Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.82, 2013
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biological evaluation of bee pollen from native Chilean plants

    Montenegro G, R Pizarro, E Mejías, S Rodríguez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 7-14, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.007
    Abstract Bee pollen has gained increased interest in recent decades due to its therapeutic, antioxidant, antifungal and anticariogenic properties, as well as its potential use as a functional food product in the food industry because of its nutritional properties. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the chemical components of pollen extracts with different botanical origin, supporting the hypothesis that bee products inherit the characteristics and bioactive properties from the plants they come from. The purpose of this study was to conduct a chemical characterization of samples of pollen collected by Apis mellifera L. from plants native to central Chile, and also… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro biocontrol of tomato pathogens using antagonists isolated from chicken-manure vermicompost

    Barocio-Ceja NB1, LF Ceja-Torres1*, JL Morales-García2, HV Silva-Rojas3, R Flores-Magallón1, S Ochoa-Estradav1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 15-22, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.015
    Abstract The objectives of this study were to (1) isolate and identify pathogenic fungi from vegetative material with wilt symptoms in tomato plantations belonging to the Cienega of Chapala, Michoacán, Mexico, and (2) determine the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus spp. isolated from chicken-manure vermicompost. Pathogens were isolated by means of a completely randomized sampling in 6 locations; 9 plantations were inspected and 45 plants with symptoms of the disease were selected. Portions of root and stem were disinfected and placed on potato-dextroseagar acidified (PDA). Antagonists isolation was made from a dilution of chicken-manure vermicompost of 1 x 10-2More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Production of biomass and carotenoids of Dunaliella tertiolecta in nitrogen-limited cultures

    López-Elías JA1, D Fimbres-Olivarría3, LA Medina-Juárez1, A Miranda-Baeza2, LR Martínez-Córdova1, DMA Molina-Quijada3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 23-30, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.023
    Abstract Microalgae have a high content of antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, phycobilins and fatty acids) used in biotechnology industry. Under stress conditions Dunaliella cells produce more carotenoids. Because of this, we evaluated growth, biomass and carotenoid production under control (indoor) and outdoor conditions using mass cultures of Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher, under nitrogenlimited media. Control medium was f/2 (nitrates: 18.75 g/L), and limited media were f/4 (nitrates: 37.5 g/L), f/6 (nitrates: 25 g/L) and f/8 (nitrates: 18.75 g/L). The highest cell concentrations were found in cultures using medium f/2 maintained indoor (1.28 x 106 cells/mL) and outdoor (0.76 x 106 cell/mL). Dry biomass… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Role of macroalgae in biomonitoring of pollution in «Marchica», the Nador lagoon

    Ben Chekroun K1, A Moumen1, N Rezzoum2, E Sánchez3, M Baghour1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 31-34, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.031
    Abstract The Aquatic system contamination by organic pollutants and heavy metals is one of the most serious problems that might face the environment and organisms as a whole. Interestingly, the accumulation of these pollutants is due to the anthropogenic activity, namely the intensive use of fertilizers to obtain high yields in crop production. In this paper, we compared the levels of chlorophylls, proteins, dry weight and sucrose in some red (Alsidium sp. and Gracilaria sp.) and green algae (Ulva sp.) collected from Mohandis, near Kariat and Bou Areg. Our results indicate that the algae collected nearby Bou Areg, an area well-known… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    High fluorine and other associated trace elements in waters from the south of the Pampean plain

    Espósito ME1, ME Sequeira2, JD Paoloni3, MC Blanco4, N Amiotti1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 35-44, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.035
    Abstract We investigated the levels of F and its relationship with As, B and V in ground and surface waters of the southern Pampas, where cases of dental and skeletal fluorosis, and arsenic in hair and urine samples have been detected in the rural population. Eating vegetables and cereals grown in irrigated areas with excessive fluoride may increase the risk of fluorosis due to the addition of the extra F contributed from other sources such as drinking water. Moreover, if these elements exceed the tolerance of crops produce toxicity and, like salinity, they decrease the potential crop yield. Within an area… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variation of botanical composition, forage production and nutrient values along a grassland degradation gradient in the alpine region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Wen L1, SK Dong1, YY Li1, C Pulver2, XY Li1, JJ Shi3, YL Wang3, YS Ma3, DM Liu4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 45-54, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.045
    Abstract The alpine grassland in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is an extensive rangeland ecosystem sustaining a sparse population of traditional nomadic pastoralists in China. However, global climate change and anthropologic disturbances have severely degraded the alpine grasslands, and the consequences of this degradation are largely unknown. Forage is the only food source for livestock in the alpine region, and livestock is the major income source for nomadic herders. Therefore, it is critical to assess the forage quantity and quality along the current grassland degradation gradient. In this study, we examined the botanical composition, biomass of different functional groups, and forage grass nutritive… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Yield and quality of tomato with organic sources of fertilization under greenhouse conditions

