Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.89, No.1, 2020
  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Teaching an Old Dog a New Trick: Multifaceted Strategies to Control Primary Seed Germination by DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1)

    Ping Li*, Huanhuan Ni, Songbei Ying, Jiali Wei, Xiangyang Hu
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 1-12, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09817
    Abstract Primary seed dormancy is a critical trait for sustainable agricultural development, ensuring seed germination under favorable conditions. The induction, maintenance and release of seed dormancy is a complicated physiological process that is strictly controlled by a variety of endogenous signals and environmental factors. In Arabidopsis, DOG1 (DELAY OF GERMINATION 1) is identi- fied as the main quantitative trait locus (QTL) of seed dormancy, which contributes to deep dormancy in the Cvi ecotype. In recent years, considerable progress has been made to elucidate the molecular regulatory mechanism by which DOG1 controls seed dormancy. In this review, we describe a series of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochar-Induced Priming Effects in Young and Old Poplar Plantation Soils

    Weiwei Lu1,*, Yirui Zhang1, Yixian Yao1, Yuying Wu1, Han Y. H. Chen2, Hailin Zhang3, Jia Yu4, Caiqin Shen5, Qi Liu6, Honghua Ruan1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 13-26, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09125
    Abstract The priming effect (PE) induced by biochar provides a basis for evaluating its carbon (C) sequestration potential in soils. A 60 days’ laboratory incubation was conducted, which involved the amendment of biochar (1% of soil mass) produced from rice straw at 300ºC (B300) and 500ºC (B500) to young (Y) and old (O) poplar plantation soils, with the aim of studying the responses of biochar-induced PEs to poplar plantation ages. This incubation included six treatments: Y + CK (control), Y + B300, Y + B500, O + CK, O + B300, and O + B500. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were significantly… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exogenous Spermidine Promotes Somatic Embryogenesis of Cunninghamia lanceolata by Altering the Endogenous Phytohormone Content

    Dandan Wang1,#, Yulin Guo1,#, Xiaofei Long1, Yan Pan1, Dingjie Yang1, Rui Li1, Ye Lu1, Ying Chen1,2, Jisen Shi1, Jinhui Chen1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 27-34, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08971
    Abstract In order to study how exogenous hormones in C. lanceolata (gymnosperm) regulate somatic embryogenesis, we measured the endogenous phytohormones of two genotypes with different somatic embryogenesis efficiency and found that an increase in endogenous concentrations of IAA and ABA may be correlated to more efficient somatic embryogenesis. By applying exogenous spermidine, we found that exogenous hormones may affect somatic embryogenesis efficiency through affecting the endogenous phytohormone content. Based on these results, further studies can be conducted whereby the concentration of exogenous hormones or the levels of endogenous phytohormones by molecular methods are regulated to promote somatic embryogenesis. Our research may… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chromium Differentially Affects Hydrogen Peroxide Distribution in Primary and Adventitious Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Aarón Giovanni Munguía-Rodríguez1,2, José López-Bucio1, Gerardo Rangel Sánchez1,2, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera1, Yazmín Carreón-Abud2, Miguel Martínez-Trujillo2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 35-43, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07835
    Abstract The post-embryonic growth of the Arabidopsis thaliana root system can be modified by different types of stress, such as sublethal concentrations of metals, which may induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the effects of different concentrations of potassium chromate (KCrO4) on the distribution and relative quantity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were determined in primary and adventitious roots in A. thaliana HyPer line seedlings. This line has a biosensor that specifically reports H2O2 levels within tissues as fluorescence. Primary root growth was inhibited at 100 μM Cr (VI); in contrast, adventitious root formation was induced over… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Analysis of the Relationship between Blast Resistance Genes and Disease Resistance of Rice Germplasm via Functional Molecular Markers

    Ning Xuan1, Hua Zhang1, Xu Liu1, Qiang Guo1, Jian Liu2, Fangyin Yao1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 45-55, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08548
    Abstract Rice blast disease is one of the most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa L.) caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), and neck blast is the most destructive phase of this illness. The underlying molecular mechanisms of rice blast resistance are not well known. Thus, we collected 150 rice varieties from different ecotypes in China and assessed the rice blast resistances under the natural conditions that favoured disease development in Jining, Shandong Province, China in 2017. Results showed that 92 (61.3%) and 58 (38.7%) rice varieties were resistant and susceptible to M. oryzae, respectively. Among the 150 rice… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic Variation in Growth and Cone Traits of Pinus Koraiensis Half-Sib Families in Northeast China

