is the opposite. To avoid the contingency of the calculation results, we used the traditional genetic algorithm (GA) and ant colony optimization (ACO) to calculate the same example. The results showed that NSGA-II is significantly better than GA and ACO in terms of iteration steps and calculation results. The required architecture for the System-I composes of 3 numbers of 10 kW wind turbines, 61 sets of 12 V⋅240 Ah lead-acid batteries, 8 kW electrolytic cell, and 6 kW PEMFC. The net profit and LPSP are ¥44,315 and 0.01254 respectively. The required architecture for the System-II composes of 2 numbers of 10 kW wind turbines, 24 kW electrolytic cells, and 18 kW PEMFC. Net profit and LPSP are ¥58,663 and 0.03244, respectively. This paper provided two schemes for the optimal configuration of the hybrid wind-hydrogen energy system in islanding mode, which provided a theoretical basis for practical engineering applications.
Keywords
Optimization; wind energy; hybrid energy system; off-grid; fuel cell
Cite This Article
Wang, Z., Jia, Y., Yang, Y., Cai, C., Chen, Y. (2021). Optimal Configuration of an Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Hydrogen Energy System: Comparison of Two Systems. Energy Engineering, 118(6), 1641–1658.
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