Vol.90, No.4, 2021-Table of Contents

On the Cover

Ambient temperature induces the hypocotyl elongation of seedling, called as thermomorphogenesis. In this issue, Deng et al. found that the canonical bHLH transcriptional factor PIF7 mediates the seedling thermomorphogenesis in the model plant Arabidopsis. During this process, an essential regulator AFP2, which is previously reported to be associated with abscisic acid signal, interacts with PIF7, thus fine turns the transcriptional activity, subsequently precisely modulates downstream auxin biosynthesis to coordinate hypocotyl elongation.
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  • Overview of Strain Characterization in Relation to Serological and Molecular Detection of Citrus tristeza Closterovirus
  • Abstract Tristeza is a devastating viral disease in all the citrus growing countries throughout the world and has killed millions of citrus trees in severely affected orchards. The citrus species grafted on sour orange rootstock are affected by this disease. Predominantly, the sweet orange, grapefruit and lime trees grafted on sour orange exhibit severe symptoms like quick decline, vein clearing, pin holing, bark scaling and degeneration leading to variable symptoms. Symptomatic expression of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in different hosts has been attributed to virus isolates which are from severe to mild. Different serological and molecular assays have been deployed to… More
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  • S-Nitrosoglutathion Reductase Activity Modulates the Thermotolerance of Seeds Germination by Controlling ABI5 Stability under High Temperature
  • Abstract Seed germination or dormancy status is strictly controlled by endogenous phytohormone and exogenous environment signals. Abscisic acid (ABA) is the important phytohormone to suppress seed germination. Ambient high temperature (HT) also suppressed seed germination, or called as secondary seed dormancy, through upregulating ABI5, the essential component of ABA signal pathway. Previous result shows that appropriate nitric oxide (NO) breaks seed dormancy through triggering S-nitrosoglutathion reductase (GSNOR1)-dependent S-nitrosylation modification of ABI5 protein, subsequently inducing the degradation of ABI5. Here we found that HT induced the degradation of GSNOR1 protein and reduced its activity, thus accumulated more reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to… More
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  • AFP2 Coordinates the Activity of PIF7 for Thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis Seedlings
  • Abstract Ambient temperature induces the hypocotyl elongation of seedling, called as thermomorphogenesis. It has been reported that the bHLH transcriptional factor PIF7 acts as the critical component to modulate plant thermomorphogenesis, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) suppresses the hypocotyl elongation under high temperature (HT) stress. As the ABI5 binding protein, AFP2 acts as the negative factor to control ABA signaling. In this study, we first identified AFP2 as the interaction protein of PIF7 in vitro and in vivo. Phenotype analysis revealed that overexpressing AFP2 reduced the hypocotyl elongation, while loss-of-function afp2 mutant showed longer hypocotyl… More
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  • Characterization and Candidate Gene Analysis of the Yellow-Green Leaf Mutant ygl16 in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  • Abstract Leaf color mutants are ideal materials for studying many plant physiological and metabolic processes such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, hormone physiology and disease resistance. In this study, the genetically stable yellow-green leaf mutant ygl16 was identified from mutated “Xinong 1B”. Compared with the wild type, the pigment concentration and photosynthetic capacity of the ygl16 decreased significantly. The ultrastructural observation showed that the distribution of thylakoid lamellae was irregular in ygl16 chloroplasts, and the grana and matrix lamellae were blurred and loose in varied degrees, and the chloroplast structure was disordered, while the osmiophilic corpuscles increased. The results of the genetic analysis… More
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  • Amylose Content, Morphology, Crystal Structure, and Thermal Properties of Starch Grains in Main and Ratoon Rice Crops
  • Abstract Rice ratooning, or the production of a second rice crop from stubble after the harvest of the main crop, is considered to be a green and resource-efficient rice production system. The present study was conducted to examine variance in amylose content (AC), grain morphology, crystal structure, and thermal properties of starch between main- and ratoon-season rice of seven varieties. Ratoon-season rice grains had higher ACs and significantly lower transition gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, and Tc) than did main-season rice grains. The relative crystallinity and lamellar peak intensity of ratoon-season rice starch were 7.89% and 20.38% lower, respectively, than those of… More
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  • Mechanism of Photothermal Energy on the Growth and Yield of Rice under Water Level Regulation
  • Abstract The flooding caused by heavy rainfall in rice irrigation area and the drought caused by the drop of groundwater level are the research focus in the field of irrigation and drainage. Based on the comparative experiment and farmland water level control technology, this paper studied the average soil temperature under different soil layers (TM), the daily temperature change (TDC), the photosynthetic accumulation of single leaf and canopy in rice, and response of photothermal energy to rice root characteristics and growth factors in the paddy field under drought conditions. The results showed that the peak soil temperature under drought treatment was… More
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  • Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Identifies the Potential Mechanism Underlying Yellow-Green Leave Mutant in Wheat
  • Abstract Enhancing photosynthesis efficiency is considered as one of the most crucial targets during wheat breeding. However, the molecular basis underlying high photosynthesis efficiency is not well understood up to now. In this study, we investigated the protein expression profile of wheat Jimai5265yg mutant, which is a yellow-green mutant with chlorophylls b deficiency but high photosynthesis efficiency. Though TMT-labeling quantitative proteomics analysis, a total of 72 differential expressed proteins (DEPs) were obtained between the mutant and wild type (WT). GO analysis found that they significantly enriched in thylakoid membrane, pigment binding, magnesium chelatase activity and response to light intensity. KEGG analysis… More
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  • Genome-Wide GRAS Gene Family Analysis Reveals the Classification, Expression Profiles in Melon (Cucumis melo L.)
