Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.77, 2008
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Water stress and forage production in Tetrachne dregei Nees, Panicum coloratum L. and Eragrostis curvula (Schrad) Nees

    Ruiz1 MA, AD Golberg1,2, O Martínez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 7-20, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.007
    Abstract Tetrachne dregei, Panicum coloratum and Eragrostis curvula are perennial forage C4 grasses, introduced from South Africa to the pampean semiarid region. This work was carried out to compare water stress tolerance; forage production and quality of T. dregei, P. coloratum and E. curvula. Studies were conducted under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse, watering was stopped after eighty one days of plant emergency in the water stress treatment. Water potential (ψ), stomatal resistance (SR) and shoot and root weights were evaluated. Under water stress, ψ diminished earlier and SR increases were higher in P. coloratum than in T. dregeiMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phototoxic compounds and biological activity of extracts from Eupatorium morifolium Mill. (Asteraceae)

    Pérez-Amador1 MC, V Muñoz Ocotero1, F García Jiménez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 21-29, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.021
    Abstract Leaves of Eupatorium morifolium Mill. were analyzed for phototoxic compounds, and the toxicity of their hexane extract was evaluated against Bacillus subtilis. The phototoxic compounds were analyzed by TLC. In the plate, pale blue spots indicated the presence of these compounds. This was confirmed by the UV extract spectrum and the antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis. The biological activity of the leaf extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate or methanol) was also studied. The antiinflammatory activity was determined using the edema test on mouse ears, and the bactericide activity was assayed against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. A strong anti-inflammatory activity was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Soil drying rate and gas exchange of three Phaseolus vulgaris L. varieties

    Aguirre-Medina1 JF, J Kohashi-Shibata2, J Cadena-Iñiguez2, C Avendaño-Arrazate2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 31-48, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.031
    Abstract Intermittent drought is the main limiting factor for bean production in Mexico. The root system of three bean varieties of different origin and tolerance to water stress was exposed to different drying soil rates. The synthetic varieties were: Pinto Villa (PV, water stress tolerant) and Bayo Madero (BM, water stress susceptible) both of mesoamerican origin and growth habit type III (climbing habit), and ICA Palmar (water stress tolerant) of Andean origin and growth habit type I (shrub). Treatments were three soil drying rates, which were achieved by stopping irrigation and either maintaining or removing the pot cover made with PVC… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stability of protein patterns in coffee seedlings regenerated by somatic embryogenesis

    Menéndez-Yuffá1 A, L Ríos-Bolívar2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 49-64, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.049
    Abstract Regeneration and multiplication of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) through somatic embryogenesis can be efficiently achieved through different methods. However, it is very important to analyze the progenies obtained by these methods in order to establish their genetic stability. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine the protein electrophoretic patterns in leaves of coffee vitroplants which were regenerated through somatic embryogenesis, and (2) to compare these patterns with those of the explant donor plants. The protein patterns of some coffee genotypes were initially determined to detect possible differences among them. Each analyzed genotype showed a characteristic set of protein… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic and resistance stability to Black Sigatoka disease during micropopagation of Musa CIEN BTA-03 somaclonal variant

    Giménez1 C, E de García2, O Haddad3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 65-79, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.065
    Abstract Evaluation of clonal micropropagation and phenotype stability of elite somaclones are critical steps for development of new varieties. In the present work somaclon variant CIEN BTA-03 (resistant to Black Sigatoka), obtained through in vitro process from cultivar Williams (susceptible to Black Sigatoka), was micropropagated via apical shoot culture for five multiplication cycles in 0.5 mg/l of benzyl-aminopurine (BA). To verify the genetic stability of the progeny of this elite material, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used. A total of 5,292 monomorphic bands were obtained from the amplification of fifty six DNA samples (extracted from vitroplants randomly selected) with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological and genetic characteristics allow the identification of a collection of garlic cultivars in the North-Central region of Mexico

