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Experimental Analysis of the Flow Characteristics of an Adjustable Critical-Flow Venturi Nozzle

Chun Ye1,2,3, Jingjing Gao1,2,3, Zhihui Wang1,2,3, Weibiao Zheng1,2,3, Yibei Wang2,4, Xingkai Zhang1,2,3,*, Ming Liu5
1 Cooperative Innovation Center of Unconventional Oil and Gas (Ministry of Education & Hubei Province), Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100, China
2 Hubei Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering Technology Research Center, Wuhan, 430100, China
3 Key Laboratory of Drilling and Production Engineering for Oil and Gas, Wuhan, 430100, China
4 Siji Petroleum Machinery Company, SINOPEC, Jingzhou, 434000, China
5 Petroleum Engineering Technology Research Institute of Shengli Oilfield Company, SINOPEC, Dongying, 257000, China
* Corresponding Author: Xingkai Zhang. Email:

Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing 2023, 19(3), 755-766.

Received 10 February 2022; Accepted 20 July 2022; Issue published 29 September 2022


The response of an adjustable critical-flow Venturi nozzle is investigated through a set indoor experiments aimed to determine the related critical flow rate, critical pressure ratio, and discharge coefficient. The effect of a variation in the cone displacement and liquid content on the critical flow characteristics is examined in detail and it is shown that the former can be used to effectively adjust the critical flow rate. The critical pressure ratio of the considered nozzle is above 0.85, and the critical flow control deviation of the gas flow is within ±3%. Liquid flow can reduce the gas critical mass flow rate accordingly, especially for the cases with larger liquid volume and lower inlet pressure. The set of results and conclusions provided are intended to support the optimization of steam injection techniques in the context of heavy oil recovery processes.


Adjustable critical flow venturi nozzle; critical pressure ratio; critical mass flow rate; gas-liquid two-phase critical flow

Cite This Article

Ye, C., Gao, J., Wang, Z., Zheng, W., Wang, Y. et al. (2023). Experimental Analysis of the Flow Characteristics of an Adjustable Critical-Flow Venturi Nozzle. FDMP-Fluid Dynamics & Materials Processing, 19(3), 755–766.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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