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Phase change materials (PCM) have great latent heat but suffer from low thermal conductivity. Then, in recent years, nano particles have been added to PCM to improve their thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity. Effect of this nano particles on thermophysical properties of PCM has been a question and many experimental and numerical studies have been done to investigate them. Artificial intelligence-based approach can be a good candidate to predict thermophysical properties of nano enhance PCM (NEPCM). Then, in this study an artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to predict the latent heat of the NEPCM.
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  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Latent Heat Prediction of Nano Enhanced Phase Change Material by ANN Method

    Farzad Jaliliantabar1,2,*, Rizalman Mamat3, Sudhakar Kumarasamy2,4,5
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 847-861, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019051
    Abstract Thermal characteristics of phase change material (PCM) are important in design and utilization of thermal energy storage or other applications. PCMs have great latent heat but suffer from low thermal conductivity. Then, in recent years, nano particles have been added to PCM to improve their thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity. Effect of this nano particles on thermophysical properties of PCM has been a question and many experimental and numerical studies have been done to investigate them. Artificial intelligence-based approach can be a good candidate to predict thermophysical properties of nano enhance PCM (NEPCM). Then, in this study an artificial… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Varying Temperature and Oxygen on Particulate Matter Formation in Oxy-Biomass Combustion

    Chen Wang1, Cicilia Kemunto Mesa2,*, Samuel Bimenyimana1,3, Nathan Bogonko2, George Adwek4, Yiyi Mo1, Godwin Norense Osarumwense Asemota5,6, Changfu Yuan7, Yaowen Chen7, Changtai Li8, Etienne Ntagwirumugara9, Aphrodis Nduwamungu5
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 863-881, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019248
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)
    Abstract Offsetting particulate matter emissions has become a critical global aim as there are concerted efforts to deal with environmental and energy poverty challenges. This study consists of investigations of computing emissions of particulate matter from biomass fuels in various atmospheres and temperatures. The laboratory setup included a fixed bed electric reactor and a particulate matter (PM) measuring machine interfaced with the flue gas from the fixed bed reactor combustion chamber. The experiments were conducted at seven different temperatures (600°C–1200°C) and six incremental oxygen concentrations (21%–100%). Five biomass types were studied; A-cornstalk, B-wood, C-wheat straw, D-Rice husk, E-Peanut shell, each pulverized… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Effect of Varying Temperature and Oxygen on Particulate Matter Formation in Oxy-Biomass Combustion

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    How Load Aggregators Avoid Risks in Spot Electricity Market: In the Framework of Power Consumption Right Option Contracts

    Jiacheng Yang1, Xiaohe Zhai1, Zhongfu Tan1,2,*, Zhenghao He1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 883-906, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018033
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)
    Abstract There is uncertainty in the electricity price of spot electricity market, which makes load aggregators undertake price risks for their agent users. In order to allow load aggregators to reduce the spot market price risk, scholars have proposed many solutions, such as improving the declaration decision-making model, signing power mutual insurance contracts, and adding energy storage and mobilizing demand-side resources to respond. In terms of demand side, calling flexible demand-side resources can be considered as a key solution. The user's power consumption rights (PCRs) are core contents of the demand-side resources. However, there have been few studies on the pricing… More >

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    ARTICLE

    An Improved Immune Clone Selection Algorithm for Parameters Optimization of Marine Electric Power System Stabilizer

    Zong Bi*, Weifeng Shi, Tiewei Song
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 907-928, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019627
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)
    Abstract In the marine electric power system, the marine generators will be disturbed by the large change of loads or the fault of the power system. The marine generators usually installed power system stabilizers to damp power system oscillations through the excitation control. This paper proposes a novel method to obtain optimal parameter values for Power System Stabilizer (PSS) to suppress low-frequency oscillations in the marine electric power system. In this paper, a newly developed immune clone selection algorithm was improved from the three aspects of the adaptive incentive degree, vaccination, and adaptive mutation strategies. Firstly, the typical PSS implementation type… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Power Quality Assessment Based on Rough AHP and Extension Analysis

