Open Access


A New Proximity Indicator for Assessment of Voltage Stability and Critical Loadability Point

Chandrakant Dondariya*, D. K. Sakravdia
Department of Electrical Engineering, Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, India
* Corresponding Author: Chandrakant Dondariya. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Modern Electric Power and Energy Systems)

Energy Engineering 2022, 119(3), 947-963.

Received 04 September 2021; Accepted 22 November 2021; Issue published 31 March 2022


This paper presents a newly developed proximity indicator for voltage stability assessment which can be used to predict critical real system load and voltages at various load buses at critical loading point. The proximity indicator varies almost parabolic with total real load demand and reaches orthogonally to real load axis. This relation has been utilized to predict critical loading point. It has been shown that two operating points are needed for estimating critical point and proper selection of operating points and variation of proximity indicator near collapse point highly affect the accuracy of estimation. Simulation is based on load flow equations and system real and reactive loadings have been increased in proportion with base case scenario for IEEE 14 and IEEE 25 bus test systems to demonstrate the behaviour of proposed proximity indicator. CPF has been used as benchmark to check the accuracy of estimation.


Voltage stability; voltage collapse; proximity indicator; critical loading; CPF

Cite This Article

Dondariya, C., Sakravdia, D. K. (2022). A New Proximity Indicator for Assessment of Voltage Stability and Critical Loadability Point. Energy Engineering, 119(3), 947–963.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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