    Azuara Hernández1 L, H Silos Espino1, C Perales Segovia1, JF Gómez Leyva2, AG Alpuche Solís3, LM Macias Valdez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 81-91, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.081
    Abstract The objective of this study was to compare the yield and genetic relationships between two Perla garlic selections, obtained by individual selection of cloves, and commercial varieties and cultivars adapted to diverse regions of Mexico (which did not have a selection process). Varieties with fewer cloves showed higher yields. Coreano and California produced 20 ton/ha (fresh weight) and Perla selections between 17-19 ton/ha (fresh weight). Six primers of the series OPB were tested for genetic characterization and OPB-17 was selected. With the amplified DNA fragments, a bina-ry matrix was generated; afterwards, a dissimilarity matrix and dendrogram were developed. High genetic… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Plant micropropagation in experimental lines of forage maize coming from crossing Zea mays L. and Zea diploperennis Iltis, Doebley and Guzmán

    Torroba MC, HA Paccapelo, L Aguilera, J Mazzola
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 93-102, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.093
    Abstract An optimized methodology for improving regeneration of maize plants by direct organogenesis was evaluated. Our objective was to embarobtain genetically homogeneous plants through in vitro methods to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots from shoot tips at high frequency. Cultures were initiated from shoot tips of experimental lines of maize on a Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l benziladenine. Two experimental forage maize lines were used, in which two frequencies of subcultures were evaluated, namely line L. 850 (every 15 or 30 days) and line L.769 (every 30 days). It was observed that the highest rate of regeneration… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biological activity of phototoxic compounds in Bidens squarrosa H.B.K. (Asteraceae)

    Pérez-Amador1 MC, V Muñoz Ocotero1, F García Jiménez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 103-111, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.103
    Abstract Phototoxic compounds (polyacetylenes and thiophenes) and their biological activity were determined on Bidens squarrosa plants by measuring their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory potential. Phototoxic compounds were extracted with hexane, characterized by TLC, and their presence confirmed by U.V. spectrum of their extracts and bactericidal potential. Antibacterial activity of the hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts was measured against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, and their antiinflammatory potential was determined by the mouse ear edema test. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Quantitative measures of leaf epidermal cells as a taxonomic and phylogenetic tool for the identification of Stanhopea species (Orchidaceae)

    Foroughbakhch R, RJ Ferry Sr, JL Hernández-Piñero, MA Alvarado-Vázquez, A Rocha-Estrada
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 113-127, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.113
    Abstract Orchids of the genus Stanhopea are currently identified only by their floral structure characteristics. A statistical analysis of a significant number of species of this genus disclosed that measurements of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cell surface areas can be correlated with specific recognized species by a leaf printing method. This allows an objectively either positive or nearly positive confirmation of the identity of a species in the absence of flowers and without damage to plants. When ordering the mean values obtained for these surface areas in each species in a decreasing order, a correlation was observed in a hierarchical way… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Diagnosis of the microbiological quality of fruits and vegetables in Chihuahua, Mexico

    Ávila-Quezada1* G, E Sánchez1, E Muñoz1, LR Martínez2, E Villalobos2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 129-136, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.129
    Abstract We determined the microbiological quality of the most important fruits and vegetables in Chihuahua State (Mexico) to know the potential risks and apply prevention strategies prior to their consumption. Samples of jalapeño, bell and serrano pepper, cantaloupe, saladet and grape tomato, peach and Golden and Starkimson apple and of well, channel, irrigation and drinking water, as well as that for washing in packing were analyzed to determine Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, total and fecal coliforms, fungi and yeasts. Determinations were made following the methodology indicated by the Mexican regulations (NOM-111-SSA1-1994). Sampling was made in the whole Chihuahua State during the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of four vermicomposts on growth of Digitaria eriantha plants

