Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.81, 2012
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Null models for explaining macrophyte associations in lentic environments of the Araucanía region, Chile

    Urrutia J1, R Rivera1,2, E Hauenstein1, P De los Ríos1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 7-13, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.007
    Abstract Macrophytes of inland waters are a group of great biological interest. Although lentic systems are ideal for their growth, their presence is not so evident in oligotrophic water bodies, proliferating largely in areas with some level of contamination. A useful tool to determine the presence of a regulatory factor in the composition of these and other biological communities is the use of null models. This analysis was applied based on the co-occurrence of species through a matrix of presence and absence, with the purpose of determining the presence of randomness in species associations. The three models tested, determined the presence… More >

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    Variation in agronomic traits and lycopene in advanced tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars

    Gaspar-Peralta P1, JC Carrillo-Rodríguez1, JL Chávez-Servia, AM Vera-Guzmán2, I Pérez-León1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 15-22, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.015
    Abstract In order to evaluate the agronomic behavior, genotypic variation, lycopene content, and other components of fruit quality, eight advanced tomato lines were planted in greenhouses during two crop cycles, August-December 2008 and February-July 2009. Tomato lines showed significant differences in leaf length (LL), stem diameter (SD), number of flowers per branch (FLNB), number of fruits per branch (FRNB), locules per fruit (LPF), and fruit length (FRL), and the greatest phenotypic expression in fruit traits was quantified in August-December 2008. Environmental variance was significantly higher than the genotypic and genotype-environment interaction variances in LL, FRNB, fruits per plant, average weight of… More >

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    Production system and value chain in oregano (Origanum sp.) cultivation in the province of Córdoba (Argentina)

    Argüello JA1, SB Núñez1, V Davidenco1, DA Suárez2, L Seisdedos1, MC Baigorria1, N La Porta1, G Ruiz1, V Yossen1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 23-34, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.023
    Abstract The aim of the present review was to analyze and identify the problems associated with the Production System and Chain Value of Oregano in the area of Traslasierra Valley, province of Córdoba. Traditional ecotypes, such as Criollo, Chileno II and Compacto, are cultivated in the region, as well as new ecotypes such as “Serrano Cordobés”, “Flor Rosa” and “Rosa Fuerte”. The Traslasierra Valley of Córdoba is a very suitable area for the production and for increasing the production of oregano. However, the agricultural management of the different oregano ecotypes should be optimized. Ecophysiological studies conducted to date in the region… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Biomass production and yield of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. Strike in response to phosphate fertilization

    Salinas1 R, E Sánchez2, JM Ruíz3, MT Lao1, L Romero3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 35-39, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.035
    Abstract We determined the (1) deficiency, (2) apropriate level and (3) toxiticity of phosphorus on the total biomass production and yield of judía verde (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. ‘Strike’. Studies were conducted in a growth chamber using pots. Phosphorus levels in the nutrient solution were P1: 0.5 mM; P2: 1 mM; P3: 2 mM; P4: 4 mM; P5: 6 mM, and P6: 8 mM. The optimum phosporus concentration was P3. As soil phosphorus concentration increased, concentration of this nutrient also increased in the plant. Leaf, petiole and shoot biomasses were more sensitive to deficiency than to toxicity of phosphorus. However, root… More >

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    Nutrient content in maize kernels grown on different types of soil

    Li SL, YB Zhang, YK Rui, XF Chen
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 41-43, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.041
    Abstract Minerals are essential for human nutrition and plant growth and development. Nutrient concentrations in plants are related to many factors, including soil types. The impact of soil types on nutrient accumulation in corn, grown in black and sandy soils, was studied in the same area and management conditions. The results showed that the descending order of nutrient content was Ca > Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Se > Mo in both soil types. The contents of Ca, Mn, Fe, Se and Mo in kernels of corn grown in sandy soil were higher than those in corn grown… More >

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    Productive response of Nannochloropsis oculata, cultured in different media and their efficiency as food for the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis

    Campaña-Torres A1, LR Martínez-Córdova2, M Martínez-Porchas3, JA López-Elías2, MA Porchas-Cornejo1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 45-50, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.045
    Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different culture media on the productive response and proximate composition of microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, and the subsequent effect of such microalgae on the productive response and proximate composition of the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis. Microalgae were cultured in different media: Guillard F/2 (control), an agricultural fertilizer, and an aquacultural fertilizer. Thereafter, such microalgae were used to feed rotifers. A better productive response was observed when microalgae were cultured in the agricultural fertilizer. In addition, the chemical proximate composition of microalgae was influenced by the type of culture medium used. When used as… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Histocytological examination on organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato mutant

    Guan Z-J1,2,*, B Guo1,*, Y-L Huo3, J-K Dai4, Y-H Wei1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 51-58, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.051
    Abstract The initiation and development of organogenic buds and somatic embryos in HBsAg-transgenic cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme) mutant were studied histologically. The leaf explants of the mutant were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 6-BA 1.0 mg/L and IAA 0.05 mg/L for callus induction. Histological studies on the leaf explants of the mutant at various developmental stages revealed that organogenic buds first appeared in the axillary position of explants on the 14th cultured day, and then somatic embryos formed in the same mutant explants after 35 days of culture. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Interrelationship between phosphorus, Bacillus subtilis and Glomus fasciculatum with Lilium quality

    Rubí Arriaga M1, A González Huerta1, V Olalde Portugal2, BG Reyes3, AM Castillo González4, DJ Pérez López1, LI Aguilera Gómez5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 59-68, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.059
    Abstract Lilium is an ornamental species which production and commercialization have a greater daily economical importance because of its acceptance by the market. Crop of Lilium is currently under an intensive production system based upon an indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, without precise plant nutrition recommendations. Because of this, producers are forced to set up sustainable production processes without affecting the quality of the product, since worldwide consumers prefer products that have been correctly harvested. Objectives of this study were to assess the main effects and the interactions of phosphorus applications and the inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum and Bacilllus subtilis, on… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Evaluation in vitro of the anti-fungal activity of four methanol plant extracts for the control of three species of Fusarium spp.

    Ochoa Fuentes YM1, E Cerna Chávez1, J Landeros Flores1, S Hernández Camacho2, JC Delgado Ortiz1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 69-73, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.069
    Abstract We evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts of peruvian peppertree (Shinu smolle), cherimoya (Annona cherimola), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) on the mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium solani. The research was conducted at the Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes (UAA) and the Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN). The species of Fusarium were previously identified in the UAA Laboratory of Parasitology. The extracts were obtained in the laboratory of Toxicology of the UAAAN. The methodology of poisoned culture medium was used to determine the (1) inhibition of mycelial growth, (2) average… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Allelopathic testing of Pedicularis kansuensis (Scrophulariaceae) on seed germination and seedling growth of two native grasses in the Tibetan plateau

    Shang ZH1,2, SG Xu1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 75-79, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.075
    Abstract Pedicularis kansuensis is a dominating poisonous weed, and it might have allelopathic effects on other native grasses in alpine meadows. An experiment was conducted to examine a range of concentrations of aqueous whole plant extracts (25, 12.5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.25 and 0.0 g/L) of P. kansuensis, prepared at the flowering stage on seed germination and seedling growth of two native grasses (Poa pratensis and Elymus nutans). High concentrations of aqueous extracts of P. kansuensis inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. pratensis (p<0.05). Most aqueous extracts of P. kansuensis had a stimulatory (p<0.05) effect on E. nutans. Our results… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Bacterial diversity associated with the rhizosphere of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum): Toward a metagenomic analysis

    Velázquez-Sepúlveda I, MC Orozco-Mosqueda, CM Prieto-Barajas, G Santoyo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 81-87, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.081
    Abstract Rhizospheric soil is one the largest reservoirs of microbial genetic diversity. Before conducting a large-scale metagenomic analysis of an environment, such as a rhizospheric soil, it is necessary to perform a pre-screening of the resident genetic diversity. In this study, we analyzed the bacterial diversity associated with the rhizosphere of wheat plants by PCR amplification, construction of a library and sequencing of 16S rDNA genes. Thirty OTUs were detected, including the Classes Alfaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobateria, Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridia and Uncultivable bacteria. Within the Gammaproteobacteria class, the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Bacillus were the most abundant, since they corresponded to… More >