    Guofeng Liu*, Can Zhang, Zhengyi Zhu, Xuyan Wang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 929-946, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.014816
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)
    Abstract Due to the increasing power consumption of whole society and widely using of new non-linear and asymmetric electrical equipment, power quality assessment problem in the new period has attracted more and more attention. The mathematical essence of comprehensive assessment of power quality is a multi-attribute optimal decision-making problem. In order to solve the key problem of determining the indicator weight in the process of power quality assessment, a rough analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is proposed to aggregate the judgment opinions of multiple experts and eliminate the subjective effects of single expert judgment. Based on the advantage of extension analysis for… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Proximity Indicator for Assessment of Voltage Stability and Critical Loadability Point

    Chandrakant Dondariya*, D. K. Sakravdia
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 947-963, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019118
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)
    Abstract This paper presents a newly developed proximity indicator for voltage stability assessment which can be used to predict critical real system load and voltages at various load buses at critical loading point. The proximity indicator varies almost parabolic with total real load demand and reaches orthogonally to real load axis. This relation has been utilized to predict critical loading point. It has been shown that two operating points are needed for estimating critical point and proper selection of operating points and variation of proximity indicator near collapse point highly affect the accuracy of estimation. Simulation is based on load flow… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bi-Level Energy Management Model of Grid-Connected Microgrid Community

    Haibin Cao1, Houqi Dong1, Yongjie Ren1, Yuqing Wang2,*, Na Li3, Ming Zeng1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 965-984, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020051
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Energy Systems Management and Climate Change)
    Abstract As the proportion of renewable energy power generation continues to increase, the number of grid-connected microgrids is gradually increasing, and geographically adjacent microgrids can be interconnected to form a Micro-Grid Community (MGC). In order to reduce the operation and maintenance costs of a single micro grid and reduce the adverse effects caused by unnecessary energy interaction between the micro grid and the main grid while improving the overall economic benefits of the micro grid community, this paper proposes a bi-level energy management model with the optimization goal of maximizing the social welfare of the micro grid community and minimizing the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Classification of Transmission Line Ground Short Circuit Fault Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Tao Guo, Gang Tian, Zhimin Ao*, Xi Fang, Lili Wei, Fei Li
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 985-996, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018185
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Role of Artificial Intelligence for Modeling and Optimizing the Energy Systems )
    Abstract Ground short circuit faults in current transmission lines are common in the power systems. In order to prevent the power system from aggravating the accident caused by short-circuit faults of transmission lines, a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model is constructed to identify the short-circuit fault of the transmission line in the power system. The CNN model is mainly consisted of five convolutional layers, three max-pooling layers, one concatenate layer, one dropout layer, one fully connected layer, and a Softmax classifier. This method uses a fixed time window to intercept system short-circuit fault data, extracts the deep features of these… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Preliminary Feasibility Study on Wind Resource and Assessment of a Novel Low Speed Wind Turbine for Application in Africa

    Kehinde Adeyeye1,*, Nelson Ijumba1,2, Jonathan Colton1,3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 997-1015, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018677
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract This paper posits that a low-speed wind turbine design is suitable for harnessing wind energy in Africa. Conventional wind turbines consisting of propeller designs are commonly used across the world. A major hurdle to utilizing wind energy in Africa is that conventional commercial wind turbines are designed to operate at wind speeds greater than those prevalent in most of the continent, especially in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). They are heavy and expensive to purchase, install, and maintain. As a result, only a few countries in Africa have been able to include wind energy in their energy mix. In this paper, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Approach for Structural Optimization with Application to Wind Turbine Tower

    Fugang Dong, Yuqiao Zheng*, Hao Li, Zhengwen He
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1017-1029, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020430
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract This work takes the bionic bamboo tower (BBT) of 2 MW wind turbine as the target, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is utilized to optimize its structural parameters. Specifically, the objective functions are deformation and mass. Based on the correlation analysis, the target optimization parameters were determined. Furthermore, the Kriging model of the BBT was established through the Latin Hypercube Sampling Design (LHSD). Finally, the BBT structure is optimized with multiple objectives under the constraints of strength, natural frequency, and size. The comparison shows that the optimized BBT has an advantage in the Design Load Case (DLC). This… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Transient Simulation and Optimization of Regional Integrated Energy System

    Xueqin Tian1, Mengran Cui2, Tong Xu1, Jinfei Sun2, Xinlei Wang1, Jiangxiang Guo2, De-Gejirifu1,*, Na Wang1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1031-1045, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.015984
    Abstract A modeling method of regional integrated energy system based on bus method and transient simulation is proposed, and the system optimization is based on the dynamic balance of supply and demand in the whole year energy supply cycle. A CCHP system of gas turbine coupled with ground source heat pump and electric refrigeration unit is constructed. The energy relationship of the system is described by bus structure, and the transient calculation model is built on TRNSYS platform. The weighted sum of annual total cost saving rate, primary energy saving rate and environmental pollutant shadow cost saving rate is taken as… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comprehensive Energy-Saving Optimization Model of Asynchronous Motor for Voltage Regulation Based on Static Synchronous Compensator

