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Graphene-Based Active Tunable Metasurfaces for Dynamic Terahertz Absorption and Polarization Conversion

Haoran Wei, Tian Ji, Jianqing Huang*
College of Applied Science and Technology, Hainan University, Danzhou, 571737, China
* Corresponding Author: Jianqing Huang. Email:
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Carbon-Based Nanomaterials from Renewable Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)

Journal of Renewable Materials 2023, 11(2), 731-743.

Received 24 March 2022; Accepted 29 April 2022; Issue published 22 September 2022


Simultaneous broadband absorption and polarization conversion are crucial in many practical applications, especially in terahertz communications. Thus, actively tunable metamaterial systems can exploit the graphene-based nanomaterials derived from renewable resources because of the flexible surface conductivity and selective permeability of the nanomaterials at terahertz frequencies. In this paper, we propose a graphene-based active tunable bifunctional metasurface for dynamic terahertz absorption and polarization conversion. The graphene ring presents a certain opening angle (A) along the diagonal of the xoy plane. When A = 0°, the proposed metasurface behaves as a broadband absorber. Numerical results show the feasibility of achieving this polarization-insensitive absorber with nearly 100% absorptance, and the bandwidth of its 90% absorptance is 1.22 THz under normal incidence. Alternatively, when A = 40° after optimization, the proposed metasurface serves as a broadband polarization convertor, resulting in robust broadband polarization conversion ratio (PCR) curves with a bandwidth surpassing 0.5 THz in the reflection spectrum. To tune the PCR response or the broad absorption spectrum of graphene, we change the Fermi energy of graphene dynamically from 0 to 0.9 eV. Furthermore, both the broadband absorption and the linear polarization conversion spectra of the proposed metasurface exhibit insensitivity to the incident angle, allowing large incident angles within 40° under high-performance operating conditions. To demonstrate the physical process, we present the impedance matching theory and measure electric field distributions. This architecture in the THz frequency range has several applications, such as in modulators, sensors, stealth, and optoelectronic switches. THz wave polarization and beam steering also have broad application prospects in the field of intelligent systems.


Metasurface; broadband absorption; polarization conversion; bi-functional; renewable resources

Cite This Article

Wei, H., Ji, T., Huang, J. (2023). Graphene-Based Active Tunable Metasurfaces for Dynamic Terahertz Absorption and Polarization Conversion. Journal of Renewable Materials, 11(2), 731–743.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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