Home / Journals / ENERGY / Vol.118, No.4, 2021
  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Advancements in the Development of Various Types of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Comparative Review

    Sandhia Bai1, A. K. Amirruddin1, A. K. Pandey2,*, M. Samykano1,*, Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad3, Kamal Sharma4, V. V. Tyagi5
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 737-759, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016157
    Abstract The global increase in energy demand has resulted in the depletion of non-renewable resources and caused environmental degradation. Consequently, emerging renewable technologies are a potential solution to fulfil energy demand and mitigate the effect of global warming. Low-cost solar energy harvesting technologies are most feasible technologies. Various solar cells technologies have been developed with improved overall performance and conversion efficiency. However, due to low cost and a wide range of applications, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been immensely focused on one of the most promising third-generation solar cells. The highest conversion efficiency of DSSC achieved after three decades of research… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    A Review of the Dynamic Modeling Approaches for Characterizing Fluid Flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    M. N. Tarhuni*, W. R. Sulaiman, M. Z. Jaafar, M. Milad, A. M. Alghol
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 761-795, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016645
    Abstract Fluid flow in fractured media has been studied for decades and received considerable attention in the oil and gas industry because of the high productivity of naturally fractured reservoirs. Due to formation complexity and reservoir heterogeneity, characterizing fluid flow with an appropriate reservoir model presents a challenging task that differs relatively from homogeneous conventional reservoirs in many aspects of view, including geological, petrophysical, production, and economics. In most fractured reservoirs, fracture networks create complex pathways that affect hydrocarbon flow, well performance, hence reservoir characterization. A better and comprehensive understanding of the available reservoir modeling approaches is much needed to accurately… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Progress on Heat Transfer in Fractures of Hot Dry Rock Enhanced Geothermal System

    Yiya Wang, Hailong Yu*, Shucheng Wu, Li Liu, Liuyang Huang, Baozhong Zhu, Yunlan Sun, Enhai Liu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 797-823, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014467
    Abstract Hot Dry Rock (HDR) is the most potential renewable geothermal energy in the future. Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is the most effective method for the development and utilization of HDR resources, and fractures are the main flow channels and one of the most important conditions for studying heat transfer process of EGS. Therefore, the heat transfer process and the heat transfer mechanism in fractures of EGS have been the hot spots of research. Due to the particularity of the mathematical models of heat transfer, research in this field has been at an exploratory stage, and its methods are mainly experimental… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Application of Superhydrophobic Surface on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids

    Cong Qi*, Yuxing Wang, Zi Ding, Jianglin Tu, Mengxin Zhu
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 825-852, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014806
    Abstract Boiling heat transfer is a mode using the phase change of working medium to strengthen the heat exchange due to its good heat exchange capability, and it is widely used in heat exchange engineering. Nanofluids have been used in the direction of enhanced heat transfer for their superior thermophysical property. The wetting, spreading and ripple phenomena of superhydrophobic surfaces widely exist in nature and daily life. It has great application value for engineering technology. In this article, the boiling heat exchange characteristics of nanofluids on superhydrophobic surface are numerically studied. It was found that with the increase of superheating degree,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Research on Direct Yaw Moment Control Strategy of Distributed-Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Joint Observer

    Quan Min1, Min Deng1, Zichen Zheng2,*, Shu Wang2, Xianyong Gui3, Haichuan Zhang2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 853-874, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014515
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Sustainable energy for transport)
    Abstract Combined with the characteristics of the distributed-drive electric vehicle and direct yaw moment control, a double-layer structure direct yaw moment controller is designed. The upper additional yaw moment controller is constructed based on model predictive control. Aiming at minimizing the utilization rate of tire adhesion and constrained by the working characteristics of motor system and brake system, a quadratic programming active set was designed to optimize the distribution of additional yaw moments. The road surface adhesion coefficient has a great impact on the reliability of direct yaw moment control, for which joint observer of vehicle state parameters and road surface… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Performance of Desiccant-Based Cooling Systems in Hot-Humid Climates: A Review

