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This image provides a schematic representation of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and the corresponding components of which it is composed. The path the reactant gases follow can be easily illustrated, beginning from the gas channels of the anode/cathode, where hydrogen and oxygen flow to the gas diffusion layers and finally end up in the catalyst layers. The electrochemical reactions of hydrogen oxidation HOR on the anode catalyst layer and oxygen reduction ORR on the cathode catalyst layer occur. At the same time, hydrogen positive ions are flowing through the electrolyte. Considering the aforementioned operating procedure, it is concluded that catalyst layers are one of the most crucial components of a PEMFC in terms of overall efficiency and performance. For achieving high reaction rates in the catalyst layers usually, platinum is employed. However, the usage of platinum implies drawbacks such as the significantly high cost and the low durability in CO tolerance when the supplied hydrogen isn’t 100% pure. To this extent, several materials have been examined to minimize the percentage of platinum with cost efficient and durable materials without decreasing the overall performance of the PEMFC.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Progress on Platinum-Based Catalyst Layer Materials for H-PEMFC

    Stefanos Tzelepis*, Kosmas A. Kavadias
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1745-1769, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020984
    Abstract

    The constant increase in energy demand and related environmental issues have made fuel cells an attractive technology as an alternative to conventional energy technologies. Like any technology, fuel cells face drawbacks that scientific society has been focused on to improve and optimize the overall technology. Thus, the cost is the main inhibitor for this technology due to the significantly high cost of the materials used in catalyst layers. The current discussion mainly focuses on the fundamental electrochemical half-cell reaction of hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) that are taking place in the catalyst layers consisting of Platinum-based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improving the Thermal Efficiency and Performance of Refrigeration Systems: Numerical-Experimental Analysis of Minimization of Frost Formation

    Felipe Mercês Biglia1, Raquel da Cunha Ribeiro da Silva2, Fátima de Moraes Lino3, Kamal Abdel Radi Ismail3, Thiago Antonini Alves4,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1771-1788, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019625
    Abstract The frost growth on cold surfaces in evaporators is an undesirable phenomenon which becomes a problem for the thermal efficiency of the refrigeration systems because the ice layer acts as a thermal insulation, drastically reducing the rate of heat transfer in the system. Its accumulation implies an increase in energy demand and a decrease in the performance of various components involved in the refrigeration process, reducing its efficiency and making it necessary to periodically remove the frost, resulting in expenses for the defrost process. In the present work, a numerical-experimental analysis was performed in order to understand the formation process… More >

  • Open Access

    EDITORIAL

    Key Optimization Issues for Renewable Energy Systems under Carbon-Peaking and Carbon Neutrality Targets: Current States and Perspectives

    Bo Yang1, Zhengxun Guo1, Jingbo Wang1,*, Chao Duan2, Yaxing Ren3, Yixuan Chen4
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1789-1795, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.022217
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Key Technologies of Renewable Energy Consumption and Optimal Operation under "Dual Carbon Targets")
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    T-Shaped Transmission Line Fault Location Based on Phase-Angle Jump Checking

    Jia’an Xie1,*, Yurong Wang2, Guobin Jin3, Mucheng Wu1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1797-1809, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020344
    Abstract In order to effectively solve the dead-zone and low-precision of T-shaped transmission line fault location, a new T-shaped transmission line fault location algorithm based on phase-angle jump checking is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the 3-terminal synchronous fundamental positive sequence voltage and current phasors are extracted and substituted into the fault branch distance function to realize the selection of fault branch when the fault occurs; Secondly, use the condition of the fundamental positive sequence voltage phasor at the fault point is equal to calculate all roots (including real root and virtual roots); Finally, the phase-angle jump check function is used… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anomaly Detection and Pattern Differentiation in Monitoring Data from Power Transformers

    Jun Zhao1, Shuguo Gao1, Yunpeng Liu2,3, Quan Wang2,*, Ziqiang Xu2, Yuan Tian1, Lu Sun1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1811-1828, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020490
    Abstract Aiming at the problem of abnormal data generated by a power transformer on-line monitoring system due to the influences of transformer operation state change, external environmental interference, communication interruption, and other factors, a method of anomaly recognition and differentiation for monitoring data was proposed. Firstly, the empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model were used for time series modelling of monitoring data to obtain the residual sequence reflecting the anomaly monitoring data value, and then the isolation forest algorithm was used to identify the abnormal information, and the monitoring sequence was segmented according to the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Deep Learning Network for Energy Storage Scheduling in Power Market Environment Short-Term Load Forecasting Model

