Wind Energy Development and Utilization

Submission Deadline: 31 December 2023 Submit to Special Issue

Guest Editors

Dongran Song, Central South University, China
Mohamed Arezki Mellal, University of Maryland, USA
Qingan Li, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Bo Yang, Kunming University of Science and Technology, China

Summary

Wind energy, known as one of the clean and environmentally friendly renewable energy resources, is becoming more significant. Nevertheless, significant challenges remain in reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. Also, as wind moves offshore, with both fixed and floating options, there is further opportunity to use nascent technologies, such as Lidar measurement and wake control. This section aims to include contributions across the spectrum of scientific and engineering disciplines concerned with the development of wind energy technology, from fundamental device development/design, supporting technologies (control, condition monitoring, etc.), power conversion, to grid integration and associated storage technologies. Studies on hybrid systems (combined solar/storage/ hydrogen) are also encouraged. The special issue covers a wide range of topics, including:, but not limited to

• Wind resource assessment techniques;

• Wind rotors and blades;

• Wind turbine drive train technologies ( greabox, generator and power electronics);

• Wind turbines control, protection , state diagnostics;

• Operations and maintenance;

• Wind power plant modeling, design, installation, operation&control, performance optimization;

• Structural and mechanical aspects;

• Wind turbine in standalone system;

• Wind power economics;

• Wind power in power and multi energy systems.


Keywords

Wind turbines, wind power plant, control, modeling, design, optimization, grid integration

Published Papers


  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Coordinated Rotor-Side Control Strategy for Doubly-Fed Wind Turbine under Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Grid Faults

    Quanchun Yan, Chao Yuan, Wen Gu, Yanan Liu, Yiming Tang
    Energy Engineering
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In order to solve the problems of rotor overvoltage, overcurrent and DC side voltage rise caused by grid voltage drops, a coordinated control strategy based on symmetrical and asymmetrical low voltage ride through of rotor side converter of the doubly-fed generator is proposed. When the power grid voltage drops symmetrically, the generator approximate equation under steady-state conditions is no longer applicable. Considering the dynamic process of stator current excitation, according to the change of stator flux and the depth of voltage drop, the system can dynamically provide reactive power support for parallel nodes and suppress the rise of DC side… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effects of Turbulence Intensity and Tip Speed Ratio on the Coherent Structure of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Wake: A Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Yuxia Han, Jianwen Wang, Xin Li, Xueqing Dong, Caifeng Wen
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.6, pp. 2297-2317, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020858
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The evolution laws of the large-eddy coherent structure of the wind turbine wake have been evaluated via wind tunnel experiments under uniform and turbulent inflow conditions. The spatial correlation coefficients, the turbulence integral scales and power spectrum are obtained at different tip speed ratios (TSRs) based on the time-resolved particle image velocity (TR-PIV) technique. The results indicate that the large-eddy coherent structures are more likely to dissipate with an increase in turbulence intensity and TSR. Furthermore, the spatial correlation of the longitudinal pulsation velocity is greater than its axial counterpart, resulting into a wake turbulence dominated by the longitudinal pulsation.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Generator with Stacked Noise Reduction Autoencoder Based on Group Normalization

    Sihua Wang, Wenhui Zhang, Gaofei Zheng, Xujie Li, Yougeng Zhao
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.6, pp. 2431-2445, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020779
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In order to improve the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of wind turbines, a stacked noise reduction autoencoding network based on group normalization is proposed in this paper. The network is based on SCADA data of wind turbine operation, firstly, the group normalization (GN) algorithm is added to solve the problems of stack noise reduction autoencoding network training and slow convergence speed, and the RMSProp algorithm is used to update the weight and the bias of the autoenccoder, which further optimizes the problem that the loss function swings too much during the update process. Finally, in the last layer of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Wind Energy Data Analysis and Resource Mapping of Dangla, Gojjam, Ethiopia

    Belayneh Yitayew, Wondwossen Bogale
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.6, pp. 2513-2532, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018961
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Energy is one of the most important factors in socio-economic development. The rapid increase in energy demand and air pollution has increased the number of ways to generate energy in the power sector. Currently, wind energy capacity in Ethiopia is estimated at 10,000 MW. Of these, however, only eight percent of its capacity has been used in recent years. One of the reasons for the low use of wind energy is the lack of accurate wind atlases in the country. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop an accurate wind atlas and review the wind resources using Wind… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Review on Research about Wake Effects of Offshore Wind Turbines