  • Abstract Melon (Cucumis melo), belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, is a globally important economic crop. GRAS (GAI, RGA, SCR) genes, which are a type of transcription factor, play a critical role in plant growth and development, including processes such as radial root patterning, light signalling, abiotic/biotic stress, axillary shoot meristem formation, and phytohormone (gibberellin) signal transduction. In this study, the GRAS family in melon was analysed comprehensively with respect to chromosomal location, motif prediction, gene structure, and expression pattern. A total of 37 GRAS genes were first identified in melon, after which a phylogenetic tree was built with the GRAS genes… More
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  • Correlation Analysis of New Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] Gene Gm15G117700 with Oleic Acid
  • Abstract The fatty acid dehydrogenase gene plays an important role in regulating the oleic acid content in soybean. Genome-wide association study screened out soybean oleic acid related gene Gm15G117700. A fragment size of 693bp was obtained by PCR amplification of the gene and, it was connected by seamless cloning technology to the pMD18T cloning vector. Based on the gene sequence cloned, bioinformatic analysis of gene protein was performed. The overexpression vector of Gm15G117700 and the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing vector were constructed. The positive plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of soybean cotyledon nodes and T2 plants were identified by conventional PCR,… More
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  • Analysis of Growth and Productivity of Green Chickpea Using Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization
  • Abstract Chickpea contains high levels of protein, vitamins and minerals. Acceptable chickpea yield is the result of meeting nitrogen and phosphorus requirements. The effect of appropriately meeting such requirements reflects on growth and can easily be evaluated using growth analysis. This research determined: (a) The effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on phenology, net assimilation rate, number of green leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and leaf area duration; (b) Green chickpea yield and number of pods due to fertilization; and (c) The combination of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization that yields the most net revenue. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization was evaluated;… More
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  • Suppression Effects on Pineapple Soil-Borne Pathogens by Crotalaria juncea, Dolomitic Lime and Plastic Mulch Cover on MD-2 Hybrid Cultivar
  • Abstract The development and implementation of sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural practices are indispensable as alternatives to pesticide use and to keep populations of soil-borne plant pathogens at levels that do not affect crop productivity. The present research evaluates the incidence of soil-borne phytopathogens on the pineapple variety MD-2, which was subjected to different treatments: Incorporation of Crotalaria juncea into the soil (organic amendment), application of dolomitic lime to soil (inorganic amendment), and the use of plastic mulch covering the soil. During the crop cycle (15 months), the following variables were evaluated: plant height (cm), fruit weight (kg·plant−1 ), crop yield… More
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  • Integrated Fertilization Regimes Boost Heavy Metals Accumulation and Biomass of Hance
  • Abstract

    The hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance (S. alfredii) may be employed for zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd)-polluted soil remediation. However, the low phytoremediation efficiency, related to the low biomass production, limits its use with that purpose. In this experiment, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizers, and organic manure were applied to investigate the phytoremediation ability of S. alfredii. Hydroponic and pot experiments were conducted using Zn-Cd polluted soil. The hydroponic experiment indicated that appropriate fertilizer application could increase (p < 0.05) the amount of accumulated Zn and Cd in S. alfredii. When N supply ranged from 0.5 to 2.5… More

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  • Soil Fungal Community Structure Changes in Response to Different Long-Term Fertilization Treatments in a Greenhouse Tomato Monocropping System
  • Abstract Greenhouse vegetable cultivation (GVC) is an example of intensive agriculture aiming to increase crop yields by extending cultivation seasons and intensifying agricultural input. Compared with cropland, studies on the effects of farming management regimes on soil microorganisms of the GVC system are rare, and our knowledge is limited. In the present study, we assessed the impacts of different long-term fertilization regimes on soil fungal community structure changes in a greenhouse that has been applied in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivation for 11 consecutive years. Results showed that, when taking the non-fertilizer treatment of CK as a benchmark, both treatments of… More
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  • Soil Fungal Diversity and Community Composition in Response to Continuous Sweet Potato Cropping Practices