    Giulietti1 AL, OM Ruiz1, HE Pedranzani1, O Terenti1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 137-149, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.137
    Abstract In this paper, the effects of four vermicomposts are analyzed on a variety of growth and development parameters of Digitaria eriantha cv. Mejorada INTA. The vermicomposts used originated from cow, horse, goat and hen feaces combined with pure soil in the following proportions: T1: 0% worm humus + 100% soil; T2: 50% worm humus + 50% soil, and T3: 100% worm humus + 0% soil. Digitaria eriantha seeds were sown in trays which were kept under controlled light and moisture conditions. After the third week of treatment, the number of germinated seeds, and both leaf and root length and dry… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reproduction of Pavonia cymbalaria (Malvaceae), a native species with ornamental potential

    Torres, YA1, MA Long2, SM Zalba1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 151-160, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.151
    Abstract Pavonia cymbalaria A. St.-Hil. & Naudin (Malvaceae) is a native species of the southern mountains in the Province of Buenos Aires. Its morphological characteristics become it as a potential candidate for ornamental use. Crop requirements and seed germination were evaluated for this species in this study. Different treatments were applied to 640 mericarps: removal of carpel residues, mechanical scarification or exposition of mericarps and nude seeds to cold conditions. An untreated control was used for each of these treatments. Germination only occurred on nude seeds; this implies the existence of an extrinsic dormancy imposed by the harsh mericarp which covers… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of heat conditioning on chilling injury susceptibility of Persian lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka)

    Bosquez Molina1 E, J Domínguez Soberanes1, L Perez Flores2, S Bautista Baños3, F Díaz de León Sánchez2, F Rivera-Cabrera2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 161-174, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.161
    Abstract Cold storage is one of the most important technologies used to maintain the postharvest quality of many horticultural commodities. However, cold storage is restricted for Persian lime because of its susceptibility to chilling injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of high temperature conditioning on the susceptibility to chilling injury in Persian lime (Citrus latifolia Tanaka). It was harvested in Martínez de la Torre, Veracruz, Mexico, and stored at different refrigeration temperatures. After harvesting, fruits received the following treatments: (1) hot water conditioning (53 °C during 3 min); (2) hot air conditioning (38 °C, 90-95 %… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Saturation of a durum wheat genetic map and detection of QTL associated to lipoxygenase activity

    Picca1 A, P Roncallo1, A Carrera1, G Cervigni1, R. Miranda2, V Echenique1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 175-188, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.175
    Abstract The aims of this work were (1) the saturation of a linkage map of durum wheat using AFPLs and RAPDs, (2) mapping of QTL related to lipoxygenase activity and (3) estimation of its usefulness in marker-assisted selection to increase pasta colour. A mapping population of 83 recombinant lines (RILs) derived from the cross between durum wheat Kofa and UC1113 (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) was evaluated for lipoxygenase activity during two growing seasons. It was used to generate a genetic map. Forty four AFLPs, 9 RAPDs, 2 isoenzymes and 1 storage protein were mapped onto a previous genetic map consisting… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sampling and characterization of pepper chilli (Capsicum spp) in Tabasco, Mexico

    Castañón-Nájera2 G, L Latournerie-Moreno3, M Mendoza-Elos4, A Vargas-López5, H Cárdenas-Morales6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 189-202, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.189
    Abstract A morphological characterization in situ of Capsicum spp was made in 13 localities in the state of Tabasco, México, during 2004 and 2005. The objective was to sample and identify different morphotypes of chilli pepper which grow under wild and cultivated conditions. Eleven chilli pepper morphotypes were found. Most of them were wild (Amashito, Corazón de pollo, Muela, Garbanzo, Garbanzo raro and Desconocido) and corresponded to C. annuum. Another morphotype was half wild (Picopaloma) and corresponded to C. frutescens. The remaining morphotypes corresponded to C. annuum and C. chinenese. Data were analyzed with multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro germination of Encyclia adenocaula (La Llave & Lex.) Schltr (Orchidaceae) seeds