    Yunlei Zhang1, Ruifeng Cao1, Danhuang Dong2, Sha Peng3,*, Ruoyun Du3, Xiaomin Xu3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1829-1841, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020118
    Abstract In the electricity market, fluctuations in real-time prices are unstable, and changes in short-term load are determined by many factors. By studying the timing of charging and discharging, as well as the economic benefits of energy storage in the process of participating in the power market, this paper takes energy storage scheduling as merely one factor affecting short-term power load, which affects short-term load time series along with time-of-use price, holidays, and temperature. A deep learning network is used to predict the short-term load, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is used to extract the features, and a long short-term memory… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Implementing an Optimal Energy Management System for a Set of Microgrids Using the Harmony Search Algorithm

    Xiangjian Shi1,*, Teng Liu2, Wei Mu2, Jianfeng Zhao1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1843-1860, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020787
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence for Energy and City Environmental Sustainability)
    Abstract A microgrid (MG) refers to a set of loads, generation resources and energy storage systems acting as a controllable load or a generator to supply power and heating to a local area. The MG-generated power management is a central topic for MG design and operation. The existence of dispersed generation (DG) resources has faced MG management with new issues. Depending on the level of exchanges between an MG and the main grid, the MG operation states can be divided into independent or grid-connected ones. Energy management in MGs aims to supply power at the lowest cost for optimal load response.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Performance on Power, Hot and Cold Water Generation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Module

    Thakrittorn Pansiri1, Attakorn Asanakham2,*, Thoranis Deethayat2, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1861-1878, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.022332
    Abstract This paper proposed a new function of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) module to produce nocturnal cool water not just only generating electrical power and hot water during daytime. Experimental tests were carried out under Chiang Mai tropical climate with a 200 Wp monocrystalline PVT module having dimensions of 1.601 m × 0.828 m connected with two water tanks each of 60 L taken for hot and cool water storages. The module was facing south with 18o inclination. The electrical load was a 200 W halogen lamp. From experiments, by taking the module as a nocturnal radiative cooling surface, the cool water temperature in… More >

    Graphic Abstract

    Performance on Power, Hot and Cold Water Generation of a Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Module

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Hydrogen Storage System and Renewable Energy Sources for Optimal Bidding Strategy in Electricity Market

    Can Li*, Xiaode Zuo
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1879-1903, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020472
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence for Energy and City Environmental Sustainability)
    Abstract This work suggested a novel model for obtaining optimum bidding/offering strategy to improve the benefits in case of big users. Aiming this regard, several electrical energy resources including: micro turbines, green power sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic system), power storage unit such as Hydrogen storage system with fuel cell, as well as mutual treaties are taken into account in offered model. Considering various models for uncertain parameters based on their natures such as power demand, electricity market tariffs, solar irradiation, temperature and wind speed is one of the contributions of the proposed model. Uncertainty of power demand is modeled by… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Production Dynamic Prediction Method of Waterflooding Reservoir Based on Deep Convolution Generative Adversarial Network (DC-GAN)

    Liyuan Xin1,2,3, Xiang Rao1,2,3,*, Xiaoyin Peng1,2,3, Yunfeng Xu1,2,3, Jiating Chen1,2,3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1905-1922, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019556
    Abstract The rapid production dynamic prediction of water-flooding reservoirs based on well location deployment has been the basis of production optimization of water-flooding reservoirs. Considering that the construction of geological models with traditional numerical simulation software is complicated, the computational efficiency of the simulation calculation is often low, and the numerical simulation tools need to be repeated iteratively in the process of model optimization, machine learning methods have been used for fast reservoir simulation. However, traditional artificial neural network (ANN) has large degrees of freedom, slow convergence speed, and complex network model. This paper aims to predict the production performance of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Spatial Statistical Downscaling Method of Meteorological Data Applied to Photovoltaic Prediction

    Yan Jin1,*, Dingmei Wang2, Ruiping Zhang1, Haiying Dong1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1923-1940, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.018750
    Abstract Aiming at the low spatial resolution of meteorological data output from a numerical model in photovoltaic power prediction, a geographically weighted statistical downscaling method considers the influence factors such as normalized vegetation index (NDVI), digital elevation model (DEM), slope direction, longitude and latitude is proposed. This method is based on the correlation between meteorological data and NDVI, DEM, slope direction, latitude and longitude, and introduces DEM and local Moran index to improve the regression model, and obtains 100 * 100 m high-resolution meteorological spatial distribution data. Finally, combining the measured data of the study area and the established EOF iterative downscaling… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Energy Efficient Thermal Comfort Control for Residential Building Based on Nonlinear EMPC

