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The performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems is directly impacted by the accumulation of dust particles on PV modules. Dust, composed of particles smaller than 100 µm, settles on the surface of PV modules and leads to a reduction in their electrical power generation. In order to anticipate the impact of such dust, a model was tested using the optical transmittance, obtained from the Ångström turbidity equation, combined with a solar cell’s I-V curve, estimated from the diode equation. The approach was found to be promising to predict the effect of soiling on a PV module.
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    Electro-Optical Model of Soiling Effects on Photovoltaic Panels and Performance Implications

    A. Asbayou1,*, G.P. Smestad2, I. Ismail1, A. Soussi1, A. Elfanaoui1, L. Bouhouch1, A. Ihlal1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 243-258, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2024.046409
    Abstract In this paper, a detailed model of a photovoltaic (PV) panel is used to study the accumulation of dust on solar panels. The presence of dust diminishes the incident light intensity penetrating the panel’s cover glass, as it increases the reflection of light by particles. This phenomenon, commonly known as the “soiling effect”, presents a significant challenge to PV systems on a global scale. Two basic models of the equivalent circuits of a solar cell can be found, namely the single-diode model and the two-diode models. The limitation of efficiency data in manufacturers’ datasheets has encouraged us to develop an… More >

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    Electro-Optical Model of Soiling Effects on Photovoltaic Panels and Performance Implications

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    Hydrogen Permeation Characteristics of Pd-Cu Membrane in Plasma Membrane Reactor

    Muhd Hadi Iskandar Abd Razak*, Motoki Tsuda, Yukio Hayakawa, Shinji Kambara
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 259-272, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.043615
    Abstract Hydrogen is an alternative energy source that has the potential to replace fossil fuels. One of the hydrogen applications is as a material for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) in fuel cell vehicles. High-purity hydrogen can be obtained using a hydrogen separation membrane to prevent unwanted contaminants from potentially harming the PEMFC components. In this study, we fabricated a plasma membrane reactor and investigated the permeation performance of a hydrogen separation membrane in a plasma membrane reactor utilizing atmospheric pressure plasma. The result showed the hydrogen permeation rate increasing with time as reactor temperature is increased through joule heating.… More >

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    Tubular Heat Enhancement Using Twisted Tape Inserts with Large Holes

    Ali Jaber Abdulhamed*, Aws Al-Akam, Wisam J. Khudhayer, Ali Sabri Allw
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 273-290, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.045583
    Abstract Heat augmentation techniques play a vital role in the heating and cooling processes in industries, including solar collectors and many applications that utilize heat exchangers. Several studies are based on inserting fillers inside the tubes to enhance heat transfer. This investigation considered the effects of twisted tapes with large holes on a tubular heat exchanger’s (HX) heat transmission, pressure drop, and thermal boosting factor. In the experimental section, counter-swirl flow generators used twisted tapes with pairs of 1.0 cm-diameter holes and changes in porosity (Rp) at 1.30% and 2.70%. In the experiments, air was utilized as a working fluid in… More >

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    Modeling of Large-Scale Hydrogen Storage System Considering Capacity Attenuation and Analysis of Its Efficiency Characteristics

    Junhui Li1, Haotian Zhang1, Cuiping Li1,*, Xingxu Zhu1, Ruitong Liu2, Fangwei Duan2, Yongming Peng3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 291-313, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.027593
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Fault Diagnosis and State Evaluation of New Power Grid)
    Abstract In the existing power system with a large-scale hydrogen storage system, there are problems such as low efficiency of electric-hydrogen-electricity conversion and single modeling of the hydrogen storage system. In order to improve the hydrogen utilization rate of hydrogen storage system in the process of participating in the power grid operation, and speed up the process of electric-hydrogen-electricity conversion. This article provides a detailed introduction to the mathematical and electrical models of various components of the hydrogen storage unit, and also establishes a charging and discharging efficiency model that considers the temperature and internal gas partial pressure of the hydrogen… More >

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    Distribution Line Longitudinal Protection Method Based on Virtual Measurement Current Restraint

    Wei Wang1, Yang Yu1, Simin Luo2,*, Wenlin Liu2, Wei Tang1, Yuanbo Ye1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 315-337, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.042082
    Abstract As an effective approach to achieve the “dual-carbon” goal, the grid-connected capacity of renewable energy increases constantly. Photovoltaics are the most widely used renewable energy sources and have been applied on various occasions. However, the inherent randomness, intermittency, and weak support of grid-connected equipment not only cause changes in the original flow characteristics of the grid but also result in complex fault characteristics. Traditional overcurrent and differential protection methods cannot respond accurately due to the effects of unknown renewable energy sources. Therefore, a longitudinal protection method based on virtual measurement of current restraint is proposed in this paper. The positive… More >