    Maatouk Khoukhi*, Omar Al Khatib
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 875-909, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015835
    Abstract This paper reviews the principle and application of the thermally activated desiccant cooling systems with their capability to perform efficiently in hot-humid climates. The paper first introduces the continuous increase of thermal comfort required in building and their relation with the consumption of conventional energy sources. The importance of desiccant cooling technology and its applications has been introduced as well. The energy and environmental issues with the conventional energy supply and the demand with the environmental problems and conditions mainly related to indoor air quality have been also discussed in the second chapter of this paper. The third part of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Robust Variable-Pitch Control Design of PMSG Via Perturbation Observer

    Yilin Hu1, Yan Xie2, Bo Li3,*, Yiqiang Jiang1, Fu Bao1
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 911-929, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014759
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract Wind turbine employs pitch angle control to maintain captured power at its rated value when the wind speed is higher than rated value. This work adopts a perturbation observer based sliding-mode control (POSMC) strategy to realize robust variable-pitch control of permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). POSMC combines system nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics, and time-varying external disturbances into a perturbation, which aims to estimate the perturbation via a perturbation observer without an accurate system model. Subsequently, sliding mode control (SMC) is designed to completely compensate perturbation estimation in real-time for the sake of achieving a global consistent control performance and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Assessment of the Rural Water Supply Potential by Mechanical Wind Pumping Around the Floodplains of Lake Chad

    Dieudonné Kaoga Kidmo1,*, Bachirou Bogno1,2,3, Kodji Deli1, Michel Aillerie2,3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 931-945, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015574
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)
    Abstract In the present work, an assessment of the rural water supply potential by mechanical wind pumping around the floodplains of Lake Chad has been considered. Inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, available surface water is largely contaminated and represents health hazards to populations. Access to underground and clean water has increasingly become rare. Moreover, clean water scarcity has led to conflict and territorial pressures, which are contributing factors to poverty in the considered area. Four localities, Baga, Baga-Sola, Makari and Nguigmi, respectively, in Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger have been selected inside the floodplains around Lake Chad, to evaluate the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Multi-Scale Superhydrophobic Anti-Icing Coating for Wind Turbine Blades

    Jiangyong Bao1, Jianjun He1,*, Biao Chen2, Kaijun Yang1, Jun Jie2, Ruifeng Wang1, Shihao Zhang2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 947-959, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014535
    Abstract As a surface functional material, super-hydrophobic coating has great application potential in wind turbine blade anti-icing, self-cleaning and drag reduction. In this study, ZnO and SiO2 multi-scale superhydrophobic coatings with mechanical flexibility were prepared by embedding modified ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles in PDMS. The prepared coating has a higher static water contact angle (CA is 153°) and a lower rolling angle (SA is 3.3°), showing excellent super-hydrophobicity. Because of its excellent superhydrophobic ability and micro-nano structure, the coating has good anti-icing ability. Under the conditions of −10°C and 60% relative humidity, the coating can delay the freezing time by 1511S,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of Demographic Transition on Household Energy Consumption: A Case from China

    Dequn Zhou, Xinyi Gu, Hao Ding*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 961-979, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014101
    Abstract Understanding how aging population and low fertility affect household energy consumption is important for optimizing household energy consumption and reaching effective policies. This paper studies the impacts of demographic transition on household energy consumption based on panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016. Child-age dependency rate (CDR) and old-age dependency rate (ODR) are selected to track the shifts in age structure. They are introduced into a STIRPAT model to measure their impacts on household energy consumption. Besides, 8 representative regions are additionally chosen and investigated to find some regional characteristics. The results show that current demographic… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Factor Decomposition and Regression Analysis of the Energy Related Carbon Emissions in Shandong, China: A Perspective of Industrial Structure

