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Conventional Breeding and Molecular Markers for Blast Disease Resistance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Adel A. Rezk1,2, Mohamed M. El-Malky3, Hossam S. El-Beltagi1,4,*, Mohammed Al-daej1, Kotb A. Attia5,6
1 Agricultural Biotechnology Department, College of Agricultural and Food Science, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia
2 Plant Pathology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, 12619, Egypt
3 Rice Research and Training Center, Sakha, Field Crops Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Kafr El-Sheikh, 33717, Egypt
4 Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt
5 Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia
6 Rice Biotechnology Laboratory, Rice Research Department, Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, Kafr EL-Sheikh, 33717, Egypt
* Corresponding Author: Hossam S. El-Beltagi. Email: helbeltagi@kfu.edu.sa
(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.024645

Received 03 June 2022; Accepted 10 August 2022; Published online 06 September 2022

Abstract

Monogenic lines, which carried 23 genes for blast resistance were tested and used donors to transfer resistance genes by crossing method. The results under blast nursery revealed that 9 genes from 23 genes were susceptible to highly susceptible under the three locations (Sakha, Gemmeza, and Zarzoura in Egypt); Pia, Pik, Pik-p, Piz-t, Pita, Pi b, Pi, Pi 19 and Pi 20. While, the genes Pii, Pik-s, Pik-h, Pi z, Piz-5, Pi sh, Pi 3, Pi 1, Pi 5, Pi 7, Pi 9, Pi 12, Pikm and Pita-2 were highly resistant at the same locations. Clustering analysis confirmed the results, which divided into two groups; the first one included all the susceptible genes, while the second one included the resistance genes. In the greenhouse test, the reaction pattern of five races produced 100% resistance under artificial inoculation with eight genes showing complete resistance to all isolates. The completely resistant genes: Pii, Pik-s, Piz, Piz-5 (=bi2) (t), Pita (=Pi4) (t), Pita, Pi b and Pi1 as well as clustering analysis confirmed the results. In the F1 crosses, the results showed all the 25 crosses were resistant for leaf blast disease under field conditions. While, the results in F2 population showed seven crosses with segregation ratio of 15 (R):1 (S), two cross gave segregated ratio of 3 R:1 S and one gave 13:3. For the identi- fication of blast resistance genes in the parental lines, the marker K3959, linked to Pik-s gene and the variety IRBLKS-F5 carry this gene, which was from the monogenic line. The results showed that four genotypes; Sakha 105, Sakha 103, Sakha 106 and IRBLKS-F5 were carrying Pik-s gene, while was absent in the Sakha 101, Sakha 104, IRBL5-M, IRBL9-W, IRBLTACP1 and IRBL9-W(R) genotypes. As for Pi 5 gene, the results showed that it was present in Sakha 103 and Sakha 104 varieties and absent in the rest of the genotypes. In addition, Pita-Pita- 2 gene was found in the three Egyptian genotypes (Sakha 105, Sakha 101 and Sakha 104) plus IRBLTACP1 monogenetic. In F2 generation, six populations were used to study the inheritance of blast resistance and specific primers to confirm the ratio and identify the resistance genes. However, the ratios in molecular markers were the same of the ratio under field evaluation in the most population studies. These findings would facilitate in breeding programs for gene pyramiding and gene accumulation to produce durable resistance for blast using those genotypes.

Keywords

Biotechnology tools; clustering analysis; monogenic lines; resistance genes; breeding; Oryza sativa L.
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