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    ARTICLE

    An evaluation of the extent and threat of bark harvesting of medicinal plant species in the Venda Region, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Tshisikhawe MP1,2*, MW van Rooyen1, RB Bhat2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 89-100, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.089
    Abstract The medicinal flora of the Venda region consists of a variety of species, which may potentially provide therapeutic agents to treat different diseases. Bark use for medicinal purposes has been reported for approximately 30% of the woody species (153 species) in the Venda region in southern Africa. However, only 58 plant species are commonly harvested for the medicinal properties in their bark and found in muthi shops in the region. These 58 species were scored for the possible threat of bark harvesting to the plant survival. Ethnobotanical studies indicate that the growing trade in indigenous medicinal plants in South Africa… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Physiological changes in transgenic cotton inoculated with Trichoderma spp.

    Vargas-Bejarano E, V Méndez-Trujillo, JC Vázquez Angulo, D González-Mendoza, O Grimaldo Juarez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 101-105, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.101
    Abstract We performed the inoculation of transgenic cotton seedlings with Trichoderma sp. strain ICA 4 to evaluate its effects on the physiological development of seedlings. Inoculated seedlings of transgenic cotton had higher development than non-inoculated seedlings. The range of values for relative growth, doubling time, height and number of leaves (0.04 g/g d; 16.88 days; 17.16 cm and 4.2, respectively) were significantly higher that those observed in non-inoculated plants (0.03 g/g day; 24.38 days; 12.33 cm and 2.6, respectively). Regarding radical architecture, inoculated seedlings with Trichoderma strain ICA 4 showed a higher percentage of roots of 2nd (46%), 3rd (73%) and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The population ecology of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. in the Nylsvley Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Tshisikhawe MP, O Baloyi, MH Ligavha-Mbelengwa, RB Bhat
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 107-112, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.107
    Abstract Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen., commonly known as the violet tree, belongs to the family Polygalaceae. It is widely distributed in tropical Africa, Mozambique, as well as in the North- West and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. The Vhavenda people use the roots of this species as an aphrodisiac. The species is co-dominant in the savanna vegetation of the Nylsvley Nature Reserve. This research looked at the ecology of the study species within the Nylsvley Nature Reserve because of its importance there. Understanding the population structure and environmental factors that impact on the species might help in assessing the population in urban… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Grain yield of sorghum lines planted under irrigation and limited irrigation in Texas

    Flores-Naveda A, CGS Valdés-Lozano, WL Rooney, E Olivares-Sáenz, F Zavala-García, A Gutiérrez-Díez, ME Vázquez-Badillo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 113-122, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.113
    Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate, under irrigation and limited irrigation, the grain yield of 40 F7 sorghum lines (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) selected by tolerance to drought in the Facultad de Agronomía at the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (FAUANL) in Marín, Nuevo León, Mexico. Studies were conducted in College Station, Texas in the cycle Autumn-Winter 2011, and in Lubbock, Texas in the growing cycle Spring-Summer 2011. The 40 sorghum lines were divided into two groups of 20 genotypes each to integrate two experiments, and five more experimental lines and a commercial hybrid as a control. Thereafter,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Combining ability of flint corn inbred lines: Mal de Río Cuarto disease tolerance and grain yield

