Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.84, No.1, 2015
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Alkaline cooking and tortilla quality in maize grains from the humid, tropical lands of Mexico

    Jiménez-Juárez JA1,2, G Arámbula-Villa3, E de la Cruz-Lázaro1*, MA Aparicio-Trapala1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 1-7, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.001
    Abstract Maize (Zea mays L.) tortilla is the major staple food for the Mexican population. Nine tropical maize genotypes were evaluated. All samples had white grains, a common characteristic in tropical maize, and therefore they were appropriate for nixtamalized flour industry. Grain, flour, masa and tortilla characteristics of each maize genotype were evaluated. Length, width, thickness, weight of 1000 grains and hardness of grain were determined. Moisture content, proteins, fat, ash, mean particle size, water absorption index, enthalpy, and flour temperature were also evaluated. Adhesiveness and cohesiveness were evaluated in masa. Moisture content, protein, capacity to puff up, roll making, tension… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fertilizer and manure equivalent rates on forage corn production (Zea mays)

    López-Calderón MJ1, U Figueroa-Viramontes2*, M Fortis-Hernández1, G Núñez-Hernández2, E Ochoa-Martínez2, JI Sanchez-Duarte2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 8-13, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.008
    Abstract An experiment with increasing rates of fertilizer and manure in silage corn was established to evaluate the agronomic crop response and to estimate the manure nitrogen availability. The treatments were designed to deliver 0, 67, 100 and 133% of the crop nitrogen requirements (CNR), using ammonium sulphate and manure as N source. Dry matter (DM) yield was similar among treatments receiving N, but those values were greater than those found in the control. Nitrogen extraction at harvest was not statistically different in treatments with fertilizer or manure, but it was higher in these treatments than in the control without N… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative analysis of fatty acids, tocopherols and phytosterols content in sunflower cultivars (Helianthus annuus) from a three-year multi-local study

    Ayerdi Gotor A1,5*, M Berger1, F Labalette2, S Centis3, J Daydé1, A Calmon1,4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 14-25, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.014
    Abstract Sunflower oil is naturally rich in both unsaturated fatty acids and numerous minor components, with high levels of α-tocopherol and phytosterols that could play an important role in plant protection. These micronutriments, tocopherols and phytosterols, also exhibit health benefits for humans including reducing both cardiovascular diseases and aging disorders. α−Tocopherol represents more than 95% of total sunflower tocopherol and has the greatest vitaminic activity. Furthermore, this oil contains high amounts of β-sitosterol which is a promising health beneficial phytosterol. The objective of this study was to compare the content and composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and phytosterols in sunflower oil… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed characteristics and fatty acid composition of castor (Ricinus communis L.) varieties in Northeast China

    Huang FL1,2, GL Zhu2,3, YS Chen1,2, FJ Meng4, M Peng1,4, XF Chen1,2, ZB He3, ZY Zhang3, YJ Chen1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 26-33, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.026
    Abstract Oil content and fatty acid composition were investigated on 12 castor varieties and strains by using the soxhlet extraction method and capillary gas chromatography. This was made to provide a reference and theoretical basis for castorbean breeding with high oil content, determine variability of seed compounds for breeding purposes, and broaden chemical material choices. Results revealed that crude fat percentage in seeds ranged from 18.91 to 35.84% with an average of 25.91%; the absolute content of ricinoleic acid varied between 171.65 g/kg and 314.03 g/kg with an average of 222.43 g/kg, and kernel crude fat percentage was between 24.28 and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of trees in the district Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan

    Shah A1*, S Rahim1,5 , KH Bhatti2, A Khan1, N Din1, M Imran1, M Mohsin3, M Ishtiaq4, A Nabila1, A Ansari1, S Hussain1, M Zafar5, M Mushtaq5, E Mumtaz1, J Iqbal6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 34-44, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.034
    Abstract Sargodha district is one of the least studied regions of Pakistan regarding its ethnobotanical values. This paper is the first report related to the documentation and conservation status of the tree species in the Sargodha district, and their folk ethnobotanical uses. An interview base survey was conducted in the study area in 2010-2013. The ethnobotanical data revealed the use of 100 tree species (6 gymnosperms, 94 angiosperms) belonging to 77 genera (6 gymnosperms, 71 angiosperms) and 39 families (4 gymnosperms, 35 angiosperms), with the Fabaceae ranking first with 19 tree species, followed by the Moraceae (12 species). Tree species like… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Microbiological quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced under greenhouse conditions in five Municipalities of the State of Mexico