    Xucheng Chang1,*, Bing Kong2, Yong Li1, Gaofeng Ren1, Chao Zhang1, Zhenghe Wang1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1941-1966, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020698
    Abstract For purpose of achieving the desired thermal comfort level and reducing the economic cost of maintaining the thermal comfort of green residential building, an energy efficient thermal comfort control strategy based on economic model predictive control (EMPC) for green residential buildings which adopts household heat metering is presented. Firstly, the nonlinear thermal comfort model of heating room is analyzed and obtained. A practical nonlinear thermal comfort prediction model is obtained by using an approximation method. Then, the economic cost function and optimization problem of energy-saving under the necessary thermal comfort requirements are constructed to realize the optimal economic performance of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Distributionally Robust Optimal Dispatch of Virtual Power Plant Based on Moment of Renewable Energy Resource

    Wenlu Ji, Yong Wang*, Xing Deng, Ming Zhang, Ting Ye
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1967-1983, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020011
    Abstract Virtual power plants can effectively integrate different types of distributed energy resources, which have become a new operation mode with substantial advantages such as high flexibility, adaptability, and economy. This paper proposes a distributionally robust optimal dispatch approach for virtual power plants to determine an optimal day-ahead dispatch under uncertainties of renewable energy sources. The proposed distributionally robust approach characterizes probability distributions of renewable power output by moments. In this regard, the faults of stochastic optimization and traditional robust optimization can be overcome. Firstly, a second-order cone-based ambiguity set that incorporates the first and second moments of renewable power output… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Investigating the Effects of the Driving Cycle and Penetration of Electric Vehicles on Technical and Environmental Characteristics of the Hybrid Energy System Considering Uncertainties

    Jiusong Chen1,*, Dejun Miao1, Yizong Dai1, Mojtaba Ghadamyari2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 1985-2003, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.021142
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Recent Advances in Multi-Vector Energy Systems: Modeling and Simulation)
    Abstract Electric vehicles (EVs) have received special consideration from modern society over the past several years. Although EVs are a fine example of environmentally friendly technology and have many advantages, they relatively increase the electricity demand upon a power grid as well. Therefore, their negative impact on busvoltage and line losses should be analyzed. In this study, the effect of EV loads and their penetration on bus voltage and line losses of an IEEE-33 bussystem has been examined via two scenarios. It is important to mention that the effect of EVs on the rate of air pollution, produced by fossil fuel… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Intelligent Reconfiguration of Distribution Network in the Presence of Distributed Generation and Storage System

    Gang Lei1,*, Chunxiang Xu2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2005-2029, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.021154
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence for Energy and City Environmental Sustainability)
    Abstract In the present paper, the distribution feeder reconfiguration in the presence of distributed generation resources (DGR) and energy storage systems (ESS) is solved in the dynamic form. Since studies on the reconfiguration problem have ignored the grid security and reliability, the non-distributed energy index along with the energy loss and voltage stability indices has been assumed as the objective functions of the given problem. To achieve the mentioned benefits, there are several practical plans in the distribution network. One of these applications is the network rearrangement plan, which is the simplest and least expensive way to add equipment to the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Experimental Analysis on Coal Spontaneous Combustion

    Haitao Wang1,2, Yongli Liu1,*, Bin Shen1, Mengxuan Ren1, Qiyuan Shan1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2031-2047, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020776
    Abstract The goal of this study was to investigate coal quality features and their relationship to coal spontaneous combustion characteristics in multi-seam coal mines to better predict when coal spontaneous combustion is likely to occur. To that end, coal samples of various particle sizes were obtained from five coal seams (Nos. 6, 8, 9, 12 and 20) in the Shuangyashan City Xin’an Coal Mine. The samples were then respectively heated using a temperature programming system to observe and compare similarities and differences in the spontaneous combustion process of different particle sizes in response to rising temperature. The experimental results show, that… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Numerical Study and Economy Analysis of Two Heated Crude Oil Pipelines Laid in One Ditch