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    An Adaptive Control Strategy for Energy Storage Interface Converter Based on Analogous Virtual Synchronous Generator

    Feng Zhao, Jinshuo Zhang*, Xiaoqiang Chen, Ying Wang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 339-358, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.043082
    Abstract In the DC microgrid, the lack of inertia and damping in power electronic converters results in poor stability of DC bus voltage and low inertia of the DC microgrid during fluctuations in load and photovoltaic power. To address this issue, the application of a virtual synchronous generator (VSG) in grid-connected inverters control is referenced and proposes a control strategy called the analogous virtual synchronous generator (AVSG) control strategy for the interface DC/DC converter of the battery in the microgrid. Besides, a flexible parameter adaptive control method is introduced to further enhance the inertial behavior of the AVSG control. Firstly, a… More >

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    The Short-Term Prediction of Wind Power Based on the Convolutional Graph Attention Deep Neural Network

    Fan Xiao1, Xiong Ping1, Yeyang Li2,*, Yusen Xu2, Yiqun Kang1, Dan Liu1, Nianming Zhang1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 359-376, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.040887
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract The fluctuation of wind power affects the operating safety and power consumption of the electric power grid and restricts the grid connection of wind power on a large scale. Therefore, wind power forecasting plays a key role in improving the safety and economic benefits of the power grid. This paper proposes a wind power predicting method based on a convolutional graph attention deep neural network with multi-wind farm data. Based on the graph attention network and attention mechanism, the method extracts spatial-temporal characteristics from the data of multiple wind farms. Then, combined with a deep neural network, a convolutional graph… More >

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    Coordinated Voltage Control of Distribution Network Considering Multiple Types of Electric Vehicles

    Liang Liu, Guangda Xu*, Yuan Zhao, Yi Lu, Yu Li, Jing Gao
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 377-404, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.041311
    Abstract The couple between the power network and the transportation network (TN) is deepening gradually with the increasing penetration rate of electric vehicles (EV), which also poses a great challenge to the traditional voltage control scheme. In this paper, we propose a coordinated voltage control strategy for the active distribution networks considering multiple types of EV. In the first stage, the action of on-load tap changer and capacitor banks, etc., are determined by optimal power flow calculation, and the node electricity price is also determined based on dynamic time-of-use tariff mechanism. In the second stage, multiple operating scenarios of multiple types… More >

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    Two-Stage Optimal Scheduling of Community Integrated Energy System

    Ming Li1,*, Rifucairen Fu1, Tuerhong Yaxiaer1, Yunping Zheng1, Abiao Huang2, Ronghui Liu2, Shunfu Lin2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 405-424, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.044509
    Abstract From the perspective of a community energy operator, a two-stage optimal scheduling model of a community integrated energy system is proposed by integrating information on controllable loads. The day-ahead scheduling analyzes whether various controllable loads participate in the optimization and investigates the impact of their responses on the operating economy of the community integrated energy system (IES) before and after; the intra-day scheduling proposes a two-stage rolling optimization model based on the day-ahead scheduling scheme, taking into account the fluctuation of wind turbine output and load within a short period of time and according to the different response rates of… More >

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    Factors Influencing Fracture Propagation in Collaborative Fracturing of Multiple Horizontal Wells

    Diguang Gong1, Junbin Chen1, Cheng Cheng2, Yuanyuan Kou2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 425-437, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.030196
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Hydraulic Fracturing Theory and Application for Geo-energy Development)
    Abstract Horizontal well-stimulation is the key to unconventional resource exploration and development. The development mode of the well plant helps increase the stimulated reservoir volume. Nevertheless, fracture interference between wells reduces the fracturing effect. Here, a 2D hydro-mechanical coupling model describing hydraulic fracture (HF) propagation is established with the extended finite element method, and the effects of several factors on HF propagation during multiple wells fracturing are analyzed. The results show that with an increase in elastic modulus, horizontal principal stress difference and injection fluid displacement, the total fracture area and the reservoir stimulation efficiency are both improved in all three… More >

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    Automatic SOC Equalization Strategy of Energy Storage Units with DC Microgrid Bus Voltage Support

