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Abiotic stresses trigger the generation of plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to cell death. As an adaptive response, plants biosynthesize chlorogenic acid (CGA) which has powerful antioxidant properties and can improve the ability to scavenge ROS. In this review, the roles of CGA in plants exposed to abiotic factors and the evolutionary analysis of CGA pathway-related genes are summarized. Bioinformatics analyzes were carried out on CGA-related genes across 37 plant species and revealed that the metabolic pathway starts in algae and gradually increases until it becomes complete in angiosperms. The key genes exhibited different expression patterns in various plant tissues and when plants were exposed to several stresses. Interestingly, some genes accumulated rapidly during evolution and were more sensitive to environmental stresses, while others appeared only later in angiosperms.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Chlorogenic Acid Metabolism: The Evolution and Roles in Plant Response to Abiotic Stress

    Deka Reine Judesse Soviguidi1,2, Rui Pan1, Yi Liu1,2, Liping Rao1,2, Wenying Zhang1,*, Xinsun Yang2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 239-255, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018284
    Abstract During the evolution, plants acquired the ability to synthesize different phenylpropanoid compounds like chlorogenic acid (CGA), which plays vital roles in resistance mechanisms to abiotic stresses. These environmental factors, including heavy metal, cold, heat, ultraviolet (UV) light, drought, and salinity affect the plant physiological processes, resulting in massive losses of agriculture production. As plants evolve from green algae to bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms, phenylpropanoids are produced and accumulated in different tissues, giving the plant the capacity to counteract the harmful effects of the adverse environments. Studies have been performed on the metabolic evolution of rosmarinic acid, flavonoids and lignin,… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Mycorrhiza and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria: Potential Bioagents for Sustainable Phosphorus Management in Agriculture

    Fazli Wahid1, Muhammad Sharif2, Shah Fahad3, Amjad Ali4, Muhammad Adnan1, Rafiullah1, Shah Saud5, Subhan Danish6,*, Muhammad Arif Ali6, Niaz Ahmed6, Hüseyin Arslan7, Doğan Arslan8, Murat Erman8, Ayman EL Sabagh8,9,*, Fatemeh Gholizadeh10, Rahul Datta11
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 257-278, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016512
    Abstract Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient that plays an essential role in improving soil fertility for optimum plant growth and productivity. It is one of the most deficient macro-nutrients in agricultural soils after nitrogen and is considered inadequate for plant growth and production. To P availability in soils, the farmers are applying huge amounts of synthetic P fertilizers that adversely affect the wider environment, groundwater, soil fertility and microbial population. Many beneficial microbes are known to release and supply soluble P for improving growth and yield of a variety of plants in a sustainable manner in P deficient soils. Thus,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of Genes Involved in Celastrol Biosynthesis by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in Tripterygium wilfordii

    Yaru Zhu1,2,3, Xiujun Zhang1, Yansheng Zhang3, Shiyou Lü1,4,*, Changfu Li1,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 279-291, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017625
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract Tripterygium wilfordii has been renowned mostly because of the anticancer effects of its root extracts, which is partly ascribed to the presence of celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, as one of the main active components. Celastrol also has recently been reported as an effective prodrug in the treatment of obesity. Despite the promising activities, the pathway leading to celastrol biosynthesis, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme(s) that occur in its downstream steps, are largely unknown. This study conducted a comparative analysis of the T. wilfordii transcriptome derived from its root and leaf tissues. Differential gene expression analysis identified a number of root-specific… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of UV Radiation and Other Abiotic Stress Factors on DNA of Different Wild Plant Species Grown in Three Successive Seasons in Alpine and Subalpine Regions

    Svetla P. Gateva1,*, Gabriele Jovtchev1, Tsveta V. Angelova1, Tzvetana P. Nonova2, Nikolay Tyutyundzhiev3, Elena G. Geleva2, Kostadin Katrandzhiev1, Nina A. Nikolova2, Dimitar Dimitrov4, Christo V. Angelov2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 293-313, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016397
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Plants in natural ecosystems are exposed to a combination of UV radiation, ionizing radiation (IR) and other abiotic factors. These factors change with the altitude. We investigated DNA alterations of some wild plants of different plant families in natural ecosystems at three altitudes in Rila Mountain, Bulgaria (1500, 1782, and 2925 m above sea level (a.s.l.) exposed to UV radiation, IR and other abiotic stresses, to assess the tolerance of plant species to the changing environmental conditions in three successive growth seasons. For this purpose, physicochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular methods were applied. DNA damage was assessed by micronucleus test and molecular… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Profiling and Protein-Protein Interaction Properties of the BEL-Like Homeodomain Gene Family in Apple