    Borghi ML1, MA Ibañez1, NC Bonamico1, MV Kandus2, D Almorza Gomar3, EA Guillin2, JC Salerno2, MA Di Renzo1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 123-131, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.123
    Abstract Mal de Río Cuarto (MRC) disease is a significant threat to corn production in Argentina. Sixty six hybrid combinations derived from the cross of twelve flint maize (Zea mays L) inbred lines were evaluated using a completely randomized block design with two replications. MRC disease severity grade (SG) and grain yield (GY) were the analyzed traits. Our objectives were to estimate the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities for these traits among twelve corn inbred lines, and to identify potential heterotic relationships among them. Diallel crosses were performed and these results were compared using Griffing’s method 2 model I… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Construction and characterization of a metagenomic DNA library from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Hernández-León R1, M Martínez-Trujillo2, E Valencia-Cantero1, G Santoyo1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 133-137, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.133
    Abstract Rhizospheric soil of wheat plants contains a high diversity of microorganisms, and therefore, comprises a large reservoir for discovering genes with diverse agro-biotechnological applications. In this work, we constructed an E. coli metagenomic library based on bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with large genomic inserts from metagenomic DNA from the rhizosphere of wheat plants. The average of the DNA cloned segments varies from 5 to 80 kb, with an average size of 38 kb. Random clones were end-sequenced and homology results showed that the clonation of metagenomic DNA codes mainly for metabolic and catalytic functions (40%), including amidohydrolase, hydrolase, peptidase,… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Chromosomal location of four genes encoding Class III peroxidases in wheat

    Simonetti E1, E Alba2, A Delibes2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 139-142, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.139
    Abstract In a previous work, deduced amino acid sequences from twenty wheat peroxidase genes were assigned to seven groups designated as TaPrx108 to TaPrx114. Some of these apoplastic peroxidases have previously shown to play different roles in the plant defense responses to infection by the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae. In the present study, PCR marker analysis using Sears’s aneuploid wheat lines cv. ‘Chinese Spring’ was used to locate four genes encoding peroxidase isozymes. The TaPrx111-A, TaPrx112-D and TaPrx113-F genes were located on the short arm of chromosome 2B and the TaPrx109-C on the long arm of chromosome 1B. These results… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Increase of the genetic diversity of the germplasm bank of Cactus pear using RAPD molecular markers

    Escalante-González JG1, EA García-Zambrano2, A Gutiérrez-Diez2, RE Vázquez-Alvarado2, JA Torres-Castillo2, SR Sinagawa-García2, F Zavala-García2, J Martínez-de la Cerda2, C Gallegos-Vázquez3, JI García-Zambrano4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 143-148, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.143
    Abstract The objective of this research was to increase the genetic diversity of the Nopal Germplasm Bank of the FAUANL using RAPD molecular markers to estimate the genetic diversity of 15 accessions of cactus pear from molecular markers recorded in the Bank. DNA extraction was performed by the method of cellular ruptor using FastDNA® Kit. Performance measurement of DNA was carried out through Picoflour. It was observed that the DNA concentrations ranged from 74.91 ng/µL to 12.32 ng/uL. Twelve primers were used to generate from 1 to 5 bands per primer with a molecular weight ranging from 200 to 1000 bp.… More >

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    Biomass production and grain yield of three sorghum lines differing in drought resistance

    Castro-Nava S1, J Ortiz-Cereceres2,†, M del C Mendoza-Castillo2, AJ Huerta3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 149-156, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.149
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of drought classification criteria that we previously reported for our grain sorghum genotypes. Two tolerant genotypes of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] (UAT-124 and UAT-152) and one susceptible (UAT-30) were subjected to drought under greenhouse conditions at either panicle initiation, flag leaf, or flowering. Results showed that the effects of drought depended on when drought stress occurred during development. Biomass of the three sorghum genotypes was significantly reduced at the flag leaf stage (48%) by drought stress, but the greatest reduction occurred in the susceptible genotype UAT-30 (71%). Results… More >

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    ARTICLE

    First report of Botrytis cinerea on Lilium polyphyllum, a critically endangered herb in Uttarakhand, India

    Dhyani A1, BP Nautiyal2, MC Nautiyal1, MC Rivera3, D Prasad4, KP Singh4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 157-159, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.157
    Abstract Lilium polyphyllum is a critically endangered herb in the wilds of Uttarakhand, India. Gray mold appeared as a new disease on this species from July to August (2008-2009) causing death of inflorescences and shoots. Botrytis cinerea was consistently isolated on PDA, from infected inflorescences. Pathogenicity was established by inoculation of potted plants of L. polyphyllum in a glasshouse. Botrytis cinerea was recorded as a gray mold pathogen on L. polyphyllum for the first time in India, causing flower and shoot blight. This disease may seriously affect reproductive stages of this endangered host. To our knowledge, B. cinerea had not been… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Smudge and other diseases of onion caused by Colletotrichum circinans, in southern Argentina