    Márquez-Hernández C1, P Cano-Ríos2, U Figueroa-Viramontes3, JA Avila-Diaz4, N Rodríguez-Dimas2, JL García-Hernández1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 55-61, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.055
    Abstract The scarcity of fertilizers that are allowed in organic agriculture (AO) encourages the search for alternatives, being the use of compost one of the most outstanding. AO has been recognized as a more sustainable system than conventional agriculture. AO is ruled by strict norms which forbid the use of most common fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various fertilization treatments on the organic production of greenhousegrown tomato. A completely randomized experimental design with five replications was used, with a 5x2 factorial arrangement. Factors A and B were: a) fertilization treatments and b) tomato genotypes.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Determination of insecticide resistance in four populations of potato psillid Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc.) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Cerna E, Y Ochoa, LA Aguirre, M Flores, J Landeros
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 63-68, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.063
    Abstract Southeastern potato growing regions from Coahuila and Nuevo León contribute with 15% to domestic production. Such production has been impacted by several factors, in particular Bactericera (=Paratrioza) cockerelli Sulc potato psyllid, one of the most important pests affecting this crop. Its control is based on Insecticide applications, leading to unsatisfactory results and high selection pressure. Five insecticides were evaluated in four field populations of B. cockerelli from the growing region, using a susceptible laboratory line for comparison. The field populations were collected from greenhouse and commercial orchards located at Huachichil, Saltillo, Raíces and San Rafael localities. All the samples were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Application of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to assess the ethnobotany and forest conservation status of the Zarghoon Juniper Ecosystem, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Bazai ZA1, RB Tareen1, AKK Achakzai1, H Batool2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 69-74, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.069
    Abstract The data collection approach called Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was used in five villages: Killi Tor Shore; Medadzai; Ghunda; Kala Ragha, and Killi Shaban. Up to five groups were sampled in each village, comprising a total of 17 villages within the Zarghoon Juniper ecosystem. This area is rich both historically and culturally for using medicinal plants, mostly by women (60%). In this study, 26 species of medicinal plants fit in 20 genera and 13 families. They are used by aboriginal people via the indigenous knowledge they have for the treatment of many diseases. About 60, 35, and 5% of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anti-inflammatory activity of Ziziphus amole

    Romero-Castillo PA1, MC Pérez Amador Barron1, P Guevara Fefer1, V Muñoz Ocotero1, A Reyes Dorantes2, F Aguirre Garcia2, A Amaya Chavez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 75-80, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.075
    Abstract The search for new anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects than those currently available in the market has recently attracted the interest of scientists. Medicinal plants might be a natural source of medicines. Such is the case with Ziziphus amole (Sessé & Moc.) M.C. Johnst. or corongoro, a plant species native to México. It is used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory drug, a healing substance and an analgesic, and in the treatment of diarrhea, diabetes, asthma and hemorrhoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Z. amole in the acute 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced mouse… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sustainable management and use of a medicinal emblematic plant in Chile: Buddleja globosa Hope

    Wilckens P1, MP Fernández2, M Gómez1, I Peña3, G Montenegro1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 81-90, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.081
    Abstract Buddleja globosa Hope is a well-known native, medicinal plant because of its digestive and cicatrizing properties. Due to the increasing domestic and international demand, B. globosa abundance and distribution in Chile has resulted in the intensive exploitation of the plant’s natural habitat, without consideration of the plant’s regenerative capacity. The main objective of this research was to establish the B. globosa growth cycle and model its regeneration cycle. This would allow for more productive, efficient and sustainable use and management of this species, thus ensuring its long-term conservation. We selected two study sites, one wild and another one cultivated. In… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Accumulation of silver nanoparticles and its effect on the antioxidant capacity in Allium cepa L.