    Ruíz1,2,* BC, CA Laguna2, ALG Iglesias3, A Damon4, HTNJ Marín5, RHS Azpíroz5, MJL Moreno1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 203-215, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.203
    Abstract Encyclia adenocaula (La Llave & Lex.) Schltr. (Orchidaceae) is an epiphyte orchid, which uses oak (Quercus sp) trees as a natural host and is thus considered a non timber-yielding forest resource. Predation of this species is high because of the beauty of its flowers. The Official Mexican Norm (NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001) reports it as an endemic endangered species in Mexico. The objective of this research was to (1) establish an effective protocol for in vitro germination of immature seeds of this species, and (2) determine the effect of the capsule maturity state on seed germination. The in vitro cultivation mediums were: Murashige… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Mixture of wheat varieties for dual purpose

    Lutz EE, HD Merchán, AE Morant
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 217-223, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.217
    Abstract Forage and grain production of an early sown, long-cycle wheat variety (ProINTA Super) was compared to that in its association with a short-cycle wheat variety (Buck Pronto), both varieties exposed to one or two defoliations. The purpose was producing an earlier and greater amount of dry matter in a dual-purpose wheat. Research was conducted in the Asociación de Cooperativas Argentinas experimental field (38º 36´ S, 61º 58´ W, 122 masl), 15 km SW from Cabildo (Bs. As), in the semi-arid V South wheat subregion. Experimental plots, 7 rows 4m long each and 0,20 m apart from each other, were seeded… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization of associated environments to natural populations of Pavonia cymbalaria (Malvaceae) in rangelands of Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires)

    Torres1 YA, MA Long2, SM Zalba1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 225-240, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.225
    Abstract The objective of this work is to contribute to the biology of Pavonia cymbalaria A. St. Hil & Naudin (Malvaceae), a native species of the Southern mountains of Buenos Aires Province. This knowledge will contribute to (1) promote its use as an ornamental species, (2) its conservation and (3) stimulate the interest and public valuation of mountain systems biodiversity. Seven populations of P. cymbalaria were selected. Two of them were growing under Pinus halepensis forests to characterize different environments were the herbaceous species is growing in the wild. Environmental characteristics immediately associated to six individuals of the species were studied… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antifungal potential of Bacillus spp. strains and Larrea tridentata extract against Rhizoctonia solani on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop

    Hernández-Castillo1 FD, RH Lira-Saldivar2, L Cruz-Chávez1, G Gallegos-Morales1, ME Galindo-Cepeda1, E Padrón-Corral1, M Hernández-Suárez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 241-252, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.241
    Abstract Potato crop requires more fungicides than any other crop in Mexico to prevent and control several diseases. More than 21,3% of the total available fungicides are required for cropping potato. High quantities of synthetic pesticides are intended to control Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani fungi. As a result, this produces severe health problems and ecosystem disturbances. There is then an urgent need for finding new options for sustainable management of potato crop diseases. Several experiments were conducted under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions, to: (1) analyze the antifungal effect of bacteria strains of the genus Bacillus, and their effect on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A first attempt to elucidate the amino acid sequence of some lichen lectins

    Sacristán M, AM Millanes, B Fontaniella, ME Legaz, C Vicente
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 253-262, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.253
    Abstract Secreted arginases from Evernia prunastri and Xanthoria parietina thalli, exhibiting lectin activity, have been purified to homogeneity. Analyses of both amino acid and glycoside composition are reported. Purified proteins have been subjected to tryptic digestion and some amino acid sequences have been analyzed. An undecapeptide from Evernia arginase, which shows some degree of homology with the domain to which Mn2+ binds, a heptapeptide and an undecapeptide from Xanthoria arginase have been analyzed, and homologies with some arginases from other fungi and plants have been found. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Relative susceptibility to blackpoint in durum wheat varieties of Argentina