    David Kombi Kaviriri1,3,4,#, Xiaoting Liu1,#, Zuoyi Fan2,#, Jingyuan Wang2, Qi Wang2, Lianfu Wang2, Lixing Wang2, Damase Khasa5, Xiyang Zhao1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 57-69, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08409
    Abstract Genetic parameters were evaluated for growth and cone characteristics (tree height, diameter at breast height, volume, cone number, thousand seeds weight and single cone seeds weight) on 86 half-sib families of Pinus koraiensis aged 31 years. Analyses of variance revealed significant differences (p < 0.001) in all growth and cone traits among families while no significant differences were detected among blocks and the interaction between blocks and families. The average family values for growth traits were 17.22 m, 8.67 cm and 0.43 m3 for tree height, diameter at breast height and volume, respectively. The average cone number, thousand seeds weight… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Stress Ameliorative Effects of Indole Acetic Acid on Hordeum vulgare L. Seedlings Subjected to Zinc Toxicity

    Monika Sood1, Shanti S. Sharma1, Joginder Singh1, Ram Prasad2,3,*, Dhriti Kapoor1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 71-86, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07180
    Abstract The heavy metals present in the environment accumulate in the plants and affect their productivity and yield. By entering the food chain, metals cause several serious health problems in human beings as well as in other organisms. Indole acetic acid (IAA) is known to act as a signaling molecule between symbiotic association of metal accumulating plants and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Present study demonstrated a protective role of IAA against surplus Zinc (Zn)-induced toxicity to Hordeum vulgare seedlings. Elevated Zn concentrations suppressed the plant growth, caused a reduction in leaf relative water contents (RWC) and elevated free proline and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Basal Application of Zinc to Improve Mung Bean Yield and Zinc-Grains Biofortfication

    Aroosa Kanwal1, Muhammad Bismillah Khan1, Mubshar Hussain1,2,*, Muhammad Naeem1, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan3, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 87-96, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07845
    Abstract Worldwide, the dietary deficiency of zinc (Zn) is prevailing in almost all arid and semi-arid regions. Zinc deficiency is not only the major constraint of lower yield, but also dietary Zn deficiency in cereals grains may cause increasing malnutrition and chronic health problems in human. Exogenous application of Zn through basal soil nutrition might be a useful option to recover Zn deficiency in mung bean. Therefore, field study was conducted to optimize the optimum level and method of Zn nutrition to enhance crop yield and Zn biofortification of mung bean through basal application. Zinc was applied at 0, 5, 10… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Performance of Soft Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown in Early Season in China

    Xiaohong Yin1, Hengdong Zhang1, Jiana Chen1, Ruichun Zhang2, Longsheng Liu2, Min Huang1,*, Guanghui Chen1, Yingbin Zou1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 97-102, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08093
    Abstract Eating quality is of paramount importance to rice (Oryza sativa L.) consumers and soft rice with low amylose content has become popular in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soft rice grown in the early season (ES) dominated by non-soft rice. Field experiments were conducted in Yongan and Santang, Hunan Province, China from 2016-2018. Results showed that grain amylose content in soft rice cultivars was consistently lower in the ES compared to the late season (LS). The lower grain amylose content in the ES compared to the LS was partly attributed to higher average daily mean… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Aspergillus tubingensis Causes Leaf Spot of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Pakistan

    Maria Khizar1, Urooj Haroon1, Musrat Ali1, Samiah Arif2, Iftikhar Hussain Shah2 , Hassan Javed Chaudhary1, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 103-109, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08010
    Abstract Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a key fiber crop of great commercial importance. Numerous phytopathogens decimate crop production by causing various diseases. During July-August 2018, leaf spot symptoms were recurrently observed on cotton leaves in Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan and adjacent areas. Infected leaf samples were collected and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. Causal agent of cotton leaf spot was isolated, characterized and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis based on morphological and microscopic observations. Conclusive identification of pathogen was done on the comparative molecular analysis of CaM and β-tubulin gene sequences. BLAST analysis of both sequenced genes showed 99%… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Improved Culture Media for Embryogenic Callus Generation in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

