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Fly Ash and Slag as Partial Replacement of Cement for the Synthesis of Low Carbon Cementitious Materials

Yafei Hu1,2, Keqing Li1,2, Lujing Zheng3, Bin Han1,2,*
1 School of Civil and Resource Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China
2 Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China
3 Mining College, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China
* Corresponding Author: Bin Han. Email: bin.han@ustb.edu.cn

Journal of Renewable Materials https://doi.org/10.32604/jrm.2023.025129

Received 23 June 2022; Accepted 29 August 2022; Published online 29 September 2022

Abstract

Tailings known as solid waste are generated by the mining industry. The development of tailings as wet shotcrete aggregates has significant economic and environmental benefits. The fine particle size of the tailings results in a large consumption of traditional cement as a cementitious material and insignificant improvement in strength. Therefore, a composite cementitious system of cement and solid waste resources (fly ash and slag powder) is explored for this study. In this paper, the response surface methodology (RSM) is used to optimize the experimental design and a multivariate nonlinear response model with cement, fly ash and slag powder contents as variables are constructed, which can investigate the effect of the composite cementitious system on the strength of tailing wet shotcrete (TWSC). In addition, the information entropy (IE) is introduced and combined with the RSM to evaluate the composite cementitious system. Finally, the desirability function (DF) combined with RSM is used to optimize the composite cementitious system. The results show that the response model constructed in this paper has R2 = 0.96 and P-value < 0.01 (the test result of the model is P-value < 0.01), which indicates that the model has high reliability. The higher the content of slag powder and cement in the composite cementitious system, the higher the strength and comprehensive score of the TWSC. There is a critical value of fly ash content, which makes the maximum cementation of the composite cementing system. The optimal mix proportion of the composite cementitious system is obtained based on RSM-DF, which leads to the strength of TWSC at different curing time to achieve the expected index.

Keywords

Tailings; wet shotcrete; composite cementitious system; desirability function; mix proportion optimization
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