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An Evaluation to the Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Heaters for Arid and Hot Areas

Asaad H. Sayer1, Samah Hussein Kadhim1, Hameed B. Mahood2,*

1 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Thi-Qar, Nasiriyah, Iraq
2 Centre for Sustainable Cooling, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

* Corresponding Author: Hameed B. Mahood. Email:

Energy Engineering 2023, 120(3), 587-596.


Solar energy applications could be the best alternative to the conventional fuels for the purposes of domestic, water and space heating and some industries in the sunny, arid, and hot areas. In the present study, the performance of an evacuated tube solar heater for water heating for months of February and March was experimentally investigated. This was performed in a hot and arid area (Nasiriya City, South of Iraq). A solar heater with ten evacuated tube solar collectors with a capacity of 100 liter was used in the experiments. Each evacuated tube had a length of 1.8 m with an outside diameter of 8 cm. It was observed that for the two selected months, water temperature of the solar heater reached a maximum more than 70°C during sunny days with no heat extraction from the tank of the solar heater. Moreover, heat was extracted from the solar collector with four different flowrates 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.25 l/min, respectively. The results showed that temperature of the solar heater behaved differently from the static situation. When the heat extraction begun, there was a gradual and noticeable decrease in the water temperature of the heater. The observed decrease was slight with the lowest flowrate (0.25 l/m) and becomes sharp with the highest flowrate (1.25 l/min). However, water temperature of the solar heater remained higher than 40°C for the investigated flowrates except the case of 1.25 l/min. The results showed that evacuated tube solar heater can work efficiently in arid and hot areas in winter and spring seasons when the conditions of solar radiation are suitable.


Cite This Article

Sayer, A. H., Kadhim, S. H., Mahood, H. B. (2023). An Evaluation to the Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Heaters for Arid and Hot Areas. Energy Engineering, 120(3), 587–596.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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