Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.85, 2016
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Polymer-based encapsulation of Bacillus subtilis and its effect on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Pacheco-Aguirre J, E Ruiz-Sánchez, A Reyes-Ramírez, J Cristóbal-Alejo, J Tun-Suárez, L Borges-Gómez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 1-6, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.001
    Abstract Antagonistic bacteria used as biological control agent may loss effectiveness at the field due to environmental factors such as UV radiation, dryness and high temperature. An inexpensive alternative to protect antagonistic bacteria against such factors is the use of microencapsulating agents. In this work, the effect of microencapsulation of Bacillus subtilis with commercial gums on their antagonistic capacity against Meloidogyne incognita was evaluated. The efficiency of the microencapsulation was verified by the difference between the initial and final concentrations of protein release. The effectiveness as antagonist was evaluated against M. incognita in tomato under greenhouse conditions. The microcapsules based on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antimicrobial evaluation of extracts obtained from tropical micromycetes against phytopathogens

    Moreno Pérez P1,3, M Gamboa Angulo1, G Heredia2, B Canto Canché1, CM Rodríguez García1, IL Medina Baizabal1, L Peraza Echeverría1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 7-14, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.007
    Abstract Nowadays, it is highly necessary to find more and safer agrochemicals. In this sense, micromycetes are an important source of natural products which could be used to control plant diseases. Therefore with the aims to contribute in this searching of natural products with antimicrobial applications, a total of 49 fungal strains were isolated from the Yucatan Peninsula. These fungi were cultured in fermented rice, their respective organic extracts macerated in ethyl acetate (EAE) and methanol (ME) were obtained and tested against five fungal pathogens of agricultural importance. These included Alternaria chrysanthemi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, and the bacteria Erwinia carotovoraMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Use of diammonium phosphate on wheat grown in southwestern Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Ron MM, T Loewy
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 15-20, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.015
    Abstract In the southwest of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies are important wheat yield limiting factors. There is an information gap regarding differences between single element and binary N-P sources. The objective of this paper was to develop a general model for N-P fertilization in the area that also quantified diammonium phosphate (DAP) effect and its interactions with N-urea, applied at sowing or tillering, as compared with triple superphosphate (TSP). Between 1984 and 1985, 13 experiments were carried out in farmer’s fields N. With the yield data for each experiment, a yield function was fitted which… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quality and capsaicinoid concentration on genotypes of Serrano pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) produced under organic fertilization

    Valadez Sánchez YM1, E Olivares Sáenz1, RE Vázquez Alvarado1, JR Esparza-Rivera3, P Preciado-Rangel4, RD Valdez-Cepeda5, JL García-Hernandez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 21-26, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.021
    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three organic fertilization sources on the agronomic and biochemical qualities of four genotypes of Serrano pepper. The experiment was performed at the field in Gómez Palacio, Durango (México). The capsaicinoids (CAP´s) are compounds responsible of the pungency of the peppers, and they are valuable for health and food and cosmetic food. The organic treatments applied were: solarized bovine manure (60 Mg/ha), vermicompost (10 Mg/ha) and poultry manure (5 Mg/ ha). A non-fertilized treatment was used as control. The evaluated variables were: length, diameter and individual weight on fruits, and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of various continuous cropping times on soil nematode structure in cotton fields of Xinjiang, China

    Li XL1,2, YC Wang3, CA Busso4, JS Xiang1, AM Zhang1, YW Qu1, Y Liu2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 27-35, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.027
    Abstract Long-term continuous cropping of cotton had led to substantial agricultural losses. However, continuous cotton cropping could maintain high crop yields for many years in some areas. The composition and structure of soil nematode communities were investigated to explore the effect of continuous cropping and soil depths on these communities. Soil samples were collected at two soil depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from cotton fields with a history of 5, 10, 15 or 20 years of continuous cotton cropping in the Karamay region. The results showed that 36 genera were found. Significant differences in the numbers of total nematodes and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Productive efficiencies in corn, bean and squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) associations, intercropped with rows of fruit trees

