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Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper

S.H. Hassan1,2, Lee Hwei Voon1*, T.S. Velayutham2*, Lindong Zhai3, Hyun Chan Kim3, Jaehwan Kim3

Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Center (NanoCat), Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, South Korea

*Corresponding author: ; t_selvi@

Journal of Renewable Materials 2018, 6(1), 1-25.


Cellulose is a renewable biomass material and natural polymer which is abundantly available on Earth, and includes agricultural wastes, forestry residues, and woody materials. The excellent and smart characteristics of cellulose materials, such as lightweight, biocompatibility, biodegradability, high mechanical strength/stiffness and low thermal expansibility, have made cellulose a high-potential material for various industry applications. Cellulose has recently been discovered as a smart material in the electroactive polymers family which carries the name of cellulose-based electroactive paper (EAPap). The shear piezoelectricity in cellulose polymers is able to induce large displacement output, low actuation voltage, and low power consumption in the application of biomimetic sensors/actuators and electromechanical system. The present study provides an overview of biomass pretreatment from various lignocellulosic cellulose (LC) resources and nanocellulose production via TEMPO-mediated oxidation reaction, followed by the production of different types of EAPap versus its performance, and lastly the applications of EAPap in different areas and industries. Specifically, LC biomass consists mainly of cellulose having a small content of hemicelluloses and lignins which form a defensive inner structure against the degradation of plant cell wall. Thus, selective approaches are discussed to ensure proper extraction of cellulosic fibers from complex biomass for further minimization to nano-dimensions. In addition, a comprehensive review of the development of cellulose-based EAPap as well as fabrication, characterization, performance enhancement and applications of EAPap devices are discussed herein.


Cite This Article

Hassan, S., Voon, L. H., Velayutham, T., Zhai, L., Kim, H. C. et al. (2018). Review of Cellulose Smart Material: Biomass Conversion Process and Progress on Cellulose-Based Electroactive Paper. Journal of Renewable Materials, 6(1), 1–25.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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