    Yehong Dong, Guangyin Tang, Yan Jia, Zekun Wang, Xiaomin Rong, Chang Cai, Qingan Li, Yingjian Yang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.4, pp. 1341-1360, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019150
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In recent years, the construction of offshore wind farms is developing rapidly. As the wake effect of the upstream wind turbines seriously affect the performance of the downstream wind turbines, the wake effect of offshore wind turbines has become one of the research hotspots. First, this article reviews the research methods of wake effects, including CFD numerical simulation method, wind turbine wake model based on roughness and engineering wake models. However, there is no general model that can be used directly. Then it puts forward some factors that affect the wake of offshore wind turbines. The turbulence intensity in offshore… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Review on Research about Wake Effects of Offshore Wind Turbines

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of the Flow Mechanism of Wind Turbine Blades in the Yawed Condition

    Shuang Zhao, Xijun Li, Jianwen Wang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.4, pp. 1379-1392, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019776
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The computational fluid dynamics method was used to simulate the flow field around a wind turbine at the yaw angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. The angle of attack and the relative velocity of the spanwise sections of the blade were extracted with the reference points method. By analyzing the pressure distribution and the flow characteristics of the blade surface, the flow mechanism of the blade surface in the yawed condition was discussed. The results showed that the variations of the angle of attack and the relative velocity were related to the azimuth angle and the radius in the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Preliminary Feasibility Study on Wind Resource and Assessment of a Novel Low Speed Wind Turbine for Application in Africa

    Kehinde Adeyeye, Nelson Ijumba, Jonathan Colton
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 997-1015, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018677
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract This paper posits that a low-speed wind turbine design is suitable for harnessing wind energy in Africa. Conventional wind turbines consisting of propeller designs are commonly used across the world. A major hurdle to utilizing wind energy in Africa is that conventional commercial wind turbines are designed to operate at wind speeds greater than those prevalent in most of the continent, especially in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). They are heavy and expensive to purchase, install, and maintain. As a result, only a few countries in Africa have been able to include wind energy in their energy mix. In this paper, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Approach for Structural Optimization with Application to Wind Turbine Tower

    Fugang Dong, Yuqiao Zheng, Hao Li, Zhengwen He
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1017-1029, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020430
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract This work takes the bionic bamboo tower (BBT) of 2 MW wind turbine as the target, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is utilized to optimize its structural parameters. Specifically, the objective functions are deformation and mass. Based on the correlation analysis, the target optimization parameters were determined. Furthermore, the Kriging model of the BBT was established through the Latin Hypercube Sampling Design (LHSD). Finally, the BBT structure is optimized with multiple objectives under the constraints of strength, natural frequency, and size. The comparison shows that the optimized BBT has an advantage in the Design Load Case (DLC). This… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Protection of Zero-Sequence Power Variation in Mountain Wind Farm Collector Lines Based on Multi-Mode Grounding

    Hongchun Shu, Yaqi Deng, Pulin Cao, Jun Dong, Hongjiang Rao, Zhiqian Bo
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.2, pp. 523-538, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.015570
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The arc-suppression coil (ASC) in parallel low resistance (LR) multi-mode grounding is adopted in the mountain wind farm to cope with the phenomenon that is misoperation or refusal of zero-sequence protection in LR grounding wind farm. If the fault disappears before LR is put into the system, it is judged as an instantaneous fault; while the fault does not disappear after LR is put into the system, it is judged as a permanent fault; the single-phase grounding fault (SLG) protection criterion based on zero-sequence power variation is proposed to identify the instantaneous-permanent fault. Firstly, the distribution characteristic of zero-sequence voltage… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on the Impacts of the Inertia and Droop Control Gains from a Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generator on the Frequency Response

    Dejian Yang, Yien Xu, Tong Zhu, Yang Wang, Qiuhan Cao, Yuang Ma, Enshu Jin, Xinsong Zhang, Haochen Sun
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.2, pp. 539-554, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.015133
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract System frequency must be kept very close to its nominal range to ensure the stability of an electric power grid. Excessive system frequency variations are able to result in load shedding, frequency instability, and even generator damage. With increasing wind power penetration, there is rising concern about the reduction in inertia response and primary frequency control in the electric power grid. Converter-based wind generation is capable of providing inertia response and primary frequency response; nevertheless, the primary frequency and inertia responses of wind generation are different from those of conventional synchronous fleets; it is not completely understood how the primary… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Enhanced Atom Search Optimization Based Optimal Control Parameter Tunning of PMSG for MPPT