    Molina-Anzures MF1, JL Chávez-Servia2, A Gil-Muñoz1, PA López1, E Hernández-Romero1, E Ortiz-Torres1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 36-50, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.036
    Abstract Mesoamerican agrosystem ‘milpa’ is the association of maize, beans (Phaseolus sp.) and squash (Cucurbits sp.) in the same space and time. It is characterized by the production of a large diversity of species in small areas, but currently its use tends to decrease because of technological introductions of monocultures. In this work, the yield and productive efficiency of the association maize, beans and squash, intercropped with fruit tree rows were evaluated in two locations from Puebla, Mexico, through 32 experimental treatments clustered in three agrosystems. They were: triple associations of maize-beans-squash intercropped with fruit trees, double associations maize-beans without fruit… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Natural pollution (As, F) and eutrofication (N, P) in the basin of El Divisorio stream, Argentina

    Espósito ME1,3, MdelC Blanco1, ME Sequeira2,4, JD Paoloni3, SN Fernández2, NM Amiotti1,4, SL Díaz1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 51-62, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.051
    Abstract The interrelation between hydrochemistry and hydrodinamics was analyzed in the basin of El Divisorio stream. This was to gain undestanding in the magnitude, distribution of toxic ions (As, F) and behaviour in the discharge of main nutrients (P, N) contributing to the eutrofication of Paso de las Piedras Dam. During two years, 47 sites were sampled determining several parameters: geographical position for each sampling point, phreatic level depth, and As, F, PO4 and N-NO3 concentrations. Repeated measures, Fisher test, correlation and regression analysis were applied to all variables. Highly significant space and time differences (P<0.01) with increments of 0.3 m… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of inulin extracted from Mexican wild dahlias (Dahlia coccinea Cav.)

    Santana Legorreta S1, A Villanueva-Carvajal2, EJ Morales-Rosales2, A Laguna-Cerda2, A Dominguez-Lopez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 63-70, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.063
    Abstract The Dahlia (Dahlia coccinea Cav.) is a plant that has been cultivated and genetically improved due to its ornamental importance; anyhow, its radical system accumulates reserve carbohydrates in the form of inulin and other fructans. Inulin is considered a part of the dietetic fiber from vegetable food sources, and it is also considered as a prebiotic compound. Inulin is extracted mainly from chicory and artichoke through different separation methods being Dahlia’s tubers an interesting option for industrial utilization. The aims of this study were to (1) propose a simple extraction method of inulin from Dahlia’s tubers, and (2) evaluate the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phytochemical quality of tomato Saladette produced with organic substrates under greenhouse conditions

    González B ML1, M Fortis H1, P Preciado R1, MA Segura C1, E Salazar Sosa1, JL García H2, JR Esparza R3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 71-78, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.071
    Abstract The aim of the current study was to evaluate yield and phytochemical quality of tomato fruits produced using organic substrates under greenhouse conditions. The applied treatments (organic substrates) were: T1 (80% River sand + 20% Vermicompost; T2 (90% River sand + 10% Compost); T3 Steiner Solution (80% River sand + 20% Perlite); T4 (80% River sand + 5% Soil + 15% Vermicompost); T5 (85% River sand + 15% Treated manure), and T6 (80% River sand + 5% Soil + 15% Treated manure). We used a totally randomized experimental design, with four replicate treatments. Evaluated variables were: yield, relative content of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimized enzyme-assisted microwave extraction and potential inhibitory action against α-glucosidase of polysaccharides from sweet corncobs

    Ma YQ, X Wang, SH Gao, J Zhang
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 79-86, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.079
    Abstract The conditions for extracting polysaccharides from sweet corncobs (SCP) were studied. Four parameters (ratio of water to raw material, compound enzyme concentration, temperature of enzymolysis and duration of enzymolysis) affecting the extraction of SCP were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized conditions, the yield of SCP was 17.58 %. SCP had inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, and the IC50 was 20.91 mg/mL and 12.47 mg/mL. SCP may therefore have prevention and treatment effects on postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes. The inhibitory effects of SCP were improved after fractionation, and were strongest in the fraction SCP80. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro plant regeneration via indirect organogenesis from different explants of Lathyrus sativus L. and Lathyrus cicera L.

