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Impact of ZnSO and ZnO Nanoparticles on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce

Adalberto Benavides-Mendoza1, Rebeca Betancourt-Galindo2, Nazario Francisco-Francisco3,*

1 Departamento de Horticultura, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Saltillo, 25315, México
2 Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Saltillo, 25294, México
3 Departamento de Agricultura Sustentable y Protegida, Universidad Tecnológica de Tehuacán, Tehuacán, 75859, México

* Corresponding Author: Nazario Francisco-Francisco. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Molecular and Cellular Communication Between Plants and Plant Growth-Promoting Microorganisms and Their Nanoparticles for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2023, 92(6), 1831-1840.


Micronutrient nanoparticles (NPs) are currently an option for chemical fertilization and biostimulation in crops. However, there is little information on the phytotoxic or biostimulatory effects of NPs at low concentrations of some elements, such as Zn. In this study, the effect of low concentrations of Zn oxide (ZnO) NPs on germination, growth variables, and nutritional attributes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was evaluated in comparison to Zn sulfate. Romaine lettuce seeds were treated with ZnSO4-- × 7H2O and ZnO NPs at Zn molar concentrations of 1 × 10−3, 5 × 10−3, 1 × 10−4, 5 × 10−4, 1 × 10−5, 5 × 10−5, 1 × 10−6, and 5 × 10−6. The seeds treated with ZnSO4 at 5 × 10−6 registered the highest radicle length, 73% more than the control treatment. The seeds treated with ZnSO4 at 5 × 10−3 registered the lowest values, with 50% less than the control treatment. ZnO NPs at 5 × 10−6 significantly increased content of chlorophyll A and B and total phenolics. These results indicate the possible existence of a mechanism related to the intrinsic nanoparticle properties, especially at low concentrations.


Cite This Article

Benavides-Mendoza, A., Betancourt-Galindo, R., Francisco-Francisco, N. (2023). Impact of ZnSO and ZnO Nanoparticles on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 92(6), 1831–1840.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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