    Huifeng Li1, Qiang Zhao2, Hai Wang1, Qinglong Dong3,*, Yi Xu4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 315-331, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016951
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract BEL1-like homeodomain (BLH) family proteins are homeodomain transcription factors, which are found ubiquitously in plants and play important roles in regulating meristem and flower development. Although BLH proteins have been reported in some plant species, there is very little information available for plants in the Malus genus (e.g., apple tree:Malus domestica). In the present study, we identified 19 apple MdBLH genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MdBLH genes could be divided into five groups. Analysis of gene structure showed that MdBLH gene has four exons, and the third exon was 61 bp in length. Chromosomal location analysis suggested that the MdBLHMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Light Intensity Affects the Coloration and Structure of Chimeric Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus

    Wei Yang, Yuke Lin, Yanbin Xue, Meiqin Mao, Xuzixing Zhou, Hao Hu, Jiawen Liu, Lijun Feng, Huiling Zhang, Jiaheng Luo, Jun Ma*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 333-348, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016862
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is an important ornamental plant because of its green/white chimeric leaves. The accumulation of anthocyanin makes the leaf turn to red especially in the marginal part. However, the red fades away in summer and winter. Light intensity is one of the most important factors affecting leaf color along the seasons. In order to understand the effects of light intensity on the growth and coloration of the chimeric leaves, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus was grown under full sunlight, 50% shade and 75% shade for 75 days to evaluate the concentration of pigments, the color parameters (values L*,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Construction and Functional Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Vector of FAD2 Gene Family in Soybean

    Zhifeng Xiao, Yukun Jin, Qi Zhang, Abraham Lamboro, Baozhu Dong, Zhuoyu Yang, Piwu Wang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 349-361, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017451
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Soybean oleic acid content is one of the important indexes to evaluate the quality of soybean oil. In the synthesis pathway of soybean fatty acids, the FAD2 gene family is the key gene that regulates the production of linoleic acid from soybean oleic acid. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to regulate FAD2 gene expression. Firstly, the CRISPR/Cas9 single knockout vectors GmFAD2-1B and GmFAD2-2C and double knockout vectors GmFAD2-2A-3 were constructed. Then, the three vectors were transferred into the recipient soybean variety Jinong 38 by Agrobacterium-mediated cotyledon node transformation, and the mutant plants were obtained. Functional analysis… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Maize

    Mengtong Liu1, Yangyang Zhou1, Tongyu Liu1, Jianyu Lu1, Jing Qu2, Shuyan Guan2,*, Yiyong Ma2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 363-374, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016325
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Immature embryos of inbred maize (Zea mays) lines (H8183, H8184, and H8185) were used for Agrobacterium infection. We used the β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as the target gene and the glufosinate resistance gene (bar) as the selection marker. We conducted research on several aspects, such as different genotypes, coculture conditions, screening agent concentrations, and concentrations of indole-3-butytric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and ascorbic acid (Vc) in the differentiation medium. We optimized the genetic transformation system, and the obtained results indicated that among the three lines studied, the induction rate of H8185 was the highest at 93.2%, followed by H8184, with H8183… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Transcriptomic Analysis of the Tolerance Response to Dehydration and Rehydration in Wheat Seedlings