    Kiehr M1, R Delhey1, A Azpilicueta2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 161-164, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.161
    Abstract While studying the etiology of onion diseases in southern Argentina, a coelomycetous fungus was found associated with diverse disease expressions. They included the typical smudge symptoms in white onion bulbs in local markets as well as field infections on yellow- and red-coloured cultivars, with severe infections on transplants in the seed-bed. The fungus was isolated and identified as Colletotrichum circinans on the basis of its morphological, morphometric, biological and pathological characteristics. Two isolates, obtained from white bulbs and from transplants, were inoculated on bulbs of white and yellow-coloured cultivars and produced the typical smudge symptoms on the outer scales. Koch´s… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Germination of simojovel pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.) previously exposed to NaCl and gibberellic acid

    De la Rosa M1, L Arce1, JA Villarreal1, L Ibarra2, J Lozano3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 165-168, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.165
    Abstract Simojovel pepper seeds were first treated with 0.5 M NaCl, and then put to germinate in solutions of gibberellic acid at different concentrations. Initially, seeds were either preconditioned or not with NaCl combined with 0, 100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/L gibberellic acid. In a second phase of the study, seeds preconditioned with NaCl were exposed to 0, 350, 400, 450 or 500 mg/L gibberellic acid. Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 5 with four replications. The greatest (p≤0.01) germination percentage (91.75%) was obtained on seeds previously exposed to NaCl and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Germination of four grasses under salt stress

    Ruiz M1 y O Terenti2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 169-176, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.169
    Abstract In Argentina cultivated grasses are the livelihood of the traditional livestock systems. Actually, the introduction of pastures in arid zones is one of the major challenges for ranchers. The aim of this work was to assess the germination of four forage species: Agropyron elongatum, Antephora pubescens, Cenchrus ciliaris cv Texas and Panicum coloratum cv Klein verde under water stress and salinity. Were used solutions of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4 and Mannitol as inert solute, obtaining osmotic potentials (Ψo) of -0.5, -1, -1.5 -2.0, or -2.5 MPa. Seeds were cultivated in Petri dishes on germination paper, watered with 4 mL of… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Semi-lethal high temperature and heat tolerance of eight Camellia species

    He XY1,2, H Ye1, JL Ma1,2, RQ Zhang2, GC Chen1, YY Xia1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 177-180, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.177
    Abstract Annual leaf segments of eight Camellia species were used to study the heat tolerance by an electrical conductivity method, in combination with a Logistic equation to ascertain the semi-lethal high temperature by fitting the cell injury rate curve. The relationship between the processing temperature and the cell injury rate in Camellia showed a typical "S" shaped curve, following the Logistic model. The correlation coefficient was above 0.95. The semi-lethal high temperature LT50 of the eight Camellia species, determined by the inflection point on the curve, varied from 50 to 57 LT50 / °C, following the descending order: Camellia oleifera >… More >

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    Responses of Conocarpus lancifolius to environmental stress: a case study in the semi-arid land of Kuwait

    Redha A, P Suleman, R Al-Hasan, M Afzal
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 181-190, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.181
    Abstract Cococarpus lancifolius Engl. grows wild in Djibouti, Somalia and East Africa, and South Asia. The species was introduced into Kuwait, where it is exposed to several stresses: oil pollution, salinity, high temperature and harsh climatic conditions. These conditions are prevalent in its semi-arid environment. In this study, the impact of salinity (2, 6 and 10%), temperature (20, 30 and 40 °C), polyethylene glycol (10, 30 and 60%) and drought has been investigated on C. lancifolius. Proline (Pro) accumulation (5.5 ± 0.03 µg/g dry weight; p≤0.05-0.005), protein (16.47 ± 0.052 mg/g; p≤0.001), free amino acids (10.92 ± 0.082 mg/g; p≤0.006) and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ion and salt effects on the productivity and proline accumulation in Lippia gravolens H.B.K.