    Xin He, Ping Wei, Xiaoyan Gong, Xiangfei Meng, Dong Shan, Jiawei Zhu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.1, pp. 145-161, 2022, DOI:10.32604/EE.2022.015910
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract For the past few years, wind energy is the most popular non-traditional resource among renewable energy resources and it’s significant to make full use of wind energy to realize a high level of generating power. Moreover, diverse maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods have been designed for varying speed operation of wind energy conversion system (WECS) applications to obtain optimal power extraction. Hence, a novel and meta-heuristic technique, named enhanced atom search optimization (EASO), is designed for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based WECS, which can be employed to track the maximum power point. One of the most promising… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Near-Wake Deflection Characteristics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Tower under Yaw State

    Zhen Liu, Jianwen Wang, Fuzhong Bai, Caifeng Wen, Yunchao Du
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.6, pp. 1627-1640, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016357
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The yaw of the horizontal axis wind turbine results in the deflection of the wake flow field of the tower. The reasonable layout of wind farm can reduce the power loss of the downstream wind turbine generators due to the blocking effect of the upstream wake flow and increase the output power of the whole wind farm. However, there is still much space for further research. In this paper, experimental research is conducted on the near-wake deflection characteristics of wind turbine tower under yaw state, expecting the effect of throwing away a brick in order to get a gem. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Configuration of an Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Hydrogen Energy System: Comparison of Two Systems

    Zekun Wang, Yan Jia, Yingjian Yang, Chang Cai, Yinpeng Chen
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.6, pp. 1641-1658, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.017464
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Due to the uncertainty of renewable energy power generation and the non-linearity of load demand, it becomes complicated to determine the capacity of each device in hybrid renewable energy power generation systems. This work aims to optimize the capacity of two types of the off-grid hybrid wind-hydrogen energy system. We considered the maximum profit of the system and the minimum loss of power supply probability as optimization goals. Firstly, we established steady-state models of the wind turbine, alkaline electrolyzer, lead-acid battery, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell in matrix laboratory software to optimize the capacity. Secondly, we analyzed the operating… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Multi-Objective Optimization of AFPM Generators with Double-Sided Internal Stator Structures for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    Dandan Song, Lianjun Zhou, Ziqi Peng, Senhua Luo, Jun Zhu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.5, pp. 1439-1452, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015011
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator with double-sided internal stator structure is highly suitable for vertical axis wind turbines due to its high power density. The performance of the AFPM generator with double-sided internal stator structure can be improved by the reasonable design of electromagnetic parameters. To further improve the overall performance of the AFPM generator with double-sided internal stator structure, multivariable (coil width ωc, permanent magnet thickness h, pole arc coefficient αp and working air gap lg) and multi-objective (generator efficiency η, total harmonic distortion of the voltage THD and induced electromotive force amplitude EMF) functional relationships are… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Assessment of the Rural Water Supply Potential by Mechanical Wind Pumping Around the Floodplains of Lake Chad

    Dieudonné Kaoga Kidmo, Bachirou Bogno, Kodji Deli, Michel Aillerie
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 931-945, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015574
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In the present work, an assessment of the rural water supply potential by mechanical wind pumping around the floodplains of Lake Chad has been considered. Inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, available surface water is largely contaminated and represents health hazards to populations. Access to underground and clean water has increasingly become rare. Moreover, clean water scarcity has led to conflict and territorial pressures, which are contributing factors to poverty in the considered area. Four localities, Baga, Baga-Sola, Makari and Nguigmi, respectively, in Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger have been selected inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, to evaluate the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Variable-Pitch Control Design of PMSG Via Perturbation Observer

    Yilin Hu, Yan Xie, Bo Li, Yiqiang Jiang, Fu Bao
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 911-929, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014759
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Wind turbine employs pitch angle control to maintain captured power at its rated value when the wind speed is higher than rated value. This work adopts a perturbation observer based sliding-mode control (POSMC) strategy to realize robust variable-pitch control of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). POSMC combines system nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics, and time-varying external disturbances into a perturbation, which aims to estimate the perturbation via a perturbation observer without an accurate system model. Subsequently, sliding mode control (SMC) is designed to completely compensate perturbation estimation in real-time for the sake of achieving a global consistent control performance and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Probabilistic Load Flow Calculation of Power System Integrated with Wind Farm Based on Kriging Model

