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IOX-101 Reverses Drug Resistance Through Suppression of Akt/mTOR/NF-κB Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell-Like, Sphere-Forming NSCLC Cell

Majed Al Fayi*†, Ahmad Alamri*, Prasanna Rajagopalan*†

* Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
† Central Research Laboratory, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia

Oncology Research 2020, 28(2), 177-189. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15746768080428

Abstract

Drug discovery research to fight lung cancer is incessantly challenged by drug resistance. In this study, we used drug-resistant lung cancer stem like cells (A549-CS) to compare the efficacy of standard drugs like cisplatin (DDP) and gemcitabine (GEM) with a novel arylidene derivative IOX-101. A549-CS was derived from regular A549 cells by growing in special media. Resistance proteins were detected using Western blotting. Cell proliferations were assessed by MTT assay. Cytokine release was enumerated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effect of drugs on apoptosis and cell cycle was studied with flow cytometry protocols. Apoptosis-related proteins, caspases, and other signaling protein expressions like Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were assessed by Western blotting. Expression of CD133 and nuclear factor B (NF- B) phosphorylation was assessed using flow cytometry. A549-CS showed significant increase in CD133 expression in comparison with A549 cells. Expression of resistance markers like MDR-1, lung resistance protein (LRP), and GST-II were detected in A549-CS. While DDP and GEM had relatively lower efficacy in A549-CS, IOX-101 inhibited the proliferation of both A549 and A549-CS with GI50 values of 268 and 296.5 nM, respectively. IOX-101 increased the sub-G0 phase in the cell cycle of A549-CS and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells. Western blot analysis revealed activation of caspases, Bax, and reduction in Bcl-2 levels. Further mechanistic investigation revealed IOX-101 to deactivate Akt, mTOR, and NF- B signaling in A549-CS cells. Additionally, IOX-101 treatment to A549-CS also reversed MDR-1 and LRP expressions. Collectively, our results demonstrate efficacy of IOX-101 in A549-CS, which was resistant against the tested standard drugs. The activity was mediated by suppressing Akt/mTOR/NF- B signaling.

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Cite This Article

APA Style
Fayi, M.A., Alamri, A., Rajagopalan, P. (2020). IOX-101 reverses drug resistance through suppression of akt/mtor/nf-κb signaling in cancer stem cell-like, sphere-forming NSCLC cell. Oncology Research, 28(2), 177-189. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15746768080428
Vancouver Style
Fayi MA, Alamri A, Rajagopalan P. IOX-101 reverses drug resistance through suppression of akt/mtor/nf-κb signaling in cancer stem cell-like, sphere-forming NSCLC cell. Oncol Res. 2020;28(2):177-189 https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15746768080428
IEEE Style
M.A. Fayi, A. Alamri, and P. Rajagopalan "IOX-101 Reverses Drug Resistance Through Suppression of Akt/mTOR/NF-κB Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell-Like, Sphere-Forming NSCLC Cell," Oncol. Res., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 177-189. 2020. https://doi.org/10.3727/096504019X15746768080428



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