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Nanotechnology through the use of nanomaterials has been an extremely useful tool in the development of current science. Among the different nanomaterials, metalloids and metallic oxide have shown a biostimulating effect on crop plants. Possibly one of the main effects of nanoparticles is the modification of the phenylpropanoid pathway, where phenolic compounds such as phenols, among other organic compounds, are stimulated. In numerous plant species, the increase in phenols has been reported by the application of metalloids, however, there are few investigations into the effect of metallic oxide nanoparticles. In this work, the effect of ZnO NPs on morphological variables and organic and inorganic content of lettuce plants was investigated.

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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Exploring Splicing Variants and Novel Genes in Sacred Lotus Based on RNA-seq Data

    Xinyi Zhang, Zimeng Yu, Pingfang Yang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1665-1679, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029482
    Abstract Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is a typical aquatic plant, belonging to basal eudicot plant, which is ideal for genome and genetic evolutionary study. Understanding lotus gene diversity is important for the study of molecular genetics and breeding. In this research, public RNA-seq data and the annotated reference genome were used to identify the genes in lotus. A total of 26,819 consensus and 1,081 novel genes were identified. Meanwhile, a comprehensive analysis of gene alternative splicing events was conducted, and a total of 19,983 “internal” alternative splicing (AS) events and 14,070 “complete” AS events were detected in 5,878 and 5,881 multi-exon… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Brassinosteroid Biosynthetic Gene CmDWF4 Regulates Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Xianrong Fu, Aiping Song, Bo Peng, Song Li, Weixin Liu, Lingling Zhang, Jiafu Jiang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1681-1694, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027870
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Advances in Molecular Genetics and Physiology towards a Better Understanding of Agricultural Crop Plants)
    Abstract Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroid phytohormones, play a critical role in plant growth and development. The DWF4 gene encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP90B1), which is considered a rate-limiting enzyme in BR biosynthesis. Here, we identified a homologous gene of DWF4 in chrysanthemum, CmDWF4. This gene was predicted to encode 491 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 56.2 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.10. Overexpression of CmDWF4 in chrysanthemum was found to significantly increase growth rate, number, and length of lateral buds. Transcriptome analysis showed that multiple xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family encoding genes associated with… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    An in Vitro Approach to Investigate the Role of Abscisic Acid in Alleviating the Negative Effects of Chilling Stress on Banana Shoots

    Ibrahim Hmmam1,*, Ali Raza2, Ivica Djalovic3, Nagwa Khedr1, Abdou Abdellatif1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1695-1711, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028317
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Physiological and Molecular Interventions in Improving Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants)
    Abstract Banana is a tropical crop cultivated in warm places. Chilling stress in Egypt is making banana crops less productive. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key plant hormone, regulates metabolic and physiological processes and protects plants from a variety of stresses. In vitro growing banana shoots were pre-treated with ABA at four concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 mM) and chilled at 5°C for 24 h, followed by a six-day recovery period at 25°C. By comparing ABA treatments to both positive and negative controls, physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. Chilling stress (5°C) caused a considerable increase in lipid peroxidation and ion… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Transcriptome Analysis of Auxin Drives Cone Size Regulation in Fokienia hodginsii

    Shunde Su1,2,#, Huan Chang3,#, Xiangyang Kang1,*, Renhua Zheng2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1713-1723, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027586
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Phytohormones in Improving Crop Production and Stress Tolerance)
    Abstract As the reproductive organ of the endangered species Fokienia hodginsii, the size of the cones is a constraint on the reproductive renewal of the population. In this study, the molecular basis of the influence of cone size on F. hodginsii was elucidated by comparing the phenotype, biochemistry, and transcriptome of two cultivars of F. hodginsii (‘FJ431’ and ‘FJ415’). The two cultivars differed significantly in cone size, with FJ431 having a significantly larger cone size and weight than FJ415, 1.32 and 1.90 times that of FJ415, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis of both cultivars retrieved 75,940 genes whose approximate functions were classified as… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Cd and Hg Mediated Oxidative Stress, Antioxidative Metabolism and Molecular Changes in Soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Sheeba Naaz1,2, Nadeem Ahmad2, Asma A. Al-Huqail3, Mohammad Irfan4, Faheema Khan3, Mohammad Irfan Qureshi1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1725-1742, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026100
    Abstract Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) is among the heavy metals most hazardous for plant and human health. Known to induce oxidative stress in plants and disbalance equilibrium in the antioxidant defence system, these metals alter plant growth and cause damage at the cellular and molecular levels. Soybean is an important oilseed crop that is raised in soils often contaminated by Cd and Hg. The comparative studies on the deleterious effect of Cd and Hg and the defence system of antioxidants were not studied earlier in soybean plant. In this study, soybean plants were exposed to Cd (100 µM CdCl2) and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of a Novel OsCYP2 Allele that Was Involved in Rice Response to Low Temperature Stress

