Vol.91, No.5, 2022-Table of Contents

On the Cover

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are molecules generated by the metabolism of mitochondria, peroxisomes, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, glyoxysomes, and apoplast. The plant cell takes advantage of ROS to send signals and to induce changes in the nucleus (i.e., retrograde). The signal can be carried out directly by ROS or indirectly as a consequence of membrane lipids oxidation. The physiological role of retrograde signal is to alert the nucleus about the development and physiological status of the different organelles.
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  • Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Initiation of Plant Retrograde Signaling
  • Abstract

    The interaction between the nucleus and the different organelles is important in the physiology of the plant. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a by-product of the oxidation of organic molecules to obtain energy by the need to carry out the electron transfer between the different enzymatic complexes. However, they also have a role in the generation of what is known as retrograde signaling. This signal comes from the different organelles in which the oxidation of molecules or the electron transference is taking place such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. Furthermore, ROS can also induce the release of signals from the apoplast.… More

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  • Recent Developments to Mitigate Selenium Deficiency in Agricultural Eco-Systems
  • Abstract

    Under changing climate, trace elements like selenium (Se) have emerged as vital constituent of agro-ecosystems enabling crop plants to off-set the adverse effects of suboptimal growth conditions. The available form of selenium is important for boosting its bioavailability to crop plants having varied agro-botanical traits and root architectural systems. As compared to selenite, the selenate has a weaker soil bonding, higher absorption in the soil solution which results in a comparatively absorption by plant roots. Various factors including dry climate, high pH, optimal ambient air temperature, less accumulation of water, and low concentration of organic matter in the soil tend… More