    Lu Li, Yuzhen Fan, Xinglang Su, Gefei Qiu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.3, pp. 565-580, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014627
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Because of the randomness and uncertainty, integration of large-scale wind farms in a power system will exert significant influences on the distribution of power flow. This paper uses polynomial normal transformation method to deal with non-normal random variable correlation, and solves probabilistic load flow based on Kriging method. This method is a kind of smallest unbiased variance estimation method which estimates unknown information via employing a point within the confidence scope of weighted linear combination. Compared with traditional approaches which need a greater number of calculation times, long simulation time, and large memory space, Kriging method can rapidly estimate node… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Power Data Preprocessing Method of Mountain Wind Farm Based on POT-DBSCAN

    Anfeng Zhu, Zhao Xiao, Qiancheng Zhao
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.3, pp. 549-563, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014177
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Due to the frequent changes of wind speed and wind direction, the accuracy of wind turbine (WT) power prediction using traditional data preprocessing method is low. This paper proposes a data preprocessing method which combines POT with DBSCAN (POT-DBSCAN) to improve the prediction efficiency of wind power prediction model. Firstly, according to the data of WT in the normal operation condition, the power prediction model of WT is established based on the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Arithmetic which is combined with the BP Neural Network (PSO-BP). Secondly, the wind-power data obtained from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Model Predictive Yaw Control Using Fuzzy-Deduced Weighting Factor for Large-Scale Wind Turbines

    Shuowang Zhang, Lingxiang Huang, Dongran Song, Ke Xu, Xuebing Yang, Xiaoping Song
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.2, pp. 237-250, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014269
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Yaw control system plays an important role in helping large-scale horizontal wind turbines capture the wind energy. To track the stochastic and fast-changing wind direction, the nacelle is rotated by the yaw control system. Therein, a difficulty consists in the variation speed of the wind direction much faster than the rotation speed of the nacelle. To deal with this difficulty, model predictive control has been recently proposed in the literature, in which the previewed wind direction is employed into the predictive model, and the estimated captured energy and yaw actuator usage are two contradictive objectives. Since the performance of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Adaptive Fractional-Order PID Control for VSC-HVDC Systems via Cooperative Beetle Antennae Search with Offshore Wind Integration

    Pulin Cao, Haoran Fan, Zilong Cai
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.2, pp. 265-284, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014513
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Since the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) systems owns the features of nonlinearity, strong coupling and multivariable, the classical proportional integral (PI) control is hard to obtain content control effect. Hence, a new perturbation observer based fractional-order PID (PoFoPID) control strategy is designed in this paper for (VSC-HVDC) systems with offshore wind integration, which can efficiently boost the robustness and control performance of entire system. Particularly, it employs a fractional-order PID (FoPID) framework for the sake of compensating the perturbation estimate, which dramatically boost the dynamical responds of the closed-loop system, and the cooperative beetle antennae… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Electromagnetic Performance of Modulated Coaxial Magnetic Gears Used in Semi-Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    Jungang Wang, Liqun Qian, Shuairui Xu, Ruina Mo
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.2, pp. 251-264, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014143
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Wind turbine is a key device to realize the utilization of wind energy, and it has been highly valued by all countries. But the mechanical gear transmission of the existing wind power device has the disadvantages of high vibration and noise, high failure rate, and short service time. Magnetic field modulation electromagnetic gear transmission is a new non-contact transmission method. However, the conventional modulation magnetic gear has low torque density and torque defects with large fluctuations. In order to overcome the gear transmission problems of the existing semi-direct drive wind power generation machinery and improve the electromagnetic performance of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Time-Domain Protection for Transmission Lines Connected to Wind Power Plant based on Model Matching and Hausdorff Distance

    Hongchun Shu, Xiaohan Jiang, Pulin Cao, Na An, Xincui Tian, Bo Yang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.1, pp. 53-71, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2020.012381
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The system impedance instability, high-order harmonics, and frequency offset are main fault characteristics of wind power system. Moreover, the measurement angle of faulty phase is affected by rotation speed frequency component, which causes traditional directional protections based on angle comparison between voltage and current to operate incorrectly. In this paper, a time-domain protection for connected to wind power plant based on model matching is proposed, which compares the calculated current and the measured current to identify internal faults and external faults. Under external faults, the calculated current and measured current waveform are quite similar because the protected transmission lines is… More >

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