    Weifeng Gong1,2, Baoqing Zhu3, Chuanhui Wang1,*, Zhenyue Fan1, Mengzhen Zhao1, Liang Chen4
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 981-994, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014554
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Energy Systems Management and Climate Change)
    Abstract An in-depth study of the energy related carbon emissions has important practical significance for carbon emissions reduction and structural adjustment in Shandong Province and throughout China. Based on the perspective of industrial structure, the expanded KAYA equation to measure the energy related carbon emissions of the primary industries (Resources and Agriculture) and secondary industries (Manufacturing and Construction) and tertiary industries (Retail and Service) was utilized in Shandong Province from 2011 to 2017. The carbon emissions among industries in Shandong Province were empirically analyzed using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition approach. The results were follows: (1) Under the three industrial… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of Electricity Shortages on Productivity: Evidence from Manufacturing Industries

    Xinhong Xue1, Zhongcheng Wang2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 995-1008, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014613
    Abstract Electricity shortages present a significant constraint on manufacturers, who rely on electricity as an important input into production. In China, electricity supply has been growing rapidly. However, the rapid industrialization sometimes makes the power supply still unable to meet the demand. Using a survey of 1673 Chinese manufacturing firms, this paper explores how firms response to electricity shortages and its impact on productivity. We find that self-generation of electricity and investment in Research and Development (R&D) have significant positive relationships with electricity shortages. Further investigations reveal that self-generation is the most common way to deal with electricity shortages. However, it… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Will Coal Price Fluctuations Affect Renewable Energy Substitution and Carbon Emission? A Computable General Equilibrium-Based Study of China

    Wenhui Zhao1, Yibo Yin1,*, Lu Mao2, Konglu Zhong3, Guanghui Yuan4, Hai Huang5, Yige Yang6
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1009-1026, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014650
    Abstract Changes in the energy price system will determine the direction of evolution of the energy industry structure. As a country where coal is the dominant energy source, what is the effect of coal price fluctuations on China’s industry development costs and energy consumption structure? To investigate this problem, this paper utilized an economy–energy–environment computable general equilibrium model. In this study, four aspects were analyzed: Energy supply side, proportion of renewable energy consumption, macroeconomy, and changes in CO2 emissions. The results of this study show that an increase of 10%–20% in coal prices contributes to a shift into using renewable energy,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of Driving Factors of Natural Gas Consumption in China: Based on Regional Integration and LMDI Method

    Huiwen Xu*, Zhen Wang
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1027-1043, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015028
    Abstract In recent years, China has developed rapidly in terms of natural gas. Driven by regional economic integration, a regional natural gas market composed of neighboring provinces and cities has taken shape gradually, and it tends to grow toward the same direction in policy formulation, resource coordination, facility construction and market expansion. Based on the factors such as geographical location, economic conditions and natural gas consumption, this thesis tends to conduct a horizontal comparative analysis on the economic development conditions, natural gas consumption characteristics and natural gas pipeline network density of the three regions with obvious regional integration feature in China.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochemical and Thermal Analysis of Spirulina Biomass through FTIR, TGA, CHN

    Ruma Arora Soni1,*, K. Sudhakar1,3,4,*, R. S. Rana2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1045-1056, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.016082
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advanced Materials and Technologies for Sustainable Energy)
    Abstract Spirulina is a sort of algae that grows in both fresh and seawater. It is considered the Earth’s most nutritionally dense food. Certain claims about Spirulina’s beneficial health properties are attributed to the relatively high protein content of the cells. Spirulina’s lipid, fatty acid profile, and biochemical composition have received little attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature and decomposition of spirulina biomass at various temperatures. In the present investigation, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis were used to study spirulina biomass biochemical characteristics. The optimal content of spirulina protein, lipid, and the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reliability Based Multi-Objective Thermodynamic Cycle Optimisation of Turbofan Engines Using Luus-Jaakola Algorithm