  • Abstract Soil fungi are extremely important for maintaining soil health and plant production in agricultural systems. Currently, the effect of continuous cropping of sweet potato on soil fungal communities and physiochemical parameters has not been well documented. In the present study, four sweet potato fields consecutively monocultured for 1, 2, 3, and 4 years were selected to investigate the effect of monoculture on soil fungal communities through Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Continuous cropping of sweet potatoes dramatically altered the fungal community composition, whereas fungal diversity was almost unchanged. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the most abundant phyla in all soil samples, accounting for… More
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  • Effects of Soil Nutrient Heterogeneity and Earthworms on Aboveground Biomass of Experimental Plant Communities
  • Abstract Soil nutrients are commonly heterogeneously distributed and earthworms are one of the most common soil organisms. While effects of both soil nutrient heterogeneity and earthworms have been well studied, their interactive effect on plant community productivity has rarely been tested. In a greenhouse experiment, we constructed experimental plant communities by sowing seed mixtures of four grasses, two legumes and two forbs in either a heterogeneous soil consisting of low and high nutrient soil patches or a homogeneous soil where the low and high nutrient soil patches were evenly mixed. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was either added to these soils or… More
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  • Effects of Different Vermicompost Rates on Growth, 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline, Photosynthesis and Antioxidant Responses of Fragrant Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seedling
  • Abstract Vermicompost is an organic fertilizer contains multiple nutrient elements. However, the application of vermicompost in fragrant rice production is rarely reported. In order to study the effects of vermicompost application on fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling performances, present study was conducted with two fragrant rice cultivars and four vermicompost rate treatments (0 (CK), 2.5 (Wo1), 5.0 (Wo2) and 10.0 (Wo3) g kg−1 ). The results showed that vermicompost treatments significantly increased dry weight of fragrant rice seedling by 8.31–32.56% compared with CK. 21.10–59.13% higher net photosynthetic rates and 10.66–59.16% higher chlorophyll contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll)… More
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  • Accumulation Characteristics of Protein and Non-Protein Components and Their Correlations with Protein Concentration in Rice Grains
  • Abstract Protein in rice grains is an important source of nutrition for rice consumers. This study mainly aimed to identify the critical factors that determine grain protein concentration in rice. Accumulation parameters, including mean accumulation rate (Rmean) and active accumulation duration (Dactive), for protein and non-protein components and their correlations with protein concentration in rice grains were investigated in field experiments conducted over two years with six rice cultivars. Results showed that grain protein concentration ranged from 9.6% to 11.9% across cultivars and years. Accumulation processes of protein and non-protein components were well fitted by the logistic equation for all six… More
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  • Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of the GlROP6 gene in Glehnia littoralis
  • Abstract Rho-related GTPase from plants (ROP) proteins play an essential role in plant stress resistance. In this study, the full-length GlROP6 gene was cloned based on G. littoralis transcriptome sequencing data acquired in response to salt stress. The protein sequence, conserved domains, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, phylogenetic relationships, and expression pattern of the GlROP6 gene were systematically analysed. Our results showed that the full-length GlROP6 gene had an open reading frame of 606 bp, which encoded 201 amino acid residues with a relative molecular weight of 22.23463 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 9.06. Amino acid sequence analyses indicated that… More
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  • Phenotypic and Molecular Assessment of Wheat Genotypes Tolerant to Leaf Blight, Rust and Blast Diseases
  • Abstract Globally among biotic stresses, diseases like blight, rust and blast constitute prime constraints for reducing wheat productivity especially in Bangladesh. For sustainable productivity, the development of disease-resistant lines and high yielding varieties is vital and necessary. This study was conducted using 122 advanced breeding lines of wheat including 21 varieties developed by Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute (BAMRI) with aims to identify genotypes having high yield potential and resistance to leaf blight, leaf rust and blast diseases. These genotypes were evaluated for resistance against leaf blight and leaf rust at Dinajpur and wheat blast at Jashore under field condition.… More
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