    Li RS1, YJ Tao2, FJ Liu2, X Hu2, QL Xu2, KY Li2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 87-93, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.087
    Abstract The grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) and flatpod peavine (Lathyrus cicera L.) are the most economically important and widely cultivated Lathyrus species. However, their utilization is limited due to the presence of their endogenous toxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Thus, a β-ODAP free variety should be developed through some plant breeding technique like either mutational breeding or genetic-manipulation. In this circumstance, the plant regeneration of Lathyrus species becomes a bottleneck. In the present study, an efficient system for in vitro regeneration of L. sativus with high β-ODAP levels, and L. cicera with low β-ODAP levels, was developed from different explants… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Aboveground biomass and concentration of nutrients in semiarid rangeland plant species: Influence of grazing and soil moisture

    Gul B1, M Islam2, S Ahmad3, S Gul1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 94-99, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.094
    Abstract Spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground biomass and nutritive value of rangeland species with respect to the influence of grazing and soil moisture were investigated. The research was conducted during two years at the Tomagh Research Station, near Sanjawi, Ziarat District, Balochistan, Pakistan. This area is protected from grazing since 1998; however, some of the area is open for grazing. Three sites were selected for research purposes: a protected plain, a protected hilly, and an unprotected plain grazed area. Sampling was carried out during the spring, summer and autumn seasons. Results revealed that soil moisture was greater at the protected… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nitrogen deposition influences the response of Potentilla tanacetifolia to phosphorus addition

    Yang G1,2, Z Zhang1, G Zhang3, H Zhang2, X Han3, CA Busso4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 100-107, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.100
    Abstract Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for all living plants and plant production. Simultaneously, atmospheric nitrogen deposition also affects plant productivity at a global scale. However, few studies have investigated how plants respond to P addition while simultaneously considering N deposition. We investigated plant biomass, nutrient status and stoichiometric ratios on Potentilla tanacetifolia in response to P fertilization under contrasting N addition rates in a typical meadow steppe in Inner Mongolia, China. Aboveground biomass of P. tanacetifolia increased under increasing levels of P fertilization under conditions of N addition. However, there was no significant change in biomass when only phosphorus was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Glyphosate retention in grassland riparian areas is reduced by the invasion of exotic trees

    Giaccio GCM1, P Laterra2, VC Aparicio3, JL Costa3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 108-116, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.108
    Abstract In this study, we examined some aspects regarding the effect of willow trees (Salix fragilis L.) invasion of grassland riparian environments in the Argentinean Pampas on the runoff reduction, sedimentation and glyphosate retention in the riparian vegetation strip (RVS). To assess the influence of willows on the filtering mechanisms, we performed runoff simulation experiments in plots of 1.5 x 2.5 m, in coastal environments characterized by the presence of willows or the lack of trees. Despite the short length of the experimental plots, the retention of glyphosate in the controls, with no trees, was higher and reached almost 74%. Nevertheless,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Dynamic growth of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) on a substrate based on vermicompost in the greenhouse

    Orozco V JA1, E Galindo P2, MA Segura C1, M Fortis H1, P Preciado R1, P Yescas C1, JA Montemayor T1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 117-124, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.117
    Abstract The aim of this study was to establish the dynamics of growth and allocation of photosynthates in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) cultivated in a semiarid region under greenhouse conditions and in an organic substrate. Squash seeds were sown in two substrates (one mineral and other organic). The first consisted of a mixture of sand and pumice on a volume basis, while the organic consisted of sand and pumice mixed with vermicompost, both in plastic pots. The substrates were for two treatments [Inorganic (IT) and Organic Treatment (OT)] with sixteen repetitions on a completely randomized design. After emergence, plants were fertilized… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Total aboveground plant biomass is more strongly affected by climate than species diversity on a grassland in Liaoning, China

    Zhou C1,2, C Busso3, J Liu1, YG Yang1, Y Sun1, YZ Fang1, QQ Zhang1, YB Zhou1,4, YN Wang1,4, Z Zhang4,5, ZW Wang6, YF Yang2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 125-130, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.125
    Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between total aboveground plant biomass versus altitude, latitude, longitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, and species diversity. Simple linear regression analysis was used to study these relationships. Results showed that altitude was significantly, positively (R2= 0.038, P<0.01) related with total plant aboveground biomass. Meanwhile, when longitude (R2= 0.124, P<0.001) and latitude (R2= 0.221, P<0.001) increased, total aboveground biomass decreased. The relationship between biomass and mean annual precipitation was significantly, positively linear (R2= 0.149, P<0.001). Mean annual temperature was significantly, negatively correlated with biomass (R2= 0.145, P<0.001). The relationship between… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Geographical differentiation of wild pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) populations from northwestern Mexico