    Ocaña-de Jesús RL, AT Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, JR Sánchez-Pale, MD Mariezcurrena-Berasain, G Velázquez-Garduño, A Laguna Cerda, I Rojas Puebla
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 45-50, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.045
    Abstract The aim of the current research was to determine tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) microbiological quality produced under greenhouse conditions in 5 municipalities of the State of Mexico. Studies were conducted during the 2013 production cycle to know the risks and apply prevention strategies prior to its consumption. A microbiological analysis of samples of irrigation water, soil and 100 tomato fruits variety cid was performed to determine Aerobic Mesophiles, Total Coliforms and Fecal Coliforms. The methodology used were those according to the Official Mexican Standards NOM- 109-SSA1-1994, NOM-110-SSA1-1994, NOM-092-SSA1-1994, NOM-113-SSA1-1994, and the Regulations of the National French Organization for Standardization (AFNOR)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization and growth evaluation of Paspalum almum, Paspalum denticulatum and Paspalum vaginatum as lawns

    Saluzzo H1, PD Reinoso2,3, V Martínez2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 51-57, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.051
    Abstract Morphological and growth characteristics of two Paspalum native species, and an enhanced species of the same genus, were evaluated for their potential use as lawns. Color; texture, stolon length and diameter, node number and length, width and number of leaves were determined under grass management conditions. The used plant material derived from the Paspalum collection (belonging to the PID UNER 2139 research project carried out at Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias). The trial consisted of twelve 1 m2 plots in four completely randomized blocks and was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011. All the characterictics were measured from the growth… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed dormancy release and germination characteristics of Corispermum lehmannianum Bunge, an endemic species in the Gurbantunggut desert of China

    Zhang LW1, HL Liu2*, DY Zhang2, WG Bian2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 58-63, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.058
    Abstract Seed dormancy release and germination of Corispermum lehmannianum Bunge were tested using various treatments: temperature, cold stratification, gibberelins (GA3), dry storage and sand burial. Results showed that temperature and light did not affect the germination of fresh seeds, cold stratification and GA3 could improve seed germination, whereas dry storage and sand burial did not. The germination percentage was highest at 35/20 °C after the cold stratification and GA3 treatments. Corispermum lehmannianum seeds were classified as non-deep, Type-2, physiological dormancy (PD), whose seed dormancy could be released by cold stratification and GA3. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2 accelerates growth of Pinus devoniana

    Valencia-Cantero E2, I Flores-Cortez2, J Ambriz-Parra1, P López-Albarrán1, C Velázquez-Becerra1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 64-69, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.064
    Abstract Pinus devoniana is one of the most widely distributed species of Pinus in Mexico, and has a relevant economic and ecological importance. In this work, the effect of inoculating juvenile P. devoniana plants with the rhizobacteria Arthrobacter agilis UMCV2, and its dimethylhexadecylamine compound was studied under greenhouse conditions. Our results showed that A. agilis UMCV2 promoted growth of P. devoniana as a result of increases on height and stem diameter, fresh weight and chlorophyll concentrations. Under our experimental conditions, the bacterial dimethylhexadecylamine compound produced an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll. These data show the feasibility of using A. agilisMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of fruit maturity, seed weight and storage time on the viability and germination of the seed of candelilla (Euphorbia antisiphylitica Zucc.)