    Shuqiao Dan*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1047-1057, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.015594
    Abstract There are several problems existing in the direct starting of asynchronous motor such as large starting current, reactive power absorption from network side and weak interference-resistance, etc. Aiming at this, a comprehensive energy-saving optimization model of asynchronous motor for voltage regulation based on static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is put forward. By analyzing the working principle and operation performance of static synchronous compensator regulating voltage, a new energy-efficient optimization method for asynchronous motor is proposed based on the voltage regulator model to achieve soft start, continuous dynamic reactive power compensation and the terminal voltage stability control. The multi-objective optimal operation of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Distribution Network Equipment Location and Capacity Planning Method Considering Energy Internet Attribute from the Perspective of Life Cycle Cost

    Qiang Li1,*, Lei Xue1, Xia Lin2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1059-1074, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017687
    Abstract For facing the challenges brought by large-scale renewable energy having access to the system and considering the key technologies of energy Internet, it is very necessary to put forward the location method of distribution network equipment and capacity from the perspective of life cycle cost. Compared with the traditional energy network, the equipment capacity problem of energy interconnected distribution network which involves in electricity network, thermal energy network and natural gas network is comprehensively considered in this paper. On this basis, firstly, the operation architecture of energy interconnected distribution network is designed. Secondly, taking the grid connection location and configuration… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sustainability Intelligent Evaluation of Regional Microgrid Interconnection System Based on Combination Entropy Weight Rank Order-TOPSIS and NILA-KELM

    Haichao Wang1, Yingying Fan2,3,*, Weigao Meng4, Qiaoran Yang5
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1075-1101, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019584
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Renewable Energy Development under Climate Change)
    Abstract Sustainability evaluation of regional microgrid interconnection system is conducive to a profound and comprehensive understanding of the impact of interconnection system projects. In order to realize the comprehensive and scientific intelligent evaluation of the system, this paper proposes an evaluation model based on combination entropy weight rank order-technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Niche Immune Lion Algorithm-Extreme Learning Machine with Kernel (NILA-KELM). Firstly, the sustainability evaluation indicator system of the regional microgrid interconnection system is constructed from four aspects of economic, environmental, social, and technical characteristics, and the evaluation indicators are explained. Then, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Establishment of a Coupling Model for the Prediction of Heat Dissipation of the Internal Combustion Engine Based on Finite Element

    Hongyu Mu1,2,*, Yinyan Wang1, Hong Teng2, Xingtian Zhao2, Xiaolong Zhang2, Yan Jin2, Shiyang Hao2, Jingfeng Zhao2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1103-1116, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017273
    Abstract The aerodynamics and heat transfer performance in the rear-mounted automobile cabin have an important influence on the engine's safety and the operational stability of the automobile. The article uses STAR-CCM and GT-COOL software to establish the 3D wind tunnel model and engine cooling system model of the internal combustion engine. At the same time, we established a 3D artificial coupling model through parameter transfer. The research results show that the heat transfer coefficient decreases with the increase of the comprehensive drag coefficient of the nacelle. This shows that the cabin flow field has an important influence on the heat transfer… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization Scheme of Integrated Community Energy Utilization System Based on Improved Sine-Cosine Algorithm

    Xin Zhang*, Jinpeng Jiang, Haoran Zheng, Jihong Zhang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1117-1140, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017288
    Abstract China consumes significant amount of natural gas in winter. The integrated community energy utilization system (ICEUS) cannot stabilize the output of electricity and heat if there is a shortage of natural gas. The operation cost of the system still needs improvement. An energy supply structure using garbage power as the core of ICEUS was established in the study. The optimal dispatching model of ICEUS was established using the regulating characteristic of the community load. The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) based on nonlinear factors and segmented weight was presented to solve the optimal dispatching model of ICEUS. From the simulation results, compared… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Decision-Making of Trans-Provincial Electricity Market Subjects with Risks under Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Hui Wang, Yishu Chen*, Zichao Wu, Haocheng Xu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1141-1167, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.016151
    Abstract