    López-España RG1, S Hernández-Verdugo1, S Parra-Terraza1, F Porras1, Antonio Pacheco-Olvera1, A Valdez-Ortiz2, T Osuna-Enciso3, MD Muy-Rangel3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 131-141, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.131
    Abstract Wild pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. glabriusculum) is a valuable genetic resource for food and agriculture. The patterns of variation of 12 morphological traits of 17 populations of wild pepper collected across a latitudinal and climate gradients in northwestern Mexico were analyzed in a uniform greenhouse experiment. The morphological traits data were axamined by univariate and multivarite analysis. The relationship between phenotypic variation and latitude of population origen was tested using linear regression analysis. We found high variation within and among populations for most of the measured traits. Populations were clearly differentiated by univariate analysis of variance and principal component… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nutrient characteristics of throughfall and stemflow in the natural forest of Pinus densata in the Tibetan plateau

    Lu J1,2, SX Zhang1*, JP Fang2, WL Zheng2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 142-148, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.142
    Abstract Precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were monitored and collected through the rainy season on a natural forest ecosystem of Pinus densata in the Gongbu Nature Reserve in Tibet. The concentrations of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, S, Zn and Cu were analyzed in the precipitation, throughfall and stemflow waters, Thereafter, and according to the amount of water of precipitation, throughfall and stemflow, the net input was calculated for each nutrient in the forest. The results showed that: (1) During the entire rainy season, the average concentration of different nutrients in the precipitation of the Pinus densata forest… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes in soil organic carbon in the upper Heihe river basin, China

    Qin YY1,2, F Qi1, NM Holden3, JJ Cao4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 149-154, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.149
    Abstract The Heihe River Basin is a globally significant carbon pool, but its soil organic carbon dynamics is poorly understood. Soil samples taken between 2500 m and 4100 m revealed that the majority (>75%) of soil organic carbon was from 0-40 cm. It showed a negative relationship with pH and soil bulk density, and a positive relationship with altitude and soil water content, respectively. From 2005 to 2011, soil carbon content in the upper catchment decreased from 93 g/kg to 53 g/kg. These results suggest that policies should aim to reduce carbon loss by transferring it from the top- to the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The uptake of cadmium by Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. and its effects on chromosome and nucleolar behavior in root tip cells

    Wang QL, DH Liu, JY Yue
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 155-161, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.155
    Abstract Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. seedlings are sensitive to Cd stress. We used fluorescence imaging to indicate that Cd2+ was localized in cytoplasm in the epidermis of the basal parts of root and vascular tissues after Cd treatment. The nucleoli and the cell walls were the first storage sites of Cd2+. When Cd exposure was prolonged, severe irregularly-shaped nuclei were induced. We used silver nitrate staining to analyze the effects of different concentrations (1–300 μM) of cadmium chloride on chromosome, nucleolus and nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in root tip cells. Cd2+ induced c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness and micronuclei. More… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    An effective method for estimation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) crown root numbers at the heading stage in saline-sodic soils of Northeast China

    Liu M1,2, Z-W Liang*1,2, L-H Huang1,2, M-M Wang1,2, H-Y Yang1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 162-168, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.162
    Abstract Saline-sodic stress is a major abiotic constraint responsible for rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield reductions in Northeast China. The rice root system is crucial for yield development, and it is usually recognized as the key for improving future crop productivity. However, most of the saline-sodic soils in these areas contain high levels of soluble Na2CO3 and NaHCO3, which results in a high pH (>8.5), clay dispersion, soil swelling, and overall poor soil physical properties. Isolation, washing and measurement of the rice crown roots is highly time-demanding in this kind of soil. Our aim was to explore whether differences in shoot… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    AFLP polymorphism in restored provenances of Ceiba aesculifolia within an urban heat island

