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Modeling of Large-Scale Hydrogen Storage System Considering Capacity Attenuation and Analysis of Its Efficiency Characteristics

Junhui Li1, Haotian Zhang1, Cuiping Li1,*, Xingxu Zhu1, Ruitong Liu2, Fangwei Duan2, Yongming Peng3

1 Key Laboratory of Modern Power System Simulation and Control & Renewable Energy Technology, Ministry of Education (Northeast Electric Power University), Jilin, 132012, China
2 Ministry of Science and Technology, Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Liaoning Electric Power Co., Ltd., Shenyang, 110006, China
3 Northeast Electric Power Dispatching Control Center, Northeast Branch of State Grid Corporation of China, Shenyang, 110180, China

* Corresponding Author: Cuiping Li. Email: email

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Fault Diagnosis and State Evaluation of New Power Grid)

Energy Engineering 2024, 121(2), 291-313.


In the existing power system with a large-scale hydrogen storage system, there are problems such as low efficiency of electric-hydrogen-electricity conversion and single modeling of the hydrogen storage system. In order to improve the hydrogen utilization rate of hydrogen storage system in the process of participating in the power grid operation, and speed up the process of electric-hydrogen-electricity conversion. This article provides a detailed introduction to the mathematical and electrical models of various components of the hydrogen storage unit, and also establishes a charging and discharging efficiency model that considers the temperature and internal gas partial pressure of the hydrogen storage unit. These models are of great significance for studying and optimizing gas storage technology. Through these models, the performance of gas storage units can be better understood and improved. These studies are very helpful for improving energy storage efficiency and sustainable development. The factors affecting the charge-discharge efficiency of hydrogen storage units are analyzed. By integrating the models of each unit and considering the capacity degradation of the hydrogen storage system, we can construct an efficiency model for a large hydrogen storage system and power conversion system. In addition, the simulation models of the hydrogen production system and hydrogen consumption system were established in MATLAB/Simulink. The accuracy and effectiveness of the simulation model were proved by comparing the output voltage variation curve of the simulation with the polarization curve of the typical hydrogen production system and hydrogen consumption system. The results show that the charge-discharge efficiency of the hydrogen storage unit increases with the increase of operating temperature, and H2 and O2 partial voltage have little influence on the charge-discharge efficiency. In the process of power conversion system converter rectification operation, its efficiency decreases with the increase of temperature, while in the process of inverter operation, power conversion system efficiency increases with the increase of temperature. Combined with the efficiency of each hydrogen storage unit and power conversion system converter, the upper limit of the capacity loss of different hydrogen storage units was set. The optimal charge-discharge efficiency of the hydrogen storage system was obtained by using the Cplex solver at 36.46% and 66.34%.


Cite This Article

Li, J., Zhang, H., Li, C., Zhu, X., Liu, R. et al. (2024). Modeling of Large-Scale Hydrogen Storage System Considering Capacity Attenuation and Analysis of Its Efficiency Characteristics. Energy Engineering, 121(2), 291–313.

cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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