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The very small proteins encoded by plant viruses are often overlooked due to their short sequences and uncertain significance. The role of small hydrophobic protein P6, encoded by plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV), has not been well explored. Our study indicates that P6 localizes in cytomembrane and nuclear membrane, and p6 may not be a potential pathogenic factor associate with the causing of symptoms.

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    REVIEW

    A Review on Selenium Function under Oxidative Stress in Plants Focusing on ROS Production and Detoxification

    Armin Saed-Moucheshi1,*, Elham Rezaei Mirghaed2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1921-1941, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027810
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Selenium, Silicon and their Nanoparticles-mediated Environmental Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants)
    Abstract

    One of the main reasons of the annual reduction in plant production all around the world is the occurrence of abiotic stresses as a result of an unpredicted changes in environmental conditions. Abiotic stresses basically trigger numerous pathways related to oxygen free radicals’ generation resulting in a higher rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Accordingly, higher rate of oxygen free radicals than its steady state causes to oxidize various types of molecules and compartments within the plants’ cells and tissues. Oxidative stress is the result of high amount free radicals of oxygen interfering with different

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    ARTICLE

    Insecticidal Potential of α-Pinene and β-Caryophyllene against Myzus persicae and Their Impacts on Gene Expression

    Talha Ali Chohan1,*, Tahir Ali Chohan2,*, Muhammad Zahid Mumtaz1, Muhammad Waqar Alam3, Salah ud Din4, Iqra Naseer5, Ayesha Riaz1, Tayyeba Naseem1, Areeba Iftikhar6, Dur E. Najaf Ali1, Mubashir Hassan7, Hayssam M. Ali8
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1943-1954, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026945
    Abstract Myzus persicae (M. persicae) is now considered a threat to agricultural crops due to economic losses. Numerous synthetic insecticides applied every year against M. persicae, are reported to be unsafe for environment, humans, and beneficial insects. Furthermore, several species of Myzus have been found to develop resistance due to over application of these insecticides. Therefore, it is required to find some novel insecticide that would be safe for the environment as well as for humans. In the current study, two major pure constituents α-pinene and β-caryophyllene were evaluated for their insecticidal potential against M. persicae using a fumigant toxicity assay.… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Lipid Production, Oxidative Status, Antioxidant Enzymes and Photosynthetic Efficiency of Coccomyxa chodatii SAG 216-2 in Response to Calcium Oxide Nanoparticles

    Huwida A. A. Abdel-Kader1, Naeima Yousef1, Mohammad Anwar Hossain2,*, Mona F. A. Dawood1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1955-1974, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028583
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Selenium, Silicon and their Nanoparticles-mediated Environmental Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants)
    Abstract The extensive use of nanoparticles (NPs) in diverse applications causes their localization to aquatic habitats, affecting the metabolic products of primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, such as algae. Synthesized calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaO NPs) are of the scarcely studied NPs. Thus, the current work proposed that the exposure to CaO NPs may instigate metabolic pathway to be higher than that of normally growing algae, and positively stimulate algal biomass. In this respect, this research was undertaken to study the exposure effect of CaO NPs (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg mL−1 ) on the… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Pollination Biology of the Endangered Herbal Medicines Dendrobium chrysotoxum (Orchidaceae)

    Kai Luo1, Yanbing Bai1, Yan Jiang1, Guiling Li1, Min Jia1, Yongguo He1, Zhijun Yao1, Ziwei Xiao1, Xiaoqiong Liu1, Wenjie Liu2, Shanshan Yin1,*, Zesheng Li1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1975-1986, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028232
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract Pollination biology studies of the endangered herbal medicines Dendrobium chrysotoxum were conducted in natural pollination conditions using flower observation, pollinator observation and artificial pollination experiments. Populations of D. chrysotoxum with fragrance and nectar were pollinated by Ctenoplectra davidi Valhalla (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species. The floral structure of D. chrysotoxum adapted precisely to its pollinators. Flowers had a low capsule setting (0.17%) under natural conditions. However, compared to open pollination, artificial pollination experiments showed a significant increase in capsule setting, and D. chrysotoxum was cross-compatible and self-compatible, but there was pollinator limitation also. This study will provide important information for the preservation More >

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    ARTICLE

    Antibacterial Activity and Mechanisms of Ethanol Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Magnolia officinalis against Phytophthora nicotianae