    Olvera-Mendoza EI1, SI Lara-Cabrera1, C Sáenz-Romero2, R Lindig-Cisneros3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 169-175, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.169
    Abstract To quantify the effect on genetic diversity of restoring tree populations in an area under the influence of an urban heat island, we evaluated the genetic diversity of 72 Ceiba aesculifolia individuals, from a restoration experiment established from 2170 to 2260 m a.s.l. Reintroduced individuals were compared with the provenance from which the seeds were obtained, and two external provenances, for a total of 123 individuals. Samples were analyzed with three AFLP primer combinations. Polymorphisms of 38.4 to 62.5% were obtained. Genetic diversity estimated with the Simpson index ranged from 0.14 to 0.2. The provenances in the restoration site had… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic diversity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) from Central Mexico revealed by morphological and RAPD markers

    Valera-Montero LL, PJ Muñoz-Rodríguez, H Silos-Espino, S Flores-Benítez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 176-183, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.176
    Abstract Guava fruit produced in Calvillo, Aguascalientes (Mexico) is considered to be of the best quality in this country. Nevertheless, growers from this place empirically know that there is a noticeable variation among individual trees within the same orchard, and variation among individuals from different orchards. In order to have a clear evidence of this, morphology analysis of guava was performed taking data from seventy nine individuals out of thirty six orchards, while RAPD was performed on a subset of twenty six individuals. Similarity was found for morphology data ranging from 87-100%, while similarity from RAPD data ranged from 30- 100%.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    SCAR molecular markers to identify disease resistance sources in ayocote beans (Phaseolus coccineus)

    Ruíz-Salazar R1, JS Muruaga-Martínez2, MLP Vargas-Vázquez2, G Alejandre-Iturbide4, G Castañón-Nájera3, S Hernández-Delgado1, N Almaraz-Abarca4, N Mayek-Pérez1,5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 184-193, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.184
    Abstract In order to identify genes of resistance to four diseases that affect Phaseolus sp. [i.e, Common Bacterial Blight (CBB), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV), Bean Golden Mosaic Virus (BGMV) and angular leaf spot (ALS)], we amplified nine SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions) markers: four linked to resistance to common blight, two for BCMV, two for BGMV and one for ALS. The genetic material included 16 ayocote bean (P. coccineus) populations collected from different locations at Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico. Populations from Veracruz showed greater number of SCARs for BGMV and ALS compared with populations from Puebla. The best P. coccineusMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selection strategies of full-sib families in two landraces corn populations

    Rodríguez Pérez G1 F Zavala García1, A Gutiérrez Diez1, JE Treviño Ramírez1, MC Ojeda Zacarías1, M Mendoza Elos2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 194-202, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.194
    Abstract The objective of this study were to estimate selection, simultaneous selection of independent characters, and genetics gain, in a recurrent selection program of full-sib families in two corn populations. We evaluated 81 families under irrigation of two native populations of Pinto Amarillo of maize numbers "15" and "45" at the experimental field of the Faculty of Agronomy of the UANL, México. The experimental design was a 9x9 alfa-lattice with three replications; the study variables included plant height, ear height, days to male and female flowering, grain yield, ear length, ear diameter and number of rows per ear. The selection indexes… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Early testing of S1 lines of maize

    Salinas Jiménez V, JC Raya Pérez, CL Aguirre Mancilla, F Chablé Moreno, JG Ramírez Pimentel, G García Rodríguez, J Covarrubias Prieto
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 203-209, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.203
    Abstract Eighty S1 maize (Zea mays L.) lines derived from halfsib families with good yield potential (greater than landraces in the region) were evaluated, with the purpose of selecting outstanding lines. Native populations are a source of germplasm for genetic improvement through selection and hybridization. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences between the lines S1 in the variables days to anthesis (FM), silking date (FF), plant height (Apl), ear height (Amz), leaves above ear (NHEmz), ear length (Lmz), row number (Nhil), kernels per row (Ghil), total kernels per ear (TGmz) and grain yield (Rend). All variables showed high variability, an… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of a transgenic versus a conventional maize (Zea mays)