    Juárez-Maldonado1 A, JL Rosales-Velázquez2, H Ortega-Ortiz3, M Cabrera-De-la-Fuente1, H Ramírez1, A Benavides-Mendoza1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 91-97, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.091
    Abstract Nanotechnology is currently an important worldwide study field because it provides control on matter at a nanometric scale. In food and agricultural fields, the applications of this technology are in early stages. Onion is one of the main vegetables grown in the world. Onion is a low calorie food which contains a large amount of flavonoids. In this work, silver nitrate application in onion was evaluated. An onion crop was developed at the University Antonio Narro in Saltillo, Mexico. Two methods of silver nitrate application were used (a nutritive solution: 0, 20, 40 and 80 mg/L of AgNO3; and foliar… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative effectiveness of two nitrogen sources for corn fertilization

    Copperi MZ1, ME M,olesi2, MA Cantamutto2, MM Ron2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 99-106, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.099
    Abstract Corn has not only a high growth potential and a great capacity of biological response to suitable crop management but also may contribute to a better match of crops with environmental offer in Argentina. Nitrogen (N) fertilization must make provision for eventual N losses, and fertilization strategies must be designed so as to minimize their global incidence. The different quick-release N sources show similar efficiencies when they are incorporated, but in surface applications, sources that contain little or no amidic N have a better performance than urea (U). The objective of this paper was to make an evaluation of corn… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Micropropagation of wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) of Central Mexico

    Jiménez-Martínez JH1, MG Gutiérrez-Martínez2, O Franco-Mora1, A González-Huerta2, AT Gutiérrez-Ibáñez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 107-112, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.107
    Abstract Two accessions of wild grapevines (Vitis spp.) native to Puebla State, Nealticán and Teziutlán, and other two native to Temascaltepec (1 and 2), Mexico State, were cultured in vitro using both Murashige-Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) mediums. There were no differences between mediums for shoot generation. However, differences were shown among accessions for explant vigour, callus development, number of roots, leaves and nodes per explant. Rooting was evaluated only in MS medium by adding naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole butyric acid (IBA) or indole acetic acid (IAA) at 0.5 mg/L. With the exception of Temascaltepec 2, NAA generated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fungi degrading metsulfuron methyl in agricultural soils of Argentina

    Vázquez MB1, MV Bianchinotti1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 113-118, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.113
    Abstract Strains of Mucor, Penicillium and Trichoderma, able to use metsulfuron-methyl (MM) as a sole carbon and energy source, were isolated from agricultural soils in Argentina. This is the first time this ability is recorded in the Mucor or Trichoderma species. When the isolated strains were compared in relation to their capacity to use the herbicide, those of Trichoderma showed the best results. Because of this, they were selected for further assays. The effect of metsulfuron on growth in liquid media was tested. Also, the ability of conidia to germinate in water agar medium containing the target herbicide was evaluated. All… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Spores germination and gametophytes of Alsophila odonelliana (Cyatheaceae) in different sterile media

    Bonomo MC, OG Martínez, ME Tanco, R Cardozo, Z Avilés
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 119-126, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.119
    Abstract The tree fern Alsophila odonelliana is found from southern Bolivia to northwestern Argentina, in the Tucuman-Bolivian forests. Spore germination was tested in three sterile nutritive media: Dyer (D), Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Knudson (K). We also evaluated the effect on gametophyte development of the addition of two growth regulators, BAP and 2,4-D to the culture medium Dyer; 2,4-D was evaluated using two concentrations: 0.1 and 2.0 mg/L, and BAP using three concentrations, 0.01; 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. We found no significant differences in the germination of spores among all three media. We noted that supplementing media with BAP affected… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Protective eect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exposed to Cr(VI)

    Carreón-Abud Y, MA Beltrán-Nambo, M Martínez Trujillo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 127-134, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.127
    Abstract Chromium (Cr) is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants; due to its frequent industrial use, it has become a pollutant for different agroecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are associated with most angiosperms and provide them with beneficial effects on the absorption of some nutrients. Moreover, it has been reported that in some cases the AMF can confer greater tolerance to plants in the presence of heavy metals. The tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) is an important crop in Mexico. In most cases, it grows under applied irrigation water from reservoirs which include domestic and industrial wastes. In this study… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fertilization and association with pioneer herbaceous species on the performance of Pinus pseudostrobus