    Alvarado-Vázquez MA, R Foroughbakhch, MA Guzmán- Lucio, A Rocha-Estrada, JL Hernández-Piñero, ML Cárdenas-Ávila, BM Soto-García
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 70-79, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.070
    Abstract Candelilla (Euphorbia antisiphylitica Zucc.) is a very important plant resource in the arid lands of Northern Mexico. This is because the wax content coating the stem has unique properties which have been useful for multiple applications in the food industry, electronics, cosmetics, etc. However, the intensive exploitation of this resource has caused a great decrease in the populations of this species making necessary to consider strategies for their conservation and sustainable use. One of the primary needs with regeneration purposes is to know their reproductive processes, particularly the biotic and/or abiotic factors that determine the viability and germination of seeds.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sodium sulfate exposure slows growth of native pecan seedlings

    Moreno-Izaguirre E1, D Ojeda-Barrios2, G Avila-Quezada2, V Guerrero-Prieto3, R Parra-Quezada3, T Ruiz-Anchondo2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 80-85, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.080
    Abstract Pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wanngenh) K. Koch] is one of the most important nut crops in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico. Here, most pecans are grown in saline soils having poor permeability which are further degraded by the use of low-quality irrigation water. Salinity adversely affects both pecan nut quality and yield. Little work has been done to explore the physiological effects of salinity on native pecan trees. Here we examine physiological changes determined by exposure of pecan seedlings to sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) at four concentrations: 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/L applied twice weekly over a 70 d period.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Localization and compartmentation of Al in the leaves and roots of tea plants

    Hajiboland R1,2, C Poschenrieder3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 86-100, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.086
    Abstract Under acid soil conditions, solubility of aluminum (Al) increases leading to toxicity for plants. Al accumulator species such as tea, however, accumulate high levels of Al in tissues without toxicity symptoms. In this work, Al localization and compartmentation were studied in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] grown hydroponically at 0 or 100 µM Al for eight weeks. Plant dry matter production was significantly higher in the presence of Al and accumulated up to 1.21 and 6.18 mg Al/g DW in the leaves and roots, respectively. About 40-50% of Al was partitioned into cell wall (CW)-bound fraction without any difference… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Meiotic analysis of four cross-pollinated generations in a synthetic autotetraploid population of husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa)

    Rodríguez de León JI1, MH Reyes-Valdés2, DV Mendoza-Rodríguez3, F Ramírez-Godina2, V Robledo-Torres2, M Gómez-Martínez2, G Hernández-Guzmán4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 101-106, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.101
    Abstract The cultivated husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa) (2n = 2x = 24) is native from Mexico and Central America and shows a wide genetic variation. Presently, it is the fourth horticultural crop in cultivation surface in Mexico. The working team of this research previously developed an autotetraploid population by using colchicine. The objectives of the present work were to analyze the ploidy level and meiotic behavior of the subsequent generations (C3, C4, C5, C6) from the original (C2) composed only by plants with the duplicated genome from the Rendidora cultivar, and to determine pollen viability. As a diploid control the cultivar… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Study of the mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of sotol (Dasylirion cedrosanum Trel.)

    Hernández-Quintero JD1, MH Reyes-Valdés2, DV Mendoza-Rodríguez3, M Gómez-Martínez2, R Rodríguez-Herrera4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 107-112, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.107
    Abstract The genus Dasylirion is a group of plants typically present in the Chihuahuan Desert, perennial, with a dioecious sexual behavior and commonly called sotoles. This genus has been little studied from the biological point of view, and the bases of its reproductive response remain unknown. In this work we studied the chromosome number and meiotic response of Dasylirion cedrosanum in the county of Saltillo, Coahuila, located at the North East of Mexico. For the preparation of mitotic chromosomes, we used a technique based on enzymatic treatment with pectolyase and cellulase, as well as staining with acetocarmin dye. For the study… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Trichoderma spp. fostering growth on Capsicum chinense Jacq. seedlings and antagonistic against Meloidogyne incognita