    Valdés Oyervides FJ1, C Rivas Morales2, A Benavides Mendoza1, MA Núñez González2, J Verde Star2, A Oranday Cárdenas2, V Robledo Torres2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 191-198, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.191
    Abstract Four dynamic conditions to evaluate the effects of stress on production of biomass, essential oils, Thymol, carvacrol and proline accumulation in Lippia graveolens H.B.K. were investigated under greenhouse conditions. A bifactorial design assessed four environmental conditions (factor B): commercial nutritive solution (B0); Water (B1); moderate stress (B2), and intermediate (B3) stress nested under (Factor A) salinity (NaCl) and ion concentration (Cu2+) and (Fe2+) stresses. Average production of fresh weight and number of leaves were reduced under NaCl and both ion concentration conditions. However, there were no significant differences on average for the four environments. The amounts of essential oils were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaf and stem anatomy and micromorphology in two cut flower cultivars of Rosa hybrida L.

    Cohen1 G, L Mascarini1, CC Xifreda2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 199-204, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.199
    Abstract Micromorphological and anatomical differences in leaf epidermis and stem xylem of Rosa hybrida ‘Lovely Red ‘ (LR) and ‘Rouge Baiser’ (RB), commercially grown in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were examined in the lower half of the terminal leaflet of 5-foliate leaves and in the basal part of stem, respectively. Digital images obtained from SEM and a phase contrast microscope were used with this purpose. Epicuticular wax, which was present on both sides of the leaves, was more abundant in LR than in RB. Stomata were only present on the abaxial side; they were 111 and 129 per mm² in LR and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaf epidermis in three Asteraceae native species of Argentina with ornamental potential

    Gil SP, L Seisdedos, ME Reyna, MM Cerana
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 205-210, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.205
    Abstract The goals of this study were (1) to make a careful study of the foliar epidermis of Grindelia cabrerae var. cabrerae, Solidago chilensis y Wedelia buphthalmiflora, native Asteraceae from Argentina which have ornamental potential, and (2) to determine variables that indicate adaptation to xeromorphic environments. Five adult leaves from five plants were selected from each population. All the material was fixed in FAA. The epidermis of both foliar sides were macerated in hypochlorite of sodium, and obtained by scraping. They were stained with safranine and mounted in water-glycerine (1:1). From each slide, five fields were chosen and frequency of the… More >

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    Leaf margin serration and its taxonomical significance in the genus Hibiscus

    Bhat RB
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 211-213, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.211
    Abstract Types of leaf margin serration were investigated in ten species of the genus Hibiscus. Types and frequency of serration varied widely from species to species, from common to occasional to rare. Leaf serration is an important taxonomical feature in Hibiscus. More >

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    ARTICLE

    Growth habit and root anatomy in Macroptilium erythroloma and Macroptilium bracteatum (Fabaceae)

    Martín Montiel DC1, SM Pérez de Bianchi1, A Etcheverry1, C Camardelli2, M Alemán1, T Figueroa1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 215-220, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.215
    Abstract We studied the growth habit and root anatomy on two species of the Macroptilium genera, Fabaceae. These species, potential forages, are native to the Northwest Provinces in Argentina. The aims of this paper were to determine the survival capacity of the study species relating its growth habit and persistence with morphological and anatomical features. Root samples were collected and cut using either a microtome or by hand, at varying distances from the root tip. Cuts were examined under a light microscope, and with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using staining techniques. Macroptilium bracteatum and M. erythroloma are perennial herbs. Aerial parts… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Inventory of trees and shrubs with ornamental potential in the southeast of the State of Mexico

    Guadarrama-Martínez N1, M Rubí-Arriaga1, A González-Huerta1, LM Vázquez-García2, I Martínez-De La Cruz1, JA López-Sandoval1, GV Hernández-Flores1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 221-228, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.221
    Abstract The southeast region of the “Estado de México” is a transitional floristic zone. The municipalities which constitute are: “Tenancingo”, “Villa Guerrero”, “Malinalco”, “Zumpahuacán”, “Ixtapán de la Sal”, “Tonatico”, “Coatepec Harinas”, “Almoloya de Alquisiras” and “Texcaltitlan”. They present wood of Pinus, wood of Abies, wood of Quercus, mountainous mesophyll wood and deciduous rainforest as the main kind of vegetation. Our objective was to obtain a list of trees and bushes, which can have a potential ornamental use, in the southeast of that state. The botanical material was gathered with the conventional techniques during bimonthly trips to the studied area from June… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological differences of vessels in the secondary xylem of columnar and standard apple trees

