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Analysis and Intellectual Structure of the Multi-Factor Authentication in Information Security

Rashad Mahmood Saqib1, Adnan Shahid Khan1,*, Yasir Javed2, Shakil Ahmad2, Kashif Nisar3, Irshad A. Abbasi4, Muhammad Reazul Haque5, Azlina Ahmadi Julaihi1

1 Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia
2 Computer and Information Science, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, KSA
3 Faculty of Computing and Informatics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia
4 Faculty of Computer Science, University of Bisha, Bisha, Saudi Arabia
5 Faculty of Computing & Informatics, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100, Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia

* Corresponding Author: Adnan Shahid Khan. Email: email

Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing 2022, 32(3), 1633-1647.


This study presents the current state of research on multi-factor authentication. Authentication is one of the important traits in the security domain as it ensures that legitimate users have access to the secure resource. Attacks on authentication occur even before digital access is given, but it becomes quite challenging with remote access to secure resources. With increasing threats to single authentication schemes, 2Factor and later multi-factor authentication approaches came into practice. Several studies have been done in the multi-factor authentication discipline, and most of them proposed the best possible approaches, but there are very limited studies in the area that can comprehend all these innovative and effective approaches. Using Web of Science data of the research publications on the topic, the study adopted the bibliometric approach to find the evolution of authentication in the security domain, especially multi-factor authentication. This study finds the impact of the research in the selected domain using bibliometric analysis. This research also identifies the key research trends that most of the researchers are paying attention to. The highest number of publications on multi-factor authentication were published in 2019 while the highest number of citations were received in 2014. United States, India, and China are the leading countries publishing the most on multi-factor authentication.


Cite This Article

R. Mahmood Saqib, A. Shahid Khan, Y. Javed, S. Ahmad, K. Nisar et al., "Analysis and intellectual structure of the multi-factor authentication in information security," Intelligent Automation & Soft Computing, vol. 32, no.3, pp. 1633–1647, 2022.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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