    Ping Zhang1, Zhiyou Kong2, Junna Liu1, Yongjiang Liu1, Qianchao Wang1, Xiuju Huan1, Li Li1, Yunfeng Jiang3, Peng Qin1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 375-394, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016358
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Drought is the main abiotic stress that restricts wheat production. The rapid development of sequencing technology and its widespread application to various fields have revealed the structural characteristics and regulation of related genes through gene expression analysis. Here, we studied responses of wheat plants under drought and re-watering conditions, using morphological and physiological indicators. Moreover, a transcriptome analysis was conducted on Jingmai 12, a drought-resistant wheat strain, to explore the mechanism underlying the response of drought-resistant wheat seedlings to drought stress at the transcriptome level. Drought stress caused morphological and physiological changes in both drought-resistant and -sensitive varieties, but to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Nitrogen Exponential Fertilization on Growth and Nutrient Concentration of Hydrangea macrophylla Seedlings

    Xueying Wang1, Yonghong Hu2,3, Fiza Liaquat4, Xianquan Zhang2,3, Kang Ye2,3, Jun Qin2,3,*, Qunlu Liu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 395-407, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017981
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Slow growth rate restricts the development and growth of seedlings due to nutrients deficiency or nutrient imbalance. Exponential fertilization can enhance the internal nutrient reserves in seedlings at the nursery-stage and strengthen their resistance to adverse conditions. In this study, nitrogen requirements for producing Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Hanatemari’ that robust seedlings, nutrient dynamics, biomass and growth, was examined utilizing exponential fertilization. The potted seedlings were fertilized with urea under exponential regime at rates of 0.5, 1.5 and 2.0 g nitrogen/plant (EF1, EF2, and EF3), respectively. In addition, an unfertilized group treated with equal volume of deionized water was used as control.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nitric Oxide Regulates Mitochondrial Fatty Acids and Promotes CBF Expression of Peach Fruit during Cold Storage

    Xiaoshan Guo1,2, Dandan Huang2, Siyu Wen2, Yang Bai2, Shuhua Zhu2,*, Jianrong Feng1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 409-427, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018022
    Abstract Low-temperature storage is convenient for postharvest preservation of peach fruit, but peach fruit is sensitive to cold damage, which lowers its quality. Nitric oxide (NO) has the potential to improve the bitter resistance of peach fruit. In this work, peach fruit was treated with 15 μmol L−1 NO and 5 μmol L−1 c-PTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxo-3-oxide], to study changes in mitochondrial fatty acids and expression of the C-repeat binding factor (CBF). The results showed that 15 μmol L−1 exogenous NO significantly maintained fruit quality, reduced peroxidation of mitochondrial fatty acids, increased the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Contrasting Characteristics of Lodging Resistance in Two Super-Rice Hybrids Differing in Harvest Index

    Zui Tao1, Tao Lei1, Fangbo Cao1, Jiana Chen1, Xiaohong Yin1,2, Tianfeng Liang2,*, Min Huang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 429-437, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016955
    Abstract The “super rice” breeding program in China has been successful in developing high-yielding hybrids, including few with high harvest index values. However, there is limited information on the relationship between lodging resistance and harvest index, and the mechanisms underlying the relationship in super-rice hybrids. In this study, a two-year field experiment was conducted to compare lodging resistance and its related traits between two super-rice hybrids differing in harvest index, i.e., Guiliangyou 2 (G2) with a high harvest index and Y-liangyou 1 (Y1) with a typical harvest index of modern high-yielding rice varieties. Results showed that compared to Y1, G2 was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Integrated Nutrient Management Improves Productivity and Quality of Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L.)

    Md. Shamsul Arefin1, Md. Ariful Islam2, Md. Mokhlesur Rahman3, Md. Abdul Alim4, Sabry Hassan5, Mahmoud F. K. Soliman6, Mohamed M. Hassan5,*, Rajan Bhatt7, Akbar Hossain8,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.2, pp. 439-469, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017359
    Abstract Sugarcane is one of the major important sugar yielding crops in Bangladesh. As an exhaustive crop, sugarcane removes a huge amount of plant nutrients from the soil. However, the combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers can be a good approach to deal with nutrient depletion and promote sustainable crop production as well as improve soil health. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify the most fruitful and profitable integrated nutrient management on the aspects of growth, yield and quality of sugarcane in two consecutive growing seasons. Seven treatments: T1 =Control, T2 =165:55:120:30:10:2.5:4 kg N:P:K:S:Mg:Zn:B ha−1, T3 =Poultry Litter (PL) at 5 t ha−1 +95:51:87:9:10:2.5:4 kg… More >

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