    Zhang YG, SX Guo, HY Dai
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 229-232, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.229
    Abstract The length, dimension and type of the vessel elements in the secondary xylem of columnar and standard apple trees were studied by isolation method and micrograph. Results showed that the shoot xylem vessel cells were reticulate and pitted in columnar and standard apples. Most of the end walls were simple perforation plates. Compared with columnar apple trees, standard apple trees showed more abnormal cells in the xylem vessel cells. The average diameter of the xylem vessel cells of shoots was significantly wider in columnar apple (43.27μm) than in standard apple, (32.64 μm). Length of the xylem vessel cells of shoots… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variation in specific composition and cover in grassland exposed to various grazing pressures in the Monte Rionegrino

    Peter G1,2, FA Funk3, A Loydi4, AI Casalini5, CV Leder4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 233-237, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.233
    Abstract In the western Monte Phytogeographical Province of Rio Negro, vegetation is a shrubby-grassland steppe, where plants are interspersed within a bare soil matrix forming “phytogenic islands”. The objective of this study was to evaluate the specific composition and cover of the study ecological system under different grazing pressures. We selected areas with high, moderate and low grazing intensity at three sites. In each area we established five linear transects, where basal cover and all intercepted species were registered. Sites were arranged through a Principal Component Analysis using the Infostat software. We analyzed similarity between sites, considering basal cover and species… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphometric variation in two natural populations of Pinus hartwegii Lindl. at Veracruz State

    Iglesias LG1, LY Solís-Ramos2, H Viveros-Viveros3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 239-246, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.239
    Abstract The morphometric variation of cones, seeds and needles was evaluated in two natural populations of Pinus hartwegii at Veracruz state to estimate the percentage of phenotypic variation due to differences among populations and trees within populations. In addition, multivariate principal components, cluster and discriminate analysis was conducted to characterize the populations. Most of the traits measured on cones, seeds and needles showed significant variation both among populations and among trees within populations. Measurements of cone and seed traits used as indicators of the genetic and reproductive status of two natural populations of P. hartwegii revealed that much of the variation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Intraspecific variability and nitrogen effects on dry fruit yield in Karwinskia parvifolia Rose

    Luján-Rangel R1, E Olivares-Sáenz2, RE Vázquez-Alvarado2, L Garza-Ocañas1, O Torres-Alanís1(†), HJ Garza-Ulloa1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 247-253, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.247
    Abstract Karwinskia parvifolia Rose synthesizes a toxin (PA1), which might be used to treat some types of tumors. Variability from 16 plants of K. parvifolia and the effect of nitrogen was evaluated on its dry fruit yield. The experiment was carried out using a crossover design, two treatment sequences and two production cycles. Collected data were: dry fruit yield (DFY), dry fruit weight (DFW) and dry endocarp weight (DWE) per plant. During Cycle 1, the group of plants that received additional nitrogen (CN) produced higher yields than the group that received no additional nitrogen (SN). Ratios of CN/SN were 1.68 (DFY),… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mnesithea selloana: morphology of sinflorescence, maturity and caryopsis quality

    Galussi AA1,2, ME Moya1,2, LR Zimmermann1, FG Marchese1,2, YG Gillij1,2, F Torres1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.81, pp. 255-260, 2012, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2012.81.255
    Abstract Mnesithea selloana (known as cola de largarto, teyú ruguay) is a spring-summer-fall species that flowers and fructifies in that period; it has good forage quality, and it is in danger of extinction in the natural grasslands at the study region. The objectives of this work were to study the sinflorescence morphology, and the maturity and quality of the caryopsis to know its reproductive aspects in relation to the dissemination of this especies in grazing areas. The sinflorescence was studied in two plants during a period of 45 days, between October and December 2010, within an experimental field of the UNER… More >

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