    Hongxiu Gao1, Lin Zhu2, Tianqi Liu1, Xueyu Leng1, Zhenxing Zhu3, Wei Xie1, Haitao Lv1, Zhengxun Jin1, Ping Wu4,#, Zhongchen Zhang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1743-1763, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026516
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Cyclophilin (CYP) plays an important role in plant response to stress, and OsCYP2, one gene of cyclophlilin family, is involved in auxin signal transduction and stress signaling in rice. However, the mechanism that OsCYP2 is involved in rice response to low temperature is still unclear. We identified a new OsCYP2 allelic mutant, lrl3, with fewer lateral roots, and the differences in shoot height, primary root length and adventitious root length increased with the growth process compared to the wild-type plant. Auxin signaling pathway was also affected and became insensitive to gravity. The transgenic rice plants with over-expression of OsCYP2 were… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Proteomic Study of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Seeds between Parents and Offspring of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    Xiaotian Liang1,#, Qi Wen1,#, Rui Luo1, Yanxin Zhang1, Mingda Yin1, Yanpeng Wen1, Xuemei Hu1, Zhiyan Wang1, Yumiao Huo1, Fenglan Huang1,2,3,4,5,6,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1765-1792, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026935
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), is one of the top 10 oilseed crops in the world and, therefore, of high economic value. Hybridization is one of the most effective ways to breed new varieties with high yield, high oil content, and better stress resistance. Therefore, prediction of desired traits in castor hybrid offspring is particularly important. In this study, proteomic analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in seeds between castor hybrid offspring and their female (Lm female line aLmAB2) and male parents (CSR·181). Among the DEPs upregulated in the seeds of hybrid offspring, the majority were related… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Integrated Transcriptome and Small RNA Sequencing Analyses Reveals Insights into the Molecular Mechanism of Seed Germination in Mung Bean

    Yanyan Pu1,#, Liwen Wang2,#, Leilei Li3, Yujun Si4, Shubin Xie2, Yunzhe Cong1, Dong Wang1, Yongchao Gong1, Rumei Tian1, Xue Chen3, Xiaoyan Zhang1, Min Liu1, Hanfeng Ding1,3,*, Nana Li1,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1793-1812, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026822
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract During the life cycle of a plant, seed germination is crucial. Upon ingestion of water, the dry seeds resumed energy metabolism and cellular repair. To dissect the complex mechanisms at the very beginning of seed germination, two approaches including transcriptome and small RNA sequencing were conducted during the water imbibition process of mung bean seeds compared with dry seed. The transcriptome sequencing analysis identified 10,108 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between dry and imbibed mung bean seeds. KEGG enrichment analyses demonstrated numerous DEGs involved in hormone signaling pathways, carbohydrate, and energy metabolism. Out of the total DEGs, 129 genes were investigated… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Integrated Use of Organic and Bio-fertilizers to Improve Yield and Fruit Quality of Olives Grown in Low Fertility Sandy Soil in an Arid Environment

    Bassam F. Alowaiesh1,*, M. M. Gad2, Mohamed Saleh M. Ali3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1813-1829, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026950
    Abstract Olive productivity should be improved through stimulating nutrition, particularly under poor fertility soils. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of applying organic and bio-fertilizers on the physiological growth, yield and fruit quality of olive trees under newly reclaimed poor-fertility sandy soil in an arid environment. During a field experiment carried out at El-Qantara, North Sinai, Egypt over two consecutive seasons (2019–2020 and 2020–2021), olive Kalamata trees were evaluated under three organic fertilizer treatments alone or in combination with three bio-fertilizers treatments. Organic fertilizer was applied as goat manure (16.8 kg/tree/year), or olive pomace (8.5 kg/tree/year)… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of ZnSO and ZnO Nanoparticles on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce

    Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza1, Rebeca Betancourt-Galindo2, Nazario Francisco-Francisco3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1831-1840, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028085
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Molecular and Cellular Communication Between Plants and Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms and Their Nanoparticles for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance)
    Abstract