    Xu Gao, Ziqi Shen, Jinliang Xu, Min Fan, Qiang Li*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 1987-1999, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027318
    Abstract Phytophthora nicotianae causes substantial economic losses in most countries where tobacco is produced. At present, the control of P. nicotianae mainly depends on chemical methods, with considerable environmental and health issues. We investigated the effects of ethanol extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG) and Magnolia officinalis (MO). On mycelial growth, sporangium formation, and zoospore release of P. nicotianae. Both extracts inhibited the growth of P. nicotianae, with mycelial growth inhibition rates of 88.92% and 93.92%, respectively, at 40 mg/mL, and EC50 values of 5.39 and 5.74 mg/mL, respectively. The underlying mechanisms were the inhibition of sporangium formation, the reduction of zoospore More >

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    ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Analysis of the KANADI Gene Family and Its Expression Patterns under Different Nitrogen Concentrations Treatments in Populus trichocarpa

    Minghui Niu1,#, Heng Zhang1,#, Xiangyang Li1, Zhibao Hu1, Hongjiao Zhang2,3, Zhiru Xu2,3, Chunpu Qu1,4,*, Guanjun Liu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2001-2015, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029350
    Abstract KANADI (KAN) is a plant-specific gene that controlled the polarity development of lateral organs. It mainly acted on the abaxial characteristics of plants to make the lateral organs asymmetrical. However, it had been less identified in woody plants. In this study, the members of the KAN gene family in Populus trichocarpa were identified and analyzed using the bioinformatics method. The results showed that a total of 8 KAN family members were screened out, and each member contained the unique GARP domain and conserved region of the family proteins. Phylogenetic analysis and their gene structures revealed that all KAN genes… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Rice E3 Ligase-Like Protein OsPIAL1 Positively Regulated the Drought Stress Response but Negatively Regulated the Salt Stress Response

    Sang Ik Song*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2017-2034, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027469
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligases that facilitate the conjugation of SUMO proteins to target substrates contain an SP-RING domain which is like the RING domain found in ubiquitin E3 ligases. In this study, we isolated and characterized the Oryza sativa protein inhibitor of activated STAT like1 (OsPIAL1) containing SP-RING domains, as the rice homolog of Arabidopsis PIALs. OsPIAL1 interacts with OsSUMO proteins but does not interact with rice SUMO-conjugating enzymes (OsSCEs). An analysis of transgenic rice plant shows that OsPIAL1 is involved in SUMO conjugation to SCEs but not in SUMO conjugation to substrates. In addition,… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Intron Retention Fine-Tunes the Resistance of the Rice Mutant pls4 to Rice Sheath Blight (Rhizotonia solani AG I.1a)

    Shaochun Liu, Jiamin Hu, Haohua He, Junru Fu, Xu Jie, Dahu Zhou*, Haihui Fu*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2035-2049, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028296
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract OsPLS4 encodes a β-ketoacyl carrier protein reductase (KAR). The role of OsPLS4 in rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) remains unclear. Our preliminary studies showed that premature leaf senescence mutants (pls4) were highly susceptive to sheath blight in the early stage of rice development. To explore the role of this gene in the development of rice sheath blight, the transcriptome profiles of the rice pls4 mutant and wild type were compared by RNA-seq. The results revealed 2,569 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The down-regulated genes were significantly enriched in the defense response-related biological processes. These down-regulated genes included the chitinase… More >

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    ARTICLE

    DDG1 and G Protein α Subunit RGA1 Interaction Regulates Plant Height and Senescence in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Xi Liu1,2,#,*, Chuxuan Zhao2,#, Di Wang3,#, Gen Pan4, Xiaonan Ji2, Su Gao2, Tanxiao Du2, Yating Feng2, Wenjing Chen2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2051-2064, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028196
    Abstract Many studies have already shown that dwarfism and moderate delayed leaf senescence positively impact rice yield, but the underlying molecular mechanism of dwarfism and leaf senescence remains largely unknown. Here, using map-based cloning, we identified an allele of DEP2, DDG1, which controls plant height and leaf senescence in rice. The ddg1 mutant displayed dwarfism, short panicles, and delayed leaf senescence. Compared with the wild-type, ddg1 was insensitive to exogenous gibberellins (GA) and brassinolide (BR). DDG1 is expressed in various organs, especially in stems and panicles. Yeast two-hybrid assay, bimolecular fluorescent complementation and luciferase complementation image assay showed that More >

