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Adaptive Fractional-Order PID Control for VSC-HVDC Systems via Cooperative Beetle Antennae Search with Offshore Wind Integration

Pulin Cao, Haoran Fan, Zilong Cai*
Faculty of Electric Power Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China
* Corresponding Author: Zilong Cai. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Wind Energy Development and Utilization)

Energy Engineering 2021, 118(2), 265-284.

Received 04 October 2020; Accepted 21 October 2020; Issue published 23 December 2020


Since the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) systems owns the features of nonlinearity, strong coupling and multivariable, the classical proportional integral (PI) control is hard to obtain content control effect. Hence, a new perturbation observer based fractional-order PID (PoFoPID) control strategy is designed in this paper for (VSC-HVDC) systems with offshore wind integration, which can efficiently boost the robustness and control performance of entire system. Particularly, it employs a fractional-order PID (FoPID) framework for the sake of compensating the perturbation estimate, which dramatically boost the dynamical responds of the closed-loop system, and the cooperative beetle antennae search (CBAS) algorithm is adopted to quickly and efficiently search its best control parameters. Besides, CBAS algorithm is able to efficiently escape a local optimum because of a suitable trade-off between global exploration and local exploitation can be realized. At last, comprehensive case studies are carried out, namely, active and reactive power tracking, 5-cycle line-line-line-ground (LLLG) fault, and offshore wind farm integration. Simulation results validate superiorities and effectiveness of PoFoPID control in comparison of that of PID control and feedback linearization sliding-mode control (FLSMC), respectively.


Perturbation observer based fractional-order PID; VSC-HVDC system; cooperative beetle antennae search; offshore wind integration

Cite This Article

Cao, P., Fan, H., Cai, Z. (2021). Adaptive Fractional-Order PID Control for VSC-HVDC Systems via Cooperative Beetle Antennae Search with Offshore Wind Integration. Energy Engineering, 118(2), 265–284.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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