    Vital-López L, MA Cruz-Hernández, S Fernández-Dávila, A Mendoza-Herrera
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 210-217, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.210
    Abstract Genetically modified crops could cause negative effects on bacterial communities. In this study, we compared the bacterial community structure of two maize cultivars to determine whether the transgenic cultivar exerts a negative effect on bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere. Cultivars included the genetically modified maize (Zea mays), with the pat-gene conferring resistance to the herbicide glufosinate (synonym: L-phosphinothricin), and the hybrid, conventional maize. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the rhizosphere of plants grown in a greenhouse. Single-strand conformation polymorphism, based on polymerase chain reaction amplifying a partial subunit rRNA gene was used to characterize and generate genetic profiles that corresponded… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antibacterial activity of avocado extracts (Persea americana Mill.) against Streptococcus agalactiae

    Cardoso PF1, JA Scarpassa1, LG Pretto-Giordano2, ES Otaguiri3, SF Yamada-Ogatta3, G Nakazato3, MRE Perugini4, IC Moreira5, GT Vilas-BÔas1*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 218-224, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.218
    Abstract Plants contain numerous constituents and are valuable sources of new biologically active molecules. Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is cultivated and used as food in most tropical and subtropical countries. Its high nutritional value and biological activities, as antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic properties, have been thoroughly investigated. Interest in plant extracts with antimicrobial properties has increased as a result of the indiscriminate use of antibiotics, leading to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Among bacterial species with clinical importance to multiple hosts, Streptococcus agalactiae is outstanding, as it can cause infections especially in humans, fish and cattle. The current study aimed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bacteria with capacities of production of biosurfactants isolated from native plants of Baja California, México

    Méndez-Trujillo V1, M Carrillo-Beltrán1, B Valdez-Salas1, D Gonzalez-Mendoza2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 225-230, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.225
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to isolate autochthonous microorganisms with biosurfactants capacities from the rhizospere of the cotton (Gossypium spp.), cachanilla (Pluchea sericea) and salicornia (Salicornia bigelovii) in the Mexicali valley. The biosurfactant activity and biosurfactant productions by the strains isolated from the rhizosphere of the cotton (Bs-Alg), cachanilla (Bs-Cach) and salicornia (Bs-Cach01) were determined using oil spreading technique and emulsification activity with corn, olive, soybean and diesel oils, respectively. The analysis of the 16S rRNA showed that strains Bs-Alg, Bs-Cach and Bs-Cach01 are closely related among them and with respect to all Bacillus subtilis with more than… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Turnip mosaic virus infecting kale plants in Ordu, Turkey

    Sevik MA
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 231-235, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.231
    Abstract Brassica oleracea var. acephala L. (kale) is widely grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Kale growing has not been common in the other regions of Turkey. A number of diseases can seriously affect Brassica crop production. Field surveys were done to determine the occurrence of viruses in kale-growing areas in Ordu in 2013-2014. Leaf samples were collected from kale plants and tested for the presence of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by DAS-ELISA and bioassays. Result of serological and biological tests showed that 7.7% of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Spatial distribution and population fluctuation of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) in rose crops

    Chacón-Hernández J1, E Cerna-Chávez2, Y Ochoa-Fuentes2, A Hernández-Juárez2, L Palacios-Bazaldúa2, J Landeros-Flores2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 236-245, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.236
    Abstract Spatial and vertical distributions, and population !uctuations of Tetranychus urticae and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis were determined in four varieties of rose (Royal, Samuray, Red Baiser and Keiro) under greenhouse conditions. Nine samples for the pest and 8 samples for the predator were obtained. From 20 September to 18 November 2013, T. urticae and P. persimilis presented an aggregated distribution pattern during most of the sampling dates. At the same time, P. persimilis did not change the vertical distribution of T. urticae. A synchronous behavior between both predator and prey was observed in the four study varieties, although only the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    First report of lemon verbena crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum in Iran

    Moshrefi Zarandi D1, MM Aminaee2, S Rezaee3, A Sharzei4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 246-248, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.246
    Abstract Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a medicinal plant from the Verbenacea family. Its plantation and medicinal use in Iran has risen greatly in recent years. Crown and root rot symptoms were observed on this plant in some farms and greenhouses of Kerman province during November 2012. The infected plants were taken to the laboratory. Then, samples of infected root tissues were removed and were surface sterilized with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and cultured onto CMA-PARPH medium. Based on morphological features, the isolated fungus was identified as Phytophthora cactorum. Pathogenicity test was performed using inoculated wheat seeds. To our knowledge this is… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification, population dynamics and parasitism of aphids in pecan in the Comarca Lagunera, Mexico