    Vin Cent Tai1,*, Yong Chai Tan1, Nor Faiza Abd Rahman1, Yaw Yoong Sia2, Chan Chin Wang2, Lip Huat Saw3
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1057-1068, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014866
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Role of Artificial Intelligence for Modeling and Optimizing the Energy Systems )
    Abstract Aircraft engine design is a complicated process, as it involves huge number of components. The design process begins with parametric cycle analysis. It is crucial to determine the optimum values of the cycle parameters that would give a robust design in the early phase of engine development, to shorten the design cycle for cost saving and man-hour reduction. To obtain a robust solution, optimisation program is often being executed more than once, especially in Reliability Based Design Optimisations (RBDO) with Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) scheme for complex systems which require thousands to millions of optimisation loops to be executed. This paper… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An Intelligent Diagnosis Method of the Working Conditions in Sucker-Rod Pump Wells Based on Convolutional Neural Networks and Transfer Learning

    Ruichao Zhang1,*, Liqiang Wang1, Dechun Chen2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1069-1082, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014961
    Abstract In recent years, deep learning models represented by convolutional neural networks have shown incomparable advantages in image recognition and have been widely used in various fields. In the diagnosis of sucker-rod pump working conditions, due to the lack of a large-scale dynamometer card data set, the advantages of a deep convolutional neural network are not well reflected, and its application is limited. Therefore, this paper proposes an intelligent diagnosis method of the working conditions in sucker-rod pump wells based on transfer learning, which is used to solve the problem of too few samples in a dynamometer card data set. Based… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Position Sensorless Control System of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Linear Motor Based on Sliding Mode Observer with an Improved Phase-Locked Loop

    Jin Zhang1, Youliang Tang1, Feng Yu2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1083-1094, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014482
    Abstract In this paper, position sensorless control system of permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM) based on sliding mode observer (SMO) with an improved phase-locked loop (PLL) is studied. Firstly, according to the mathematical model, a SMO is designed for sensorless control PMSLM drive. Thereafter, an improved PLL is proposed to tackle the imperfection of data overflow existed in the traditional PLL. The designed SMO incorporating with the improved PLL can be effectively suppress the pulsation of the estimated position and hence the chattering of the derived electrical angular velocity. At last, simulated and experimental results are presented to verify the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Technical System Construction in the Market Trading System for Demand Response Based on the Energy Internet

    Yinhe Bu1, Xingping Zhang1,2,3,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1095-1109, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015893
    Abstract With the explosive growth of variable renewable energy, the balance between the supply and demand of the power grid is faced with new challenges. Based on the development experience from typical countries and the state quo in China, this paper further analyzes the system architecture and development trend of demand response under the background of Energy Internet. Five dimensions are considered: Energy Internet platform, demand response application scenarios, system architecture, information technology system construction, and demand response development trend. The results show that the application of the Energy Internet platform can effectively solve the problems of data acquisition and processing,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Wind Power Revenue Potential: Simulation for Finland

    Sakarias Paaso*, Ali Khosravi
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1111-1133, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014949
    Abstract Potential revenue from wind power generation is an important factor to be considered when planning a wind power investment. In the future, that may become even more important because it is known that wind power generation tends to push electricity wholesale prices lower. Consequently, it is possible that if a region has plenty of installed wind power capacity, revenue per generated unit of electricity is lower there than could be assumed by looking at the mean electricity wholesale price. In this paper, we compare 17 different locations in Finland in terms of revenue from wind power generation. That is done… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structure and Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Air Premixed Flame under the Action of Wall

    Feiyang Li, Jianfeng Pan*, Chenxin Zhang, Evans K. Quaye, Xia Shao
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1135-1154, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014366
    Abstract In order to obtain the combustion characteristics of the CH4/Air premixed flame under the action of the wall interaction, a study on the impact of the jet flame on the wall at different separation distances was carried out. The separation distance from the burner outlet to the lower surface of the wall is changed and the flame structure is obtained through experiments. The temperature, velocity and reaction rate are obtained through numerical simulation, and the law of flame characteristics change is obtained through analysis. The results show that as the separation distance increases, the premixing cone inside the flame gradually… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Method of the SiC MOSFET Replacing the Si IGBT in the Traditional Power Electronics Converter without Redesigning the Main Circuit and the Driver Circuit