    Paul Chege1,2, Andrea Palágyi2, Csaba Lantos2, Erzsébet Kiss1, János Pauk2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 111-119, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07554
    Abstract Many attempts on optimization of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] tissue culture induction media have been made, but the culture system remains with some bottlenecks compared to that of other crops. This study aimed at assessing the suitability of various induction media to produce embryogenic callus (yellow and friable) with high induction rates and reduced phenolic exudation. The six culture medium modifications: 3 based on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium and one each based on Chu N6, Gamborg B5 and 190-2 media respectively were applied in the culture of mature embryos from 10 sorghum genotypes. Although there was a genotype… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Callus Induction Conditions from Immature Embryos in Maize and Plant Regeneration

    Peng Jiao1,#, Ruiqi Ma2,#, Zhuo Qi1, Zhenzhong Jiang1, Siyan Liu1, Jing Qu3, Shuyan Guan1,*, Yiyong Ma3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 121-130, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07980
    Abstract This research uses the immature embryos of inbred maize lines (GSH9901, Hi01, Hi02, and Chang 7-2) as receptor materials to establish the callus induction system. These inbred lines provide the receptor materials for the genetic regeneration of maize and the verification of the genetic functions of maize. The factor experiment and orthogonal experiments were used to investigate the impacts of different genotypes, immature embryo size, shield orientation, 2, 4-D concentration, proline concentration, and folic acid concentration on the induction rate of embryogenic callus tissue. A sensitivity experiment testing glyphosate (Bar) and an antibiotic (Cefotaxime sodium) were also conducted. The results… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chemical Constituents from Turnip and Their Effects on α-Glucosidase

    Swastika Paul1,3, Xuemei Zhang1, Yongping Yang2, Changan Geng1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 131-136, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08328
    Abstract Brassica rapa var. rapa (turnip) is an important crop in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) with anti-hypoxic effect. Turnip is rich in glucosinolates, isothiocyanates and phenolic compounds with diverse biological activities, involving anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective and analgesic properties. In this study, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol parts of Brassica rapa were first revealed with inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, whereas the water part was inactive. Subsequent bioassay-guided isolation on the EtOAc and butanol parts yielded 12 compounds, involving three indole derivatives, indole-3- acetonitrile (1) 4-methoxyindole-3-acetonitrile (2) and indole-3-aldehyde (3) two flavonoids, liquiritin (4) and licochalcone A… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Safflower (Carthamus Tinctorius L.) a Potential Source of Drugs against Cryptococcal Infections, Malaria and Leishmaniasis

    Aknur Turgumbayeva1,2, Gulbaram Ustenova1, Ubaidilla Datkhayev1, Khairolla Rahimov3, Silvijus Abramavicius4,5, Agile Tunaityte4,*, Kairat Zhakipbekov1,6, Kaldanay Kozhanova1, Saken Tulemissov7, OzikhanUstenova8, Gulmira Datkayeva9, Edgaras Stankevicius1,10
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 137-146, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.07665
    Abstract In this research we present that Carthamus Tinctorius L. (gen. Asteraceae, otherwise known as Safflower) (Fig. 1) may contain agents active in Cryptococcal infections, malaria and Leishmaniasis, as treatment options are becoming scarce due to drug resistance development. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antimalarial, antileishmanial) of C. tinctorius L. were analyzed. The composition of volatile oil of safflower dried flowers was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and in vitro sensitivity assays were performed to assess biological activity. 8 known and 3 unknown compounds were detected in the extract (Fig. 1). Then the Safflower ointment was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Design and Optimization of Planting Process Parameters for 2ZYX-2 Type Green Onion Ditching and Transplanting Machine

    Jiqiang Zhang1, Ziru Niu1,2, Tianhua Li1,2, Yanqiang Wu1, Rui Xi1, Yuhua Li1, Guanghua Li3, Jialin Hou1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.1, pp. 147-166, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.08479
    Abstract Considering the current low level of mechanization for domestic green onion planting and the high labor intensity of artificial planting, a 2ZYX-2 green onion ditching and transplanting machine, which can complete ditching, ridging, transplanting, repression, soil covering and other operations, is designed in this study. The Central Composite test design method was carried out with the speed of the transplanting machine, the depth of the opener and the horizontal position of the opener as the experimental factors and with the qualification ratio of perpendicularity, the variation coefficient of the plant spacing and the qualification ratio of the planting depth as… More >

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