    Ávila-Rodríguez V1, CA Vacio-Fraga1, U Nava-Camberos2, C Márquez-Hernández1, C García de la Peña1, V Olalde-Portugal3, JL García-Hernández2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 249-255, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.249
    Abstract Pecan Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch is one of the most important crops in northern Mexico. In the Comarca Lagunera, during 2013, the pecan acre age was 7075 ha, a nut production of 8648 ton, and a value of US$ 29.9 million (US$ 4230/ha). The aphids Monellia caryella Fitch., Monelliopsis pecanis Bissell and Melanocallis caryaefoliae Davis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are among the most important insect pests associated with the pecan. The objectives of this study were to identify the species of aphids, determine their population dynamics and parasitism, in pecan orchards with different insect pest management programs, in the Comarca Lagunera.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variation in susceptibility to insecticides in Bemisia tabaci biotype B fed on different hosts

    Cerna-Chávez E1, Y Martínez-Martínez2, J Landeros-Flores1, L Aguirre-Uribe1, V Sánchez-Valdes1, M Cepeda-Siller1, O Hernández-Bautista2, YM Ochoa-Fuentes*1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 256-261, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.256
    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennaadius) biotype B is one of the most important pests due to the number of hosts and economic losses it produces. Its control is based on the application of chemicals, which has led to resistance problems. However, the host may also influence the induction of resistance to pesticides. Therefore, the present study evaluated the susceptibility of populations of B. tabaci biotype B developed indifferent hosts to three insecticides belonging to different toxicological groups. Bemisia tabaci biotype B populations were collected and reared in six different hosts (three crops and three associated weeds: Solanum lycopersicum, Solanum nigrum, Phaseolus vulgaris,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selenium invoked antioxidant defense system in Azolla caroliniana plant

    Hassan AMA, EM Mostafa
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 262-269, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.262
    Abstract Plants of Azolla caroliniana were treated with different selenium concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 10 ppm) for seven days. Selenium (Se) content in Azolla plants increased significantly with increasing Se concentrations in the culture media up to 5 ppm. This indicated that Azolla plants were a good accumulator for Se. Selenium accumulation determined changes in Azolla biomass, doubling time and relative growth rates. Treatment of Azolla plants with low concentrations of Se (1 ppm) resulted in a significant increase in biomass. This was accompanied by a reduction in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents; the decrease percentages were 78%… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological responses of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. plants to Cadmium stress

    Wang QL, DH Liu, JY Yue
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 270-282, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.270
    Abstract This study aimed to determine the effects of different Cd concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100, and 300 μM CdCl2) on Allium plantlets. To achieve this goal, we examined the (1) dynamics of Cd2+ flux in the rhizosphere, (2) partitioning of Cd between roots and leaves, (3) formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), (4) levels of H2O2 and chlorophyll, and (5) translocation of several macro- and micronutrients. A strong net Cd2+ influx was observed in the root apex after exposure to 100 μM Cd for 24 h. Exposure to either 1 or 10 μM Cd for 96 h presented no evident… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Silicon-mediated alleviation of Cadmium toxicity on Thujopsis dolabrata

    Huang YC1, H Chen1, WJ Zhao2, WD Li1, HY Yang1, Y Sun1, L Wang1, SH Cao1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 283-290, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.283
    Abstract We conducted pot experiments on the cypress Thujopsis dolabrata (Linn. f.) Sieb. et Zucc. in order to study the interaction of silicon (Si) and root exudates on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in the rhizosphere,. Each variety was planted with 100 mg/kg Cd and/or 400 mg/kg Si for 210 days. The results showed that adding Si increased Cd tolerance in T. dolabrata, but that the mechanism was specifical. In T. dolabrata, Si did not prevent Cd translocation from roots to shoots, and it significantly enhanced Cd accumulation without inhibiting growth. Moreover, Si mobilized Cd from the rhizospheric soil by stimulating phenolic exudation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Is the abaxial palisade parenchyma in phyllaries of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) capitulum a missing trait in modern genotypes?