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  • Embryo and Endosperm Phytochemicals from Polyembryonic Maize Kernels and Their Relationship with Seed Germination
  • Abstract Because of the growing worldwide demand for maize grain, new alternatives have been sought for breeding of this cereal, e.g., development of polyembryonic varieties, which agronomic performance could positively impact the grain yield per unit area, and nutritional quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the phytochemicals present in the embryo and endosperm of grain from maize families with high, low, and null polyembryony frequency, which were planted at different locations, and (2) state the relationship between these compounds and seed germination. The extracted phytochemicals from corn were identified by HPLC-MS. The results showed that the genotype… More
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  • Multi-Environmental Genetic Analysis of Grain Size Traits Based on Chromosome Segment Substitution Line in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  • Abstract Grain size traits are critical agronomic traits which directly determine grain yield, but the genetic bases of these traits are still not well understood. In this study, a total of 154 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) population derived from a cross between a japonica variety Koshihikari and an indica variety Nona Bokra was used to investigate grain length (GL), grain width (GW), length-width ratio (LWR), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), and thousand grain weight (TGW) under four environments. QTL mapping analysis of six grain size traits was performed by QTL IciMapping 4.2 with an inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM)… More
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  • Nitric Oxide Alleviates Photochemical Damage Induced by Cadmium Stress in Pea Seedlings
  • Abstract Cadmium (Cd), a life threatening hazardous heavy metal is abundant in nature. Cd amounts are greater in leaves than other plant parts, and it shows considerable effects on photosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical present in living organisms, is now known as an important signaling molecule playing various physiological processes in plants. In this study, the possible ameliorative effect of NO on photosynthesis was examined on pea seedlings grown under Cd stress. Results showed that chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II and Photosystem I decreased, and Fo and non-photochemical parameters for PSII… More
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  • Effects of Manganese Toxicity on the Growth and Gene Expression at the Seedling Stage of Soybean
  • Abstract In order to investigate the effects of Manganese (Mn) toxicity stress on the growth and gene expression at the seedling stage of soybean, soybean seedlings were treated with normal Mn concentration (5 μmol/L MnSO4) and excess Mn concentration (100 μmol/L MnSO4) by the method of hydroponic culture in this study. When soybean was subjected to Mn toxicity stress, excessive Mn could affect seedling growth, root development, the number of Mn oxide spots in leaves, and the Mn accumulation content in different parts of soybean. With the increase of exogenous Mn concentration and the prolongation of culture time, the shoot and… More
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  • Identification of a Unique Germacrene A Oxidase from Xanthium strumarium
  • Abstract 8,12-sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are an important class of natural products with unique pharmaceutical activities. For years the pathway leading to 8,12-STLs remains an enigma. Xanthium strumarium accumulates abundant 8,12-STLs, and xanthatin is a characteristic 8,12-STL in it. Xanthatin has been previously postulated to be derived from germacrene A, but the steps from germacrene A to xanthatin are unknown. As part of an effort to understand the xanthatin biosynthetic pathway. This study reports the characterization of a unique germacrene A oxidase (XsGAO) from X. strumarium. Unlike a classical GAO enzyme, which is known to catalyze a three-step oxidation of germarene A… More
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  • Cloning and Characterization of EuGID1 in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver
  • Abstract Gibberellic acid controlled the key developmental processes of the life cycle of landing plants, and regulated the growth and development of plants. In this study, a novel gibberellin receptor gene EuGID1 was obtained from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. The cDNA of EuGID1 was 1556 bp, and the open reading frame was 1029 bp, which encoded 343 amino acids. EuGID1 had the homology sequence with the hormone-sensitive lipase family. Amino acid sequence alignment confirmed EuGID1 protein had the highest homology with the GID1 protein of Manihot esculenta. EuGID1 was located in the nucleus and cell membrane and had expression in four plant organs. Overexpression… More
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  • Germination and Photosynthetic Responses to Salinity and Alkalinity in Avicenna marina Propagules
  • Abstract Avicenna marina (Forssk.) Vierh is a halophytic mangrove. The reproductive unit is green and has photosynthetic propagules. Mangroves are naturally exposed to fluctuations in some abiotic factors at the soil surface, including salinity and alkalinity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two salts including NaCl and NaHCO3 on germination processes and discuss the relationships between cotyledon photosynthesis and embryo axis growth in A. marina propagules. These propagules came from Al Birk, located on the shoreline of the Saudi Red Sea. The results showed that the studied salts did not affect neither the final germination percentage… More
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  • Transcriptomic and Physiological Analyses of Pigment Accumulation in Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’
  • Abstract Eucommia ulmoides ‘Hongye’ is a new ornamental variety of E. ulmoides with excellent red or purple foliage. We found that E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ exhibited a gradual change from green to red colour under light conditions. However, the colouring mechanism in the leaves of E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ remains unclear. In this study, we compared the pigment content and leaf colour index of E. ulmoides ‘Hongye’ at five stages with those of E. ulmoides ‘Xiaoye’, which was used as the control variety. The transcriptome sequencing data of the first-period (H1, green) and fifth-period (H5, red) leaves were also analysed and compared. The… More
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  • Selection of Stable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR on Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. Zhang Leaves Exposed to Different Drought Stress Conditions
  • Abstract The definition of relatively stable expressed internal reference genes is essential in both traditional blotting quantification and as a modern data quantitative strategy. Appropriate internal reference genes can accurately standardize the expression abundance of target genes to avoid serious experimental errors. In this study, the expression profiles of ten candidate genes, ACT1, ACT2, GAPDH, eIF1, eIF2, α-TUB, β-TUB, TBP, RNA Pol II and RP II, were calculated for a suitable reference gene selection in Paeonia ostii T. Hong et J. X. Zhang leaves under various drought stress conditions. Data were processed by the four regularly used evaluation software. A comprehensive… More
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  • Foliar Application of Brassinolide Induced Regulation of Grain Yield and Quality, Antioxidant Responses and Aroma in Fragrant Rice
  • Abstract Brassinolide (BR) is a new green plant growth regulator. The present field study was conducted on two fragrant rice cultivars (i.e., Meixiangzhan-2 and Xiangyaxiangzhan) to study the effects of foliar application of BR on fragrant rice performance. At the heading stage, BR solutions at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.50 mg L-1 were sprayed on fragrant rice at 600 liters per hectare; these treatments were named as BR1, BR2, BR3 and BR4, respectively. The treatment sprayed with distilled water was taken as a control (CK). Compared with CK, the BR2 treatment significantly enhanced the chlorophyll concentration and net photosynthetic rate for… More
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  • Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease Potential Inhibitory Activities of Some Natural Antiviral Compounds Via Molecular Docking and Dynamics Approaches
  • Abstract Coronaviruses caused an outbreak pandemic disease characterized by a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome leading to the infection of more than 200 million patients and the death of more than 4 million individuals. The primary treatment is either supportive or symptomatic. Natural products have an important role in the development of various drugs. Thus, screening of natural compounds with reported antiviral activities can lead to the discovery of potential inhibitory entities against coronaviruses. In the current study, an in-silico molecular docking experiment was conducted on the effects of some of these natural antiviral phytoconstituents, (e.g., procyanidin B2, theaflavin, quercetin, ellagic… More
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