    Gómez-Romero M1, E de la Barrera2, J Villegas3, R Lindig-Cisneros4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 135-143, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.135
    Abstract When degradation is severe, as it is often the case on acrisols, it is necessary to test the effect of plant-plant interactions in their survival and growth. An experiment was conducted, with substrate from an eroded site (acrisols with gullies) in a shaded greenhouse (30% shade) to evaluate the effect of fertilization and the presence of pioneer herbaceous species in the performance of Pinus pseudostrobus. The pioneer species Lupinus mexicanus and Tithonia tubiformis were used in three experimental treatments and a control. To fertilize, KH2PO4 was applied in four concentration levels. There were a total of 16 treatment combinations when… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ecological indicators of the weed community in the cultivation of mango Mangifera indica L. in Campeche State, Mexico

    Tucuch-Cauich FM1, F Orona-Castro1, IH Almeyda-León2, LA Aguirre-Uribe3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 145-149, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.145
    Abstract Ango is the main species of fruit in the state of Campeche, Mexico, due to the economic benefits generated because of its production and marketing. Among the biotic problems that affect this crop in the region are weeds, which involve a heavy economic investment for their management. Under this scenario, it is important the development of ecological weed studies to generate information that help us to design strategies for managing the problem. During January to June 2010 a floristic study was developed on the population of weeds that compete with mango in the locations of Cayal and Castamay, at the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of water deficit on urban forest growth in a dryland South America region

    Martinez CF1, FA Roig2, JB Cavagnaro3, MA Cantón1, AM Di Blasi4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 151-160, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.151
    Abstract Urban forests located in dryland regions of Argentina are sustained mostly by groundwater and water coming from thawing in the Andes. This is because the most commonly planted tree species have high water requirements and are most often exposed to water shortage. This study assessed the effect of water deficit on diverse growth variables in saplings of Acacia visco (native tree species) and Morus alba (exotic tree species), two common tree species in the urban forests of Mendoza’s Metropolitan Area. Saplings were exposed to different levels of water deficit under controlled nursery conditions during three growing seasons. There were three… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphology, viability and germination of candelilla seeds (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc.)

    Flores-del Angel ML, R Foroughbakhch, A Rocha-Estrada, ML Cárdenas-Ávila, MA GuzmánLucio, YL Hernández-Aguilar, MA Alvarado-Vázquez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 161-167, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.161
    Abstract Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc.) is a native plant in the desert regions of northern Mexico and the southern United States. The primary commercial use of this plant is for wax production. This study assessed the morphology, viability, and the effects of temperature in combination with chemical and mechanical scarification on the germination of candelilla seeds. Seeds were collected in four localities in northeastern Mexico. The seeds were predominantly pyriform with foveolate surfaces and brown in color; on average, the seeds measured 2.92 ± 0.26, 1.91 ± 0.22, and 1.50 ± 0.41 mm in length, width, and thickness, respectively. The average… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quantitative trait loci associated with water deficit tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Gutiérrez-Díez A1, GE Salinas-García1, L Iracheta-Donjuan2, JA Torres-Castillo1, N Mayek-Pérez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 203-208, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.203
    Abstract Gene and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) localization in a model species allow to know their organization in the genome, and the possibility for the isolation and cloning of genes with agronomic importance. Seventy-three recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ecotypes Columbia (Col) x Landsberg erecta (Ler) were grown in a greenhouse under contrasting soil moisture conditions (irrigated and water deficits). During their growth, some phenological (days to flowering) and plant growth traits (plant height, and number of nodes and leaves per plant) were measured. Significant differences for plant height and nodes per plant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic variability of nanche in Tabasco, Mexico, determined with RAPDs

    Martínez ME1, JM Lesher G2, G Castañón N2, E de la Cruz L1, C Zapata H2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 209-214, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.209
    Abstract Nanche (Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H.B.K.) grows in the southeastern region of the Mexican republic under both wild and semi-cultivated forms. Despite the importance of the fruit of this tree, only one paper at the molecular level has been published in Mexico, and possibly in America, to date. For this reason, the purpose of this research was to study the genetic variability of nanche trees that grow under both wild and semi-cultivated conditions in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. Molecular determinations were carried out in the Laboratorio de Genómica of the División Académica de Ciencias Biológicas (DACBiológicas), Universidad Juárez Autónoma de… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Advances and perspectives on the gene mapping of root rot resistance in common beans