    Lei Zhang*, Dejian Yang, Lei Ren, Yun Cheng, Qiufeng Yan, Yinlong Yuan
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1155-1170, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014549
    Abstract As a wide bandgap power electronics device, the SiC MOSFET has a lot of advantages over the traditional Si IGBT. Replacing the Si IGBT with the SiC MOSFET in the existing power electronics converter is an effective means to improve the performance and promote the upgrading of the traditional converter. Generally, in order to make full use of its advantages of the SiC MOSFET, the Si IGBT in the traditional power electronics circuit cannot be simply replaced by the SiC MOSFET, but the main circuit and the driver circuit need to be redesigned because the oscillation problem and the cross-talk… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Application of Model Predictive Control Based on Kalman Filter in Solar Collector Field of Solar Thermal Power Generation

    Xiaojuan Lu, Zeping Liang*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1171-1183, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014724
    Abstract There are two prominent features in the process of temperature control in solar collector field. Firstly, the dynamic model of solar collector field is nonlinear and complex, which needs to be simplified. Secondly, there are a lot of random and uncontrollable, measurable and unmeasurable disturbances in solar collector field. This paper uses Taylor formula and difference approximation method to design a dynamic matrix predictive control (DMC) by linearizing and discretizing the dynamic model of the solar collector field. In addition, the purpose of controlling the stability of the outlet solar field salt temperature is achieved by adjusting the mass flow… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Non-Convective Zone Thickness on Thermal Efficiency of Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

    Nan Li1, Ruiyang Xu1, Caihong Zhang1,*, Guoping Wu2
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1185-1195, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014741
    Abstract An improved radiation transmission and thermal efficiency model for solar ponds has been proposed based on both the Hull Model and Wang/Seyed-Yagoobi Model in this paper. The new model is more accurate to actual measured conditions because multiple reflections and turbidity effects are included. Absorption penetration, thermal conductivity loss and thermal efficiency under different Non-Convective Zone thicknesses are numerically analyzed and thoroughly discussed. The results show that ΔT/I0 plays a critical role for the thermal efficiency of solar pond. Furthermore, it is found through calculation that there is an optimum thickness of the Non-Convective Zone. When the Non-Convective Zone thickness… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Operation Strategy Analysis and Configuration Optimization of Solar CCHP System

    Duojin Fan1, Chengji Shi2, Kai Sun2, Xiaojuan Lu2,*
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1197-1221, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.014532
    Abstract This paper proposed a new type of combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) system, including the parabolic trough solar thermal (PTST) power generation and gas turbine power generation. The thermal energy storage subsystem in the PTST unit provides both thermal energy and electrical energy. Based on the life cycle method, the configuration optimization under eight operation strategies is studied with the economy, energy, and environment indicators. The eight operation strategies include FEL, FEL-EC, FEL-TES, FEL-TES&EC, FTL, FTL-EC, FTL-TES, and FTL-TES&EC. The feasibility of each strategy is verified by taking a residential building cluster as an example. The indicators under the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Uncertainties in the Mercury Mass Balance in a Coal-Based IGCC Power Plant (Puertollano, Spain)

    José María Esbrí*, Alba Martinez-Coronado, Sofía Rivera Jurado, Eva García-Noguero, Pablo Higueras
    Energy Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp. 1223-1235, 2021, DOI:10.32604/EE.2021.015781
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advancement of Understanding of PM2.5 and Hg Emissions and Their Control Technologies for Cleaner Combustion)
    Abstract Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that is subject to strict regulations to reduce anthropogenic emissions. The production of energy represents an important activity that leads to Hg emissions into the atmosphere. Of all the systems used, IGCC plants are the most promising for reducing Hg emissions, since it is possible to remove Hg from syngas prior to combustion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the presence of Hg in the main streams of an experimental IGCC plant (ELCOGAS, Puertollano) in order to quantify Hg emissions and investigate the possibility of reducing them. The main streams of… More >

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