    Micronutrient nanoparticles (NPs) are currently an option for chemical fertilization and biostimulation in crops. However, there is little information on the phytotoxic or biostimulatory effects of NPs at low concentrations of some elements, such as Zn. In this study, the effect of low concentrations of Zn oxide (ZnO) NPs on germination, growth variables, and nutritional attributes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was evaluated in comparison to Zn sulfate. Romaine lettuce seeds were treated with ZnSO4-- × 7H2O and ZnO NPs at Zn molar concentrations of 1 × 10−3, 5 × 10−3, 1 × 10−4, 5 × 10−4, 1… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Photoprotective Effects of D1 Protein Turnover and the Lutein Cycle on Three Ephemeral Plants under Heat Stress

    Minmin Xiao1, Moxiang Cheng1, Shuangquan Xie1, Xiushuang Wang1, Xingming Hao2, Li Zhuang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1841-1857, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027369
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract To clarify the characteristics of photoinhibition and the primary defense mechanisms of ephemeral plant leaves against photodestruction under high temperature stress, inhibitors and the technology to determine chlorophyll fluorescence were used to explore the protective effects of D1 protein turnover and the lutein cycle in the high temperature stress of the leaves of three ephemeral plants. The results showed that the maximum light conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm) of the ephemeral plant leaves decreased, and the initial fluorescence (Fo) increased under 35°C ± 1°C heat stress for 1–4 h or on sunny days in the summer. Both Fv/Fm and Fo could be… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Observation of Flowering Process of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.)—Insight into the Starting of Pollination of Flower Hiding in Calyptras (Cap)

    Yue Wang1,#, Xiujie Li2,#, Yusen Wu2, Zhonghui Cai1, Bo Li2, Zhaosen Xie1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1859-1871, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027067
    Abstract It is generally agreed that many Vitis vinifera L. cultivars are self-fertile, where self-pollination often occurs before capfall in a process called cleistogamy. Therefore, it is difficult to identify the right time to remove stamens before self-pollination during the cross-breeding of grape. For this paper, we observed the process of grape flowering and measured the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of grape flowers of ‘Shine Muscat’ in order to identify the starting time of self-pollination before capfall and to provide useful information for improving the efficiency of cross-breeding. The results demonstrate that the anther is not cracked during the visible… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Application of Silicon and Selenium in Rice for Reducing Cadmium Stress

    Mohammad Reza Boorboori, Husen Qiu, Jieyun Liu, Haiyang Zhang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1873-1886, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027924
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Rice is an essential part of the human diet in most parts of the world; On the other hand, the industrialization of societies has led to pollution of the environment, including heavy metal contamination of soil and water, which negatively affects rice production and quality. Therefore, finding ways to increase the yield and quality of this strategic crop seems essential. Several studies have been conducted in recent decades to find effective and inexpensive solutions to reduce the adverse effects of heavy metals in rice fields. Due to the negative effect of cadmium pollution on rice quality and yield, the current… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Estimation of Genetic Divergence and Character Association Studies in Local and Exotic Diversity Panels of Soybean (Glycine max L.) Genotypes

    Syed Ali Zafar1,*, Muhammad Aslam2, Haroon Zaman Khan3, Sehrish Sarwar1, Rao Saad Rehman4, Mariam Hassan1, Ramala Masood Ahmad2, Rafaqat A. Gill5, Basharat Ali6, Ibrahim Al-Ashkar7, Abdullah Ibrahim7, Md Atikur Rahman8, Ayman El Sabagh9,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1887-1906, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027679
    Abstract The availability of favorable genetic diversity is a thriving vitality for the success of a breeding program. It provides a firm basis of selecting superior breeding lines for the development of high yielding crop genotypes. In this context, present investigation aimed to generate information on genetic divergence and character association in a diversity panel of 123 local and exotic soybean genotypes. Analysis of variance revealed significant response of the evaluated genotypes based on studied attributes. It depicted the probability of selecting desirable soybean genotypes by focusing on character association studies and genetic diversity analysis. Correlation analysis revealed that seed yield… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of Resistance to Pathogenesis Related Protein GmPR1L in Tobacco Botrytis cinerea Infection

    Yeyao Du1,#, Ye Zhang2,#, Yang Song1, Zhuo Zhang1, Sujie Fan1, Hanzhu Zhang1, Piwu Wang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.6, pp. 1907-1920, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027607
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Soybean (Glycine max (Linn.) Merr.) annual leguminous crop is cultivated all over the world. The occurrence of diseases has a great impact on the yield and quality of soybean. In this study, based on the RNA-seq of soybean variety M18, a complete CDS (Coding sequence) GmPR1L of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 family was obtained, which has the ability to resist fungal diseases. The overexpression vector and interference expression vector were transferred into tobacco NC89, and the resistance of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) to Botrytis cinerea infection was identified. The results show that: Compared with the control, the activities of… More >

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