    The randomness and uncertainty of renewable energy generation are expected to significantly change the optimal decision-making of trans-provincial electricity market subjects. Therefore, it is beneficial to optimize the interests of each of these subjects, considering the unpredictable risks of renewable energy under the renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and researching their effects on the optimal decision-making of trans-provincial electricity market multi-subjects. First, we develop a trans-provincial trading market mechanism for renewable energy and clarify the electricity supply and demand relation and the green certificates supply and demand relation of trans-provincial electricity market multi-subjects. Then, under the RPS, we construct a multi-subject… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stepwise Pyrolysis by LBCR Downstream to Enhance of Gasoline Fraction of Liquid Fuel from MMSW

    Indra Mamad Gandidi1,2,*, Edy Suryadi3, Efri Mardawati3, Dwi Rustam Kendarto3, Nugroho Agung Pambudi4,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1169-1178, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018821
    Abstract Pyrolysis is one of the thermal cracking methods to convert hydrocarbon to liquid fuel. The quantity and quality of the process are dependent on several condition including temperature, reaction time, catalyst, and the type of reactor. Meanwhile, a gasoline fraction was maximum product to be considered in the pyrolisis process. Therefore, this study aims to increase the gasoline fraction in liquid fuel using stepwise pyrolysis with a long bed catalytic reactor downstream (LBCR). The LBCR downstream was equipped with the top and bottom outlet and the fed source was mixed municipal solid waste (MMSW). The activated natural dolomite at 500°C… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Insight into the Second-Harmonic Current Reduction Control Strategies in Two-Stage Converters

    Lei Ren, Lei Zhang*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1179-1196, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018902
    Abstract Due to the components at twice the fundamental frequency of output voltage in the instantaneous output power of a two-stage single-phase inverter (TSI), the second harmonic current (SHC) is generated in the front-end dc-dc converter (FDC). To reduce the SHC, optimizing the control strategy of the FDC is an effective and costless approach. From the view of visual impedance, this paper conducts an intensive study on the SHC reduction strategies. Origin of the SHC is illustrated first. Then, the equivalent circuit models of the FDC under different control strategies are proposed to analyse the SHC propagation characteristic. The derived model… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A STA Current-Constrained Control for PMSM Speed Regulation System with Function Disturbance Observer

    Bin Zhang, Boqiang Wei*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1197-1218, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018411
    Abstract The non-cascade permanent magnet synchronous motor control system has the advantages of simple structure and less adjustable parameters, but the non-cascade structure needs to solve the problem of over-current protection. In this paper, a current constrained control method is used to limit the starting current to a safe range. At the same time, to ensure the robustness and rapidity of the system, a super twist current constraint controller (CCSTA) is generated by combining super twist algorithm (STA) with current constraint control; Considering the diversity of internal and external disturbances, a functional disturbance observer (FDOB) is proposed to compensate the matched… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A New Diagnostic Method Applied to Gearbox Missing Gear Faults ——LOD-ICA

    Lida Liao1, Bo Xiao1,2,*, Kan Huang1,*, Bin Huang1,3, Kang Zhang1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1219-1238, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017471
    Abstract With the increasingly stringent requirements for carbon emissions, countries have increased the scale of clean energy use in recent years. As an important new clean energy source, the ratio of wind power in energy utilization has been increasing. The horizontal axis wind turbine is the main form of wind power generation, which is subject to random wind loads during operation and is prone to various failures after a long period of operation, resulting in reduced power generation efficiency or even shutdown. In order to ensure stable external power transmission, it is necessary to perform fault diagnosis for wind turbines. However,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characteristics of Diesel/N-Butanol Blend on a Common Rail Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Yanfei Chen1, Jingjing He2,*, Hao Chen2,*, Xin Su2, Bin Xie2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.3, pp. 1239-1259, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017847
    Abstract 20% n-butanol is blended in diesel by volume (noted as D80B20) and experiment has been carried out to study the effect on the combustion and emission characteristics based on a common rail diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. The results reveal that D80B20 has longer ignition delay, shorter combustion duration and higher maximum in-cylinder temperature than pure diesel (noted as D100). Further, the number concentration and volume concentration of ultrafine particles decrease significantly while NOX emissions increase a little with the addition of n-butanol. When the exhaust gas is induced into cylinder, NOX emissions significantly decrease and ultrafine… More >

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