    Jingjing Tian1, Shenglin Mo1,*, Feng Zhao1, Xiaoqiang Chen2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 439-459, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.029956
    Abstract In this paper, an improved sag control strategy based on automatic SOC equalization is proposed to solve the problems of slow SOC equalization and excessive bus voltage fluctuation amplitude and offset caused by load and PV power variations in a stand-alone DC microgrid. The strategy includes primary and secondary control. Among them, the primary control suppresses the DC microgrid voltage fluctuation through the Ⅰ and Ⅱ section control, and the secondary control aims to correct the P-U curve of the energy storage system and the PV system, thus reducing the steady-state bus voltage excursion. The simulation results demonstrate that the… More >

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    Low-Carbon Dispatch of an Integrated Energy System Considering Confidence Intervals for Renewable Energy Generation

    Yan Shi1, Wenjie Li1, Gongbo Fan2,*, Luxi Zhang1, Fengjiu Yang1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 461-482, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.043835
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Key Technologies of Renewable Energy Consumption and Optimal Operation under )
    Abstract Addressing the insufficiency in down-regulation leeway within integrated energy systems stemming from the erratic and volatile nature of wind and solar renewable energy generation, this study focuses on formulating a coordinated strategy involving the carbon capture unit of the integrated energy system and the resources on the load storage side. A scheduling model is devised that takes into account the confidence interval associated with renewable energy generation, with the overarching goal of optimizing the system for low-carbon operation. To begin with, an in-depth analysis is conducted on the temporal energy-shifting attributes and the low-carbon modulation mechanisms exhibited by the source-side… More >

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    Nonlinear Flap-Wise Vibration Characteristics of Wind Turbine Blades Based on Multi-Scale Analysis Method

    Qifa Lang, Yuqiao Zheng*, Tiancai Cui, Chenglong Shi, Heyu Zhang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 483-498, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.042437
    Abstract This work presents a novel approach to achieve nonlinear vibration response based on the Hamilton principle. We chose the 5-MW reference wind turbine which was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), to research the effects of the nonlinear flap-wise vibration characteristics. The turbine wheel is simplified by treating the blade of a wind turbine as an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the nonlinear flap-wise vibration characteristics of the wind turbine blades are discussed based on the simplification first. Then, the blade’s large-deflection flap-wise vibration governing equation is established by considering the nonlinear term involving the centrifugal force. Lastly, it is… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Optimal Location and Sizing of Multi-Resource Distributed Generator Based on Multi-Objective Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Qiangfei Cao1, Huilai Wang2, Zijia Hui1, Lingyun Chen2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 499-521, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.042702
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Key Technologies of Renewable Energy Consumption and Optimal Operation under )
    Abstract Distribution generation (DG) technology based on a variety of renewable energy technologies has developed rapidly. A large number of multi-type DG are connected to the distribution network (DN), resulting in a decline in the stability of DN operation. It is urgent to find a method that can effectively connect multi-energy DG to DN. photovoltaic (PV), wind power generation (WPG), fuel cell (FC), and micro gas turbine (MGT) are considered in this paper. A multi-objective optimization model was established based on the life cycle cost (LCC) of DG, voltage quality, voltage fluctuation, system network loss, power deviation of the tie-line, DG… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Flexible Load Participation in Peaking Shaving and Valley Filling Based on Dynamic Price Incentives

    Lifeng Wang1, Jing Yu2,*, Wenlu Ji1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 523-540, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.041881
    Abstract Considering the widening of the peak-valley difference in the power grid and the difficulty of the existing fixed time-of-use electricity price mechanism in meeting the energy demand of heterogeneous users at various moments or motivating users, the design of a reasonable dynamic pricing mechanism to actively engage users in demand response becomes imperative for power grid companies. For this purpose, a power grid-flexible load bilevel model is constructed based on dynamic pricing, where the leader is the dispatching center and the lower-level flexible load acts as the follower. Initially, an upper-level day-ahead dispatching model for the power grid is established,… More >

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    ARTICLE

    A Temporary Frequency Response Strategy Using a Voltage Source-Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator and Energy Storage Systems

    Baogang Chen1, Fenglin Miao2,*, Jing Yang1, Chen Qi2, Wenyan Ji1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.121, No.2, pp. 541-555, 2024, DOI:10.32604/ee.2023.028327
    Abstract Energy storage systems (ESS) and permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) are speculated to be able to exhibit frequency regulation capabilities by adding differential and proportional control loops with different control objectives. The available PMSG kinetic energy and charging/discharging capacities of the ESS were restricted. To improve the inertia response and frequency control capability, we propose a short-term frequency support strategy for the ESS and PMSG. To this end, the weights were embedded in the control loops to adjust the participation of the differential and proportional controls based on the system frequency excursion. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy was… More >

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