    Candelero DJ1, AJ Cristóbal1, RA Reyes1, SJM Tun1, AMM Gamboa2, SE Ruíz1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 113-119, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.113
    Abstract Fourteen native strains of Trichoderma spp. from wildand agricultural pathosystems in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, with growth-promoting ability of Capsicum chinense Jacq. seedlings were evaluated and antagonistic effect of their filtrate against second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The strains Th05-02 and Th27-08 showed the best significant effects on plant hight variable increments 55.57 and 47.62%, theTh07-04 with 29.48% more root length, theTh02-01 and Th07-04 isolates increased from 48.71 to 84.61% in volume radical and 53.40% of total dry biomass. Statistical analysis (p≤0.001) of Th43 and Th43-13-14 filtrates caused 100% mortality at 24 and 48h. In the test of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Factors influencing in the response of Schizolobium parahybum (Vell) Blake to Ceratocystis paradoxa and C. moniliformis

    Mora-Silva W1,3, FR Garcés-Fiallos1,2, C Suarez-Capello1,2, CE Belezaca-Pinargote1,3, P Cedeño-Loja1, E Vallejo3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 120-127, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.120
    Abstract In the Ecuadorian coast one of the most destructive diseases of the pachaco is vascular wilt or stem rot caused by Ceratocystis complex, so the aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect the efficiency of the reaction of bark pachaco to this disease. This research was conducted under laboratory conditions, using trees pachaco S38, S41, S98, AE-1, AE-2 and AE-3, and pathogenic species Ceratocystis paradoxa and C. moniliformis. The method utilized was tissue stem bark,with bark sections with 4.5 cm2, and a suspension of 3x104 units infection and remained in a humid chamber for 96 hours… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    First morphogenetic identification of Fusarium solani isolated from orange fruit in Egypt

    Abd-Elsalam KA1,2, K Youssef1,2, H Almoammar3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 128-131, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.128
    Abstract Losses due to postharvest decay may occur at any time during postharvest handling, from harvest to consumption affecting the produce quality and quantity. Accurate identification of the pathogen causing postharvest disease is essential to the selection of an appropriate disease control approach. Nine isolates of Fusarium recovered from orange fruit were identified as Fusarium solani. The fungus is involved with fruit decay. The obtained cultures were purified and grown on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), malt yeast agar (MYA), and Czapek's nutrient media (CNM) under light for identification. A pathogenicity test was carried out to fulfil Koch's postulates. The pathogen could only… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of man-made electromagnetic fields on common Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) seed germination: a preliminary replication study

    Cammaerts MC1, O Johansson2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 132-137, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.132
    Abstract Under high levels of radiation (70-100 µW/m2 =175 mV/m), seeds of Brassicaceae Lepidium sativum (cress d’Alinois) never germinated. In fact, the first step of seeds’ germination ‒ e.g. imbibitions of germinal cells ‒ could not occur under radiation, while inside the humid compost such imbibitions occurred and roots slightly developed. When removed from the electromagnetic field, seeds germinated normally. The radiation was, thus, most likely the cause of the non-occurrence of the seeds’ imbibitions and germination. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of the viability and germination of tempisque [Sideroxylon capiri (A.DC.) Pittier Sapotaceae]

    Lazos-Monterrosa FA, C Orantes-García, O Farrera-Sarmiento, AG Verdugo-Valdez, MS Sánchez-Cortés, LE Ruíz-Meza
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 138-143, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.138
    Abstract The tempisque (Sideroxylon capiri) is a tree native to Mexico used by the rural population for housing construction, poles and hedges, as fuel (wood) and also for fodder and ornamental purposes, among others. It is considered an endangered species. In order to contribute to its preservation and sustainable management, it was considered important to determine the proportion of viable seeds, the loss of viability due to storage period and the germination process by applying pregerminative treatments. We found that freshly collected seeds showed 100% viability, which decreased to 0% after 5 months of storage. According to the cumulative germination significant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Some physiological effects of acetamiprid on two cultivars of corn plants

    Turkyilmaz Unal B1, A Esiz Dereboylu2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 144-147, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.144
    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate some physiological effects of an insecticide (Akira 20-SP) with acetamiprid agent on Cin misir Adapop 10 and Sert misir Adapop 2 cultivars of corn plants in different concentrations [0 g/L, 0.6 g/L (recommended concentration), 1.2 g/L]. Photosynthetic pigment substances, total soluble protein and proline contents were determined. Analysis of treated leaves showed that the recommended concentration resulted in higher chlorophyll value in Cin misir Adapop 10 and Sert misir Adapop 2. Carotenoid amounts increased in Cin misir Adapop 10 and decreased in Sert misir Adapop 2 to the control. Total protein contents… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological characterization of endemic Agave cupreata species of Mexico