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    REVIEW

    In vitro Mutagenesis for the Improvement of Agave Genus

    Sugey Vásquez-Hernández, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina*, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli, Sheila Jazmín Reyes-Zambrano, Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2065-2078, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028784
    Abstract Biotechnological techniques provide a viable alternative to help improve and increase the production of plant species of agricultural and economic importance, which have been affected over the years by climate change, increasing their susceptibility to pests and/or diseases, generating losses in production as well as a decrease in their regenerative and genetic diversity. The application of biotechnological techniques such as in vitro mutagenesis offers a viable option for the generation of crops that are resistant to the different factors caused by abiotic and biotic stress. In vitro mutagenesis has been used in an efficient way to generate… More >

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    Analysis of Subcellular Localization and Pathogenicity of Plum Bark Necrosis Stem-Pitting Associated Virus Protein P6

    Yuanyuan Li1,#, Jinze Mu2,#, Qingliang Li1, Huabing Liu3, Xuefeng Yuan2,*, Deya Wang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2079-2085, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028237
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Infection of plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV) has been reported in many Prunus species in several countries, causing significant economic losses. The very small proteins encoded by plant viruses are often overlooked due to their short sequences and uncertain significance. However, numerous studies have indicated that they might play important roles in the pathogenesis of virus infection. The role of small hydrophobic protein P6, encoded by the open reading frame 2 of PBNSPaV, has not been well explored. In this study, we amplified the P6 fragment from a PBNSPaV isolate by RT-PCR using specific… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Identification and Expression Analysis of Abscisic Acid Signal Transduction Genes in Hemp Seeds

    Cong Hou1, Kang Ning1, Xiuye Wei1, Yufei Cheng1, Huatao Yu1, Haibin Yu2, Xia Liu1,*, Linlin Dong1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2087-2103, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029041
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Identification of Genetic/Epigenetic Components Responding to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Crops)
    Abstract Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in regulating diverse biological processes, but its signal transduction genes and roles in hemp seed germination are not well known. Here, the ABA signaling pathway members, PYL, PP2C and SnRK2 gene families, were identified from the hemp reference genome, including 7 CsPYL (pyrab-actin resistance1-like, ABA receptor), 8 CsPP2CA (group A protein phosphatase 2c), and 7 CsSnRK2 (sucrose nonfermenting1-related protein kinase 2). The content of ABA in hemp seeds in germination stage is lower than that in non-germination stage. Exogenous ABA (1 or 10 μM) treatment had a significant regulatory effect on the selected PYL,… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Substrate, Hormone, Winnowing, and Stratification Influence the Seed Germination of Ilex asprella (Hook. et Arn.) Champ. ex Benth

    Yuquan Huang1,2, Fan Wei1, Qing Ma2, Yang Lin1, Jinpeng Huang2, Yanxia Zhu1,*, Danfeng Tang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2105-2116, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029205
    Abstract Ilex asprella (Hook. et Arn.) Champ. ex Benth is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicines in southern China. The seeds of Ilex asprella usually have extremely low germination due to their dormancy characteristics, which severely impacts the efficiency of seedling raising and increases labor costs. In this study, to improve the seed germination of I. asprella, the effects of germination substrate, hormone, winnowing, and stratification treatments on the seed germination of I. asprella were investigated. The results of the germination matrix showed that the highest germination percentage of 45.2% was achieved under the 20°C/10°C day/night temperature and… More >

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    ARTICLE

    A Simple Clear Technique in Observing Vascular Development of Grape Ovary

    Teng Fei1, Youmei Li1, Bo Li2, Zhaosen Xie1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2117-2132, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028208
    Abstract The vascular system of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) flower is a channel for transporting water and nutrients to the ovary. It plays an important role in the development of the ovary and fertilization through pollination. However, the vascular bundles in the flower are so tiny that they are difficult to sample and observe by traditional slicing techniques. In this study, ‘Summer Black’ grape flowers were selected as the test materials, and the tissue samples were treated by the optical clearing technique. After simple compaction, the structure and development of the vasculature were observed by common… More >

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    ARTICLE

    The Physiological Mechanisms Underlying N2-Fixing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Tolerance to Iron Deficiency