    Miravalles1 M, V Beaufort2, F Möckel1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 263-273, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.263
    Abstract Blackpoint incidence was assessed on grain from six durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) varieties grown during crop season 2004-05 at four sites, in the traditional durum wheat growing region of Argentina. Broad differences in grain discolouration were detected among sites and varieties, together with significant variety x site interactions. Among varieties, those with lower thousand grain weight and higher widthto- length ratio (proportionally shorter grains) showed less susceptibility to this disease than heavy/large grain varieties. Differences among sites in the levels of blackpoint incidence were also related to the physical attributes of grains revealing the strong influence of the environment… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vernonia patens Kunth, an Asteraceae species with phototoxic and pharmacological activity

    Pérez-Amador1 MC, V Muñoz Ocotero1, S Pérez Benitez1, F García Jiménez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 275-282, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.275
    Abstract The presence of phototoxic compounds in stems and leaves of young plants of Vernonia patens Kunth was confirmed by TLC. These compounds were in smaller amounts in younger than in adult plants of this species. Only the stems presented specific activity of these compounds from the two study plant organs. It included characteristic UV bands at 200 and 300nm, and phototoxic activity against Bacillus subtilis (ATCC-6633). Stems and leaves of Vernonia patens also showed anti-inflammatory activity and bactericide potential. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphoanatomical characters of Araujia hortorum E. Fourn (Asclepiadaceae), a native species of medicinal interest

    Bucciarelli A, VN Cambi, CB Villamil
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 283-295, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.283
    Abstract Araujia hortorum (“tasi”) is a native species of South America, invading crops in several countries. It is used as food and in medicine due to its galactogenic properties. Morphoanatomical and micrographic characters of leaves, stems and roots were studied to determine diagnostic characters that allow its identification in the vegetative state. Stomata and palisade parenchyma indexes, stomata location, the proportion and characteristics of palisade and spongy parenchyma and the scarce quantity of idioblasts, resulted in the most relevant, differential characters. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Photosynthesis and water use efficiency of the association between Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. and Muhlenbergia porteri Scribn

    Castellanos-Pérez1 E, AG de Soyza2, GB Donart3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 297-320, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.297
    Abstract The study was conducted in the Chihuahuan Desert Rangeland Research Center, 32 km north of Las Cruces, NM, USA. Physiological responses of the shrub Larrea tridentata (DC) Cov. and the perennial grass Muhlenbergia porteri Scribn were determined from the summer 1997 to the winter 1998-99 when they grew together. In the summer 1997, Larrea tridentata competed for water with M. porteri, as shrubs growing alone showed higher integrated photosynthesis than shrubs in competition with M. porteri following a heavy rainfall event. Larrea tridentata had lower water use efficiency (WUE) than M. porteri plants. In the summer 1998, M. porteri had… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tree and shrub diversity in native rainforest fragments in southern Chile

    Pincheira-Ulbrich1 J, JR Rau2, E Hauenstein3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 321-326, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.321
    Abstract We sampled the diversity of trees and shrubs, and built the rarefaction and accumulation species curve in 10 native forest fragments in southern Chile. Results indicated that: (1) there were 23 species in all sampled fragments, (2) species richness increased significantly with fragment size, (3) all fragments require a minimal sampling from 40 to 170 individuals to reach the maximum theoretical species richness, and (4) sampling richness was greater than that theoretically expected (20 species). More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Use of the pressure chamber and thermocouple psychrometers to determine the water relations of plant tissues

    Busso CA
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.77, pp. 327-350, 2008, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2008.77.327
    Abstract Advantages, disadvantages and precautions of using the pressure chamber and thermocouple psychrometers for determinations of plant water potential, and osmotic and turgor pressures are discussed. Comparison of results obtained with both instruments will be influenced by the sampling technique, consistency in both sampling and measurement procedures, and errors inherent to the method itself. In-situ readings of either plant or soil water potential with thermocouple psychrometers are perhaps worthless, or worse (they may even be misleading). Use of thermocouple psychrometers is strictly limited to the laboratory where isothermal conditions can be obtained. The method to determine the water relations of plant… More >

Share Link

WeChat scan