    Avendaño-Arrazate CH1, L Iracheta-Donjuan1, JC Gódinez-Aguilar2, P López-Gómez1, A Barrios-Ayala3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 148-162, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.148
    Abstract The agave papalote (Agave cupreata Trelease) which is endemic to the Guerrero state, Mexico, is propagated exclusively by seed, but it is overutilized and knowledge of its diversity is needed for its protection. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the morphological variation in wild and cultivated populations of Agave cupreata in five areas of Guerrero. Ninety one characters were evaluated in situ, and only 51 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters of the plant, leaf spine, flower, fruit, seed and flower stalk were selected. The work was carried out in five different altitudinal zones, according to the level of production of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Anatomical and chemical characteristics of the seed coat of Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) cv. Baralfa 85 seeds and their association with seed dormancy

    Galussi AA1, JA Argüello2, MM Cerana2, M Maximino3, ME Moya1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 163-175, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.163
    Abstract Seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can exhibit seedcoat imposed dormancy, which produces hard seeds within a seed lot. These seeds do not germinate because they do not imbibe water due to a barrier to water entry in the seed coat. The aim of this work was to analyze the anatomical and chemical characteristics of the testa of alfalfa seeds with respect to water permeability levels. The anatomy of seeds of the cv. Baralfa 85 was studied and structural substances, polyphenols, tannins and cutin present in the testa of seeds of different water permeability levels were determined. The anatomical characteristics… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Contribution to knowledge of foliar anatomy on Mnesithea selloana (Hack.) de Koning & Sosef (Andropogoneae-Panicoideae-Poaceae)

    Moya ME1,2, AA Galussi1,2, MJ Gómez1,2, FG Marchese1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 176-183, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.176
    Abstract The aim of the present work was to analyze the foliar anatomy in lamina transverse section an in epidermis superficial view of Mnesithea selloana. Epidermic preparations and transections were carried out of the medium leaf part of sterile innovations that were conditioned and observed with optic microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The histofoliar characteristics observed were: epidermic, intercostal, subsidiary, suberose, silicea and bulliform cells; and also guard cells, hairs, waxes, mesophylls, Kranz sheath, vascular bundles, sclerenchyma, colourless parenchyma and leaf margin. Epidermic observations showed that M. selloana presents a panicoid type epidermis presenting silicic cells as halteriforme, longer than… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed morphology, presence of areoles and water entry at imbibition of Vicia dasycarpa Ten. cv. Tolse F.C.A

    Perissé P1 y GM Tourn2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 184-189, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.184
    Abstract The morphological characteristics of the seeds of Vicia dasycarpa Ten. cv. Tolse FCA were studied in relation to the area of imbibition water entry and were considered the presence of areoles. Seeds were analyzed using a stereo, optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The determination of the initial water entry area was carried out by immersing the seeds in a solution of tetrazolium (1%). This study showed that this species has seeds with a halo framing the hilum, an inconspicuous dry aril and a deltoid micropyle. The seedcoat pattern is papillose. The tracheid bar is surrounded by a ring of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological and molecular characterization of populations of plains bristlegrass (Setaria macrostachya Kunth) in Chihuahua, México

    Morales-Nieto CR1, C Avendaño-Arrazate2, A Melgoza-Castillo1, M Martinez-Salvador3, P Jurado-Guerra4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 190-200, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.190
    Abstract Plains bristlegrass (Setaria macrostachya Kunth) is a native grass with forage value. However, due to the lack of grazing management practices, populations and thus genetic diversity, have been reduced. Morphological and genetic variability were analyzed on 44 populations of plains bristlegrass in the State of Chihuahua. Plants were transplanted in a common area under natural conditions. Two years later, morphological characterization was evaluated measuring nine variables, and genetic variability using AFLP molecular markers. The principal components analysis (PC) showed that the three first principal components explained 73.74% of the variation. The variables with the greatest contribution to the variance in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pollen morphology of Senecio bergii (Asteraceae), with special attention to the mesoaperture