    Wenpeng Guo1,2, Yongtu Liang1,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2049-2064, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.019526
    Abstract In this paper, the transportation economy of two heated crude oil pipelines laid in one ditch is analyzed by taking into account the influence of operating temperature, interval between two pipelines, and distance between two heating stations on the heating energy consumption. To analyze the transportation economy, the two heated crude oil pipelines laid in one ditch are simulated under four operating conditions based on an unstructured finite volume method. Compared with laying two crude oil pipelines separately in two ditches, the results attest notably higher soil temperature, meaning reduced heat dissipation of each pipeline by laying two pipelines in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hierarchical and Distributed Optimal Control Strategy for Power and Power Quality of Microgrid Based on Finite-Time Consistency

    Wenjun Wei1,2, Hao Liang1,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2065-2080, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020002
    Abstract Droop control is one of the main control strategies of islanded microgrid (MG), but the droop control cannot achieve reasonable power distribution of microgrid, resulting in frequency and voltage deviation from the rating value, which needs the upper control link to eliminate the deviation. However, at present, most layered control requires a centralized control center, which excessively relies on microgrid central controller (MGCC) and real-time communication among distributed generation (DG), which has certain limitations. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes a hierarchical distributed power and power quality optimization strategy based on multi-agent finite time consistency algorithm (MA-FTCA). Firstly,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimal Intelligence Planning of Wind Power Plants and Power System Storage Devices in Power Station Unit Commitment Based

    Yuchen Hao*, Dawei Su, Zhen Lei
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2081-2104, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.021342
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Application of Artificial Intelligence for Energy and City Environmental Sustainability)
    Abstract Renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind turbines (WT) and solar cells have attracted the attention of power system operators and users alike, thanks to their lack of environmental pollution, independence of fossil fuels, and meager marginal costs. With the introduction of RES, challenges have faced the unit commitment (UC) problem as a traditional power system optimization problem aiming to minimize total costs by optimally determining units’ inputs and outputs, and specifying the optimal generation of each unit. The output power of RES such as WT and solar cells depends on natural factors such as wind speed and solar irradiation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Design of 220 kV Line Protection Action Deduction System Based on Numerical Simulation

    Tiecheng Li1, Qingquan Liu1, Hui Fan2, Xianzhi Wang1, Daming Zhou3,*, Junan Guo3, Lee Li3, Kun Zhou3, Yujie Hu3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2105-2134, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.017718
    Abstract Accurate conditions monitoring and early wrong action warnings of relay protection in the Smart Substation is the basic guarantee to realize the normal operation of primary and secondary system of the power grid. At present, the traditional operation and maintenance monitoring methods of relay protections have poor timeliness, while some automatic monitoring methods have insufficient early warning performance, and lack the online action deduction function independent of the actual device. In this paper, a design method of integrated action deduction system including protection logic reasoning and software and hardware operation condition is proposed. The system can receive real-time operation information… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction of Residential Building’s Solar Installation Energy Demand in Morocco Using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

    Nada Yamoul1,*, Latifa Dlimi1, Baraka Achraf Chakir2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2135-2148, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.020005
    Abstract The building sector is one of the main energy-consuming sectors in Morocco. In fact, it accounts for 33% of the final consumption of energy and records a high increase in the annual consumption of energy caused by further planned large-scale projects. Indeed, the energy consumption of the building sector is experiencing a significant acceleration justified by the rapid need for the development of housing stock, wich is estimated at an average increase of 1,5% per year; furthermore, tant is an estimated increase of about 6,4%. In this sense, building constitutes an important potential source for rationalizing both energy consumption and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Production of Producer Gas from Densified Agricultural Biomass in Downdraft Gasifier and Its Application to Small Diesel Engines

    Kittikorn Sasujit1,*, Nigran Homdoung1, Nakorn Tippayawong2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.119, No.5, pp. 2149-2167, 2022, DOI:10.32604/ee.2022.022069
    Abstract Biomass is becoming one of the most popular renewable energy sources, especially from agricultural wastes. These wastes can be gasified and utilized in various industries. This experimental study investigated producer gas generation from densified agricultural fuels such as corncobs, rice husks, wood chips, and oil palm fronds in a 50 kWth throatless downdraft gasifier. This system produced combustible gases such as H2, CO, and CH4, which were utilized as a substitute for diesel fuel in a small diesel engine for power generation. The results showed that the gasifier performs successfully and seems to prefer pellets to briquettes. Producer gas contains 18%–20%… More >

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