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Ion and salt effects on the productivity and proline accumulation in Lippia gravolens H.B.K.

Valdés Oyervides FJ1, C Rivas Morales2, A Benavides Mendoza1, MA Núñez González2, J Verde Star2, A Oranday Cárdenas2, V Robledo Torres2

Departamento de Horticultura, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. Calzada Antonio Narro 1923 Tel / fax (844) 411-03-00 Saltillo Coahuila, México. C.P 25315.
Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Cd Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza N.L. México. CP. 66450.

* Corresponding Author:Address Correspondence to: Francisco J. Valdés Oyervides, Tel.: (01) 8444152892; e-mail: email

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2012, 81(all), 191-198.


Four dynamic conditions to evaluate the effects of stress on production of biomass, essential oils, Thymol, carvacrol and proline accumulation in Lippia graveolens H.B.K. were investigated under greenhouse conditions. A bifactorial design assessed four environmental conditions (factor B): commercial nutritive solution (B0); Water (B1); moderate stress (B2), and intermediate (B3) stress nested under (Factor A) salinity (NaCl) and ion concentration (Cu2+) and (Fe2+) stresses. Average production of fresh weight and number of leaves were reduced under NaCl and both ion concentration conditions. However, there were no significant differences on average for the four environments. The amounts of essential oils were significantly higher under the stressful environments with Fe2+ and Cu2+ at both concentrations. The average percentages of Thymol and carvacrol were higher under both study concentrations of Cu2+ and Fe2+ than under NaCl. The greater values for Thymol and carvacrol were observed under moderate stress intensity. Accumulation of proline was greater in the root than in the foliage. Stressful conditions of ionic elements at both intensities determine greater proline accumulation. High proline accumulation, however, was also observed under non-stressful conditions. A positive correlation (r = 0.997) between production of essential oils and proline accumulation was shown. The stress induced with salinity and ions Cu2+ and Fe2+ led to a greater accumulation of secondary metabolites.


Cite This Article

FJ, V. O., Morales, C. R., Mendoza, A. B., González, M. N., Star, J. V. et al. (2012). Ion and salt effects on the productivity and proline accumulation in Lippia gravolens H.B.K.. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 81(all), 191–198.

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