    Montes B1,2, MG Murray1,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 201-208, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.201
    Abstract Palynological studies contribute to understanding the taxonomy, phylogeny and ecology of the Asteraceae and other families. In this study, pollen morphology and ultrastructure of the exine of Senecio bergii Hieron. were studied using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The pollen of this species is prolate-spheroidal, it has a Senecioid pattern on the exine and an apertural system composed of three apertures (ecto-, meso- and endoapertures). This pollen type is defined as tricolpororate due to the triple apertural system. This is the first description of the ultrastructure of the apertural system of the pollen of Argentine species of Senecio. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of grazing on plant species diversity and carbon partitioning in semiarid rangelands of northeastern China

    Hu FL1,2, B Liu1,3, ZM Liu1,3, YT Fang1,3, CA Busso4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 209-221, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.209
    Abstract Grasslands are one of the most widespread landscapes worldwide, covering approximately one-fifth of the world’s land surface, where grazing is a common practice. How carbon storage responds to grazing in steppes remains poorly understood. We quantified the effects of grazing on community composition and species diversity, and carbon storage in two typical grasslands of northeastern China, one in Horqin and the other one in Hulunbeier. In both grasslands, grazing did not influence plant species diversity. However, it substantially decreased aboveground carbon by 31% and 54% in Horqin and Hulunbeier, respectively. Fenced and grazing treatments showed a similar belowground carbon at… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of hydrocarbon concentration of pasture production (Brachiaria humidicola) in Texistepec, Veracruz

    Adams RH, AL Álvarez-Ovando, G Castañón N
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 222-232, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.222
    Abstract In this study, the relationship between the concentration of extra-heavy crude petroleum in a clayey material and the toxicity, field capacity, temperature, and growth of a tropical forage grass (Brachiara humidicola) was determined empirically. For this type of petroleum the acute toxicity (Microtox®) was slight (CE50 = 63200 - 76400 mg/kg) even at high hydrocarbon concentrations (29279 mg/kg). Nonetheless, serious impacts were encountered in terms of an increase in soil temperature (+ 1.3 °C), reduction in field capacity (-10.7%) and reduction in aerial biomass (-97%). The relationship between hydrocarbon concentration and biomass resulted in a typical dose-response curve (r =… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bacterial diversity in roots of conventional and genetically modified hybrid maize

    Vital López L, MA Cruz Hernández, S Fernández Dávila, A Mendoza Herrera
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 233-243, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.233
    Abstract Cultivated surfaces of genetically modified (GM) crops increased year by year, becoming in 2012 more extensive in developed than in industrialized countries. Furthermore, it has been postulated that the plant is which leads to the selection of the microorganisms on its root exudates, creating specific conditions which in turn regulate the specific microbial structure of each plant. In this study, our main objective was to examine whether the introduction of transgenic maize herbicide-tolerant plants will impact the microbial structures that inhabit at the rhizosphere and rhizoplane with respect to conventional hybrid maize plants. Bacterial populations were determined (CFU/g) using four… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biofilter efficiency of Eichhornia crassipes in wastewater treatment of fish farming in Amazonia

    Rubim MAL1, PR Isolino Sampaio1, P Parolin2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.84, No.1, pp. 244-251, 2015, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2015.84.244
    Abstract Fish is a very important part of the human diet in Amazonia. Near the growing cities, fish populations and individual size have decreased over the past decades. Alternatives to traditional and industrial fishing arise, including fish farming. Strategies to minimize the impact of fish farms on the environment are needed to have a regular and healthy fish supply. This is to avoid a reduction of biodiversity, a depletion of natural resources, and/or the induction of significant changes in the structure and functioning of adjacent ecosystems. Very little research has been performed on management of effluents as to maintain the quality… More >

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