    Hernández LF1,2, MV Rosetti1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 291-296, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.291
    Abstract The involucral bracts (IB or phyllaries) of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) capitulum constitute an example of photosynthesizing organs that contribute to the photosynthesis budget during the generation of crop yield. The anatomy of IB was analyzed in two domesticated primitive sunflower genotypes, Havasupai and Hopi, in the sunflower line HA89B, in the wild Helianthus annuus ssp. annuus, in the sunflower male-fertile line R013 and in the commercial hybrid DKOP3845. Stomata and trichomes were counted on the adaxial and abaxial epidermis. In all cases, the IB showed a one-layered adaxial and abaxial epidermis, secretory ducts and parenchymatic cells with abundant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Floral differentiation and growth rhythm of rhizome buds of the spring ephemeroid plant Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde

    Liu XL1,2, JH Li2,3, JY Zhu2, YF Yang1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 297-304, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.297
    Abstract Spring ephemeroid plants complete their aboveground reproduction and growth during the short growing season, and may go dormant subsequently underground. Little is known about the underground dormancy and biological activities of the plants. In this study, we observed organogenesis and growth rhythm of rhizome buds of Adonis amurensis Regel et Radde, a spring ephemeroid plant from the Changbai Mountains in northeastern China. Our results showed that A. amurensis did not go through summer dormancy, but started producing mixed buds on rhizomes soon after the aboveground parts had died. The buds grew in length and diameter following an exponential model with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The cover-management factor (C) on woodlands of the hilly areas of the Loess Plateau in North China

    Wei TX1, YH Liu2,1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 305-313, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.305
    Abstract Soil erosion is one of most serious environmental and production problems on the Loess Plateau in China. The objectives of this study were to quantify the influence of forest vegetation on soil erosion on slope areas in the Loess Plateau. This was made by using the subfactor method to calculate the vegetation cover management factor (C) of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Proper local subfactor parameter values were obtained to offer a theoretical basis and practical guidance for studying the relationship between vegetation and soil erosion on the Loess Plateau. Three subfactors including prior land use (PLU), canopy cover… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Germination of Gutierrezia solbrigii and Senecio subulatus, endemic Asteraceae from Argentina

    Masini ACA1, AE Rovere1, GI Pirk1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 314-323, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.314
    Abstract Asteraceae is the most diverse family of vascular plants in the world and the most numerous in Argentina, with 26% of endemic species. Many Asteraceae are pioneer species facilitating the establishment of other species, and several have been employed in restoration. Knowing the characteristics of seeds and their germination is crucial to employ them in restoration projects; hence this study explored basic physiological aspects of the germination of Gutierrezia solbrigii Cabrera and Senecio subulatus D. Don ex Hook. & Arn. var. erectus Hook. & Arn., two endemic shrubs of Argentina, distributed in arid Patagonia. Seeds came from the Reserva Provincial… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Floristic and structural characterization of the southernmost natural population of Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill. in Chile

    Flores S1, A Promis2, L Faúndez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 324-332, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.324
    Abstract Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill. (Chilean palm) is an endemic species in Chile. It has been classified as a vulnerable species because of the reduction and the fragmentation of its population numbers, the exploitation of the palms for the production of syrup, the indiscriminate harvest of seed for human consumption, and the reduction of the accompanying native vegetation cover. The southernmost limit of its natural distribution is located in Palmas de Tapihue (Pencahue, Maule region). The objective of this study was to benchmark the conservation status of this population and its accompanying vegetation. The population of J. chilensis in Tapihue was… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Review of extinction risk in African Cycads

    Bamigboye SO, PM Tshisikhawe, PJ Taylor
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.85, pp. 333-336, 2016, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2016.85.333
    Abstract Over a long period of time, cycads endemic to Africa have been facing high risk of extinction. Several conservation efforts have been made to reduce the risk of losing these highly endangered species. In this study we review the current risk of extinction of all African cycads species. We calculated the percentages of each category of species found in African cycads using the IUCN (International Union of Conservation of Nature) red list of threatened species 2014 version. We compared our result with that of Donaldson (2003) on percentages of different categories of IUCN for cycads in Africa which was carried… More >

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