    Méndez-Aguilar R1, MH Reyes-Valdés2, N Mayek-Pérez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 215-226, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.215
    Abstract Common bean was originated in México, and it is the most important protein source for millions of Mexicans, mainly those with low economic incomes. Grain yield of this crop is mainly affected by several fungal, bacterial and viral diseases. Among them, there are root rot diseases caused by the genera Macrophomina and Fusarium sp. Currently, some molecular biology tools such as DNA molecular markers are being used successfully to develop genetic maps where QTLs and major molecular markers are located, which are linked to genes that confer resistance to these fungi. The importance of the development of genetic maps is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Control of seedling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii using onion broths

    Rivera MC1, ER Wright1, MC Fabrizio2, G Freixá1, R Cabalini1, SE Lopez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 227-234, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.227
    Abstract Damping off is a frequent disease that kills seedlings. Cultural and biological controls are the only tools in organic crops to manage this disease, and only empirical information is available on the efficiency of plant preparations. This work evaluates the effects of fermented onion decoctions on the growth of Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and disease incidence. Broth (B) and sterilized broth (SB) were respectively obtained by boiling chopped yellow onions in water, and incubating for 14 days at room temperature, with or without subsequent sterilization. The pathogens were grown on potato dextrose agar supplemented with B and SB, diluted… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    First report of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Poinsettia mosaic virus (PnMV) in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. Ex Klotzch) in Mexico

    Ocampo Ocampo T1, DL Ochoa Martínez1, S Ramírez Rojas2, G Valdovinos Ponce1, C Nava Díaz1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 235-241, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.235
    Abstract The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), in Zacatepec Morelos, started a genetic improvement program of wild and semi-cultivated poinsettia plants ("nochebuena de sol"). It is important to generate a phytosanitary database that allows the release of new varieties and hybrids that provide tolerance to the major pathogens reported in cultivated poinsettia plants. The phytosanitary status of the “nochebuena de sol” plants is not available in Mexico, so the objective of this research was to generate preliminary data about viruses associated to these materials. Based on DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR results, we reported the presence of the Tobacco… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of plow pan on SPAD value and chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of spring maize

    Li G, FT Yang, XL Jiang, FX Chen, TH Cao, LC Wang
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 243-247, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.243
    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plow pan on the production of spring corn. We evaluated SPAD values and chloroplast ultrastructure in premature ear leaves of spring maize at the grain-filling stage. The maize plants were grown in simulated plow pan or simulated subsoiling treatments. Plants in the simulated plow pan treatment showed irreversible damage to chloroplasts, including changes in chloroplast shape, disintegration and rupture of chloroplast membranes, and blurriness and cloudiness of grana lamellae. The chlorophyll content decreased, which is a typical characteristic of senescence. Subsoiling cultivation practices resulted in chloroplasts with a… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimum temperature and phenological stage for determining cellular membrane thermostability in corn and bean

    Castro Nava S
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 249-254, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.249
    Abstract Identification of plant tolerance to heat requires novel strategies for measuring plant responses to this stress. Leaf electrolyte leakage is an indirect method that can be utilized as selection criteria for heat tolerance in plants, but it has to be adapted to each species. The objectives of this study were to measure heat-induced leaf electrolyte leakage in corn and bean to determine heat tolerant genotypes, and also to establish the optimal developmental stage for use of electrolyte leakage as selection criteria. This study included two genotypes of corn (Zea mays L.), and other two of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), measured… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stability parameters in yield and adaptability for rice 25 genotypes of Campeche, Mexico

    Orona Castro F1, J Medina Méndez1, FM Tucuch Cauich1, JM Soto Rocha1, IH Almeyda León2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 255-261, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.255
    Abstract We conducted a comparative study from 2008 to 2011 to study the adaptability and stability of grain yield of upland rice in two regions of Campeche, Mexico. The individual and combined statistical analysis, showed highly significant differences in grain yield of different genotypes in both regions. The experimental error variance was uniform, both effects of repetition/location and variety/location were highly significant. The results of analysis for grain yield stability parameters showed highly significant effects for 12 treatments, and significant for one. Eighteen genotypes showed a significant variation in the effects of deviation from the regression parameters of stability. The highest… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of tillage system on bread wheat yield and grain quality in the temperate semiarid central zone of La Pampa