    Abdelmajid Krouma1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2133-2150, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029048
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Crop)
    Abstract Iron is an essential element for plants as well as all living organisms, functioning in various physiological and biochemical processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, DNA synthesis, and N2 fixation. In the soil, Fe bioavailability is extremely low, especially under aerobic conditions and at high pH ranges. In contrast, plants with nodules on their roots that fix atmospheric nitrogen need much more iron. To highlight the physiological traits underlying the tolerance of N2-fixing common bean to iron deficiency, two genotypes were hydroponically cultivated in a greenhouse: Coco nain (CN) and Coco blanc (CB). Plants were inoculated with… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Effects of Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Synergistic Fertilizer on Enzymes and Genes Related to Nitrogen Metabolism in Wheat

    Yajun Li, Yihui Wang, Shuang Chen, Yu Gao, Yan Shi*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2151-2164, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027930
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Comprehensive Effects of Biochar or other Additives after Applied to Agricultural and Forest Soils)
    Abstract

    In recent years, in order to improve nutrient use efficiency, especially nitrogen use efficiency, fertilizer value-added technology has been developed rapidly. However, the mechanism of the effect of synergistic fertilizer on plant nitrogen utilization is not clear. A study was, therefore, conducted to explore the activities and gene expression of key enzymes for nitrogen assimilation and the gene expression of nitrogen transporters in wheat after the application of synergistic fertilizer. Soil column experiment was set up in Qingdao Agricultural University experimental base from October 2018 to June 2019. Maleic acid and itaconic acid were copolymerized with

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    ARTICLE

    Repellent and Insecticidal Activity of Naphthoquinones from the Heartwood of Tectona grandis on Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille)

    Crisanto Velázquez-Becerra1,*, Gu Yen Ambriz-Ortiz1, Rafael Torres-Martínez2, Mauro Manuel Martínez-Pacheco3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2165-2181, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026954
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Plant Bioactive Compounds-Chemotaxonomic Significance, Antioxidant Properties, Potential Application as Food Ingredients as well as Therapeutics, and the Analytical Technology in Their Efficient Discovery)
    Abstract Wood is a lignocellulosic material that, because of its organic nature, is a source of nutrients for bacteria, fungi, and insects. Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille) is an interesting dry wood-boring termite. Because it is an extremely destructive pest, difficult to control due to its cryptic lifestyle, and for its role in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon and other elements; it is a fundamental organism. The use of less toxic and eco-friendly substances is important for protecting domestic, cultural, and historical heritage made of wood or lignocellulosic materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Micropropagation of Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) from Crown-Tip Explants and Assessment of Somaclonal Variation of in Vitro-Propagated Plants Using SCoT Markers

    Esraa E. Shalan1, Said S. Soliman1, Ahmed A. Mahmoud1, Jameel M. Al-Khayri2,*, Salha M. ALshamrani3, Fatmah A. Safhi4, Areej S. Jalal4, Diaa Abd El-Moneim5, Abdallah A. Hassanin1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2183-2196, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028537
    Abstract Determination of the somaclonal variation of in vitro-propagated plants is crucial to determine the appropriate micropropagation protocol and growth regulators for commercial scale multiplication. In this research, nine multiplication media (MM) augmented with different concentrations of 6-benzyl adenine (BA), Kinetin (Kin), and Thidiazuron (TDZ), Three rooting media (RM) supplemented with three levels of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and three types of soil mixtures (v/v); Coco peat/Vermiculite/Sand (CVS), Peat moss/Perlite/Sand (PPS) and Peat moss/Perlite (PP) were used in the micropropagation protocol of daylily plants. MM2 showed the maximum shoot length and the number of leaves, while MM9… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Salinity Tolerance in Carex morrowii Boott

    Aysegul Akpinar*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.7, pp. 2197-2210, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029006
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Crop)
    Abstract Carex species are widely used in many parts of the world and contain a large number of ecologically diverse species. Among the Carex species, some of them are known to be glycophytes, while others are halophytes. Carex morrowii Boott (Cyperaceae) is resistant to trample through their root structure and has an essential ornamental value in the landscape with their leaves. However, no information was found about the level of salinity tolerance/ sensitivity of the Carex morrowii among these species. In the present study, changes in trace element contents (Na, K, Ca, Cu, Mn, Mg, Ni, Fe, P,… More >

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