    Miravalles MT1, MN Fioretti1, H Mirassón2, ML Faraldo2, L Möck1, RE Brevedan1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 263-273, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.263
    Abstract In the present study the effects of three tillage systems: conventional (CT), vertical (VT) and direct drilling (DD) on three bread wheat varieties of different cycle length, were studied, for yield and yield components. Their influence on grain quality, expressed through thousand kernel weight (TKW, g), test weight (TW, kg/hL), grain protein content (GPC, %) and yellowberry percentage (YBP, %) were also studied. The highest average yield was under CT and DD, while the lowest was under VT. The lowest dry matter accumulation and one third fewer spikes per unit area were determined under VT. Concerning grain quality, a comparatively… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Herbicide combinations to control the weed seedbank in an upland cotton field

    Pereira JR1, AE Duarte2, JB Pitombeira3, MAP da Silva2, NE de M Beltrão1, LM Barros2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 275-279, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.275
    Abstract An experiment was conducted in dryland conditions of the Brazilian Northeast to determine the number of viable weed seeds (seedbank) in an upland cotton crop, and its distribution in the soil profile, before and after using various herbicide treatments. A randomized block design in a split-plot block scheme with 6 replications was used, where the main plots were constituted by a factorial (13 treatments and 2 sampling soil depths), and the subplots by 2 sampling dates. The seedbank was determined by germination of the recovered weed seeds obtained from different soil depths. The highest number of viable weed seeds in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Amelioration of salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by foliar application of phosphorus

    Khan A1, I Ahmad1, A Shah1, F Ahmad2, A Ghani1, M Nawaz1, F Shaheen1, HU Fatima1, F Pervaiz1, S Javed1, F Hayat1, H Nawaz1, R Zubair1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 281-287, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.281
    Abstract Salinity adversely affects physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Plants might have different methods to decrease the harmful effects of salinity, such as the accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant compounds. An experiment was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan to determine the effect of different levels of phosphorus (P) on wheat under saline conditions. Data of shoot and root fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll contents, different ion accumulation and yield components of wheat were collected. When different levels of phosphorus were applied on wheat plant under saline conditions, phosphorus reduced the effect of salinity. Applications… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anatomophysiological modifications induced by solid agricultural waste (vermicompost) in lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Argüello JA, L Seisdedos, MC Díaz Goldfarb, EA Fabio, SB Núñez, A Ledesma
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 289-295, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.289
    Abstract The objective of this work was to analyze the impact of a vermicompost treatment on anatomical and physiological modifications related to assimilate partitioning and growth in lettuce seedlings. The results showed that vermicompost increased growth, which was most likely due to an increased activity of the ground meristem of the leaf blade. A greater height and number of chlorenchyma layers were observed in the leaf blade. This was related to an increase in the photosynthetic activity, expressed by an increase in the net assimilation rate. Vermicompost also showed an effect at the procambium level, producing an increase in the number… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth

    Astiz V1, LF Hernández2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 297-302, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.297
    Abstract During microsporogenesis, sunflower florets might be exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and consequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, and the quantity and quality of pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía Blanca (38° 45’ S; 62° 11’ W) in three planting dates (PD) at a density of 5.6 plants/m2. Flowers were consecutively taken as anthesis progressed, sectorizing the capitulum… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Population biology of Elaeodendron transvaalense Jacq. in the presence of harvesting

    Tshisikhawe MP, MW Van Rooyen
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 303-311, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.303
    Abstract Elaeodendron transvaalense Jacq. is one of the medicinal plant species commonly used by people in the Venda region. The species is known to treat a variety of diseases. It is widely used and important to traditional healers. Because of this, it found its way into the muthi markets, and it is among the seven most commonly traded plant species in the Venda region. This study investigated the impact of bark harvesting on the population structure of this species. The study revealed that although the level of bark harvesting is high, the species is able to resist that stress since it… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Germination and vigour of Crotalaria juncea L. (Fabaceae) seed morphotypes

    Pascualides AL y NS Ateca
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.82, pp. 313-319, 2013, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2013.82.313
    Abstract Crotalaria juncea L. (Fabaceae) is an annual herbaceous species native to India. Their seeds have polymorphism in the seed coat color and different seed sizes. Seeds were grouped according to their seed coat color into uniform (dark gray seeds) and variegated (brown mottled seeds), to evaluate the vigour of C. juncea seed morphotypes. They were also classified into small (< 5mm length) and big seeds (>5 mm length). The 1000 seed weight, germination percentage, length and seedling dry weight, electrical conductivity and field emergence were evaluated. The results showed that uniform seeds had greater weight than those variegated of the… More >

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