Vol.91, No.4, 2022-Table of Contents

On the Cover

Wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and exogenous application of phytohormones, seed priming, and nutrient management can be important tools to improve wheat performance under salinity stress.
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  • Salinity Stress in Wheat: Effects, Mechanisms and Management Strategies
  • Abstract Salinity stress is a major threat to global food production and its intensity is continuously increasing because of anthropogenic activities. Wheat is a staple food and a source of carbohydrates and calories for the majority of people across the globe. However, wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in germination, growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, a better understanding of wheat (plant) behavior to salinity stress has essential implications to devise counter and alleviation measures to cope with salt stress. Different approaches… More
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  • Climate Change and Its Adverse Impacts on Plant Growth in South Asia: Current Status and Upcoming Challenges
  • Abstract Socioeconomic development, adaptive capacity of the population, and demographic conditions across the states of South Asia make it more vulnerable to climate change. South Asia is daily going to be more vulnerable to climate change and climatic variability. This region is facing multiple challenges in terms of climate change, dilapidation of ecosystems, and food insecurity. Climate is the primary determining factor for agricultural output, which unswervingly influences food production across the globe. South Asia is mainly an agricultural foundation based region and thus the economy of these regions directly depends on agriculture and agricultural production. Due to the extensive dependence… More
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  • Changes in Germination and Seedling Traits of Sesame under Simulated Drought
  • Abstract Drought is considered one of the leading abiotic constraints to agricultural crop production globally. Present study was conducted to assess the effects of different drought treatments (viz. Control, 10% PEG, and 20% PEG) on seed germination, germination indices, seedling traits, and drought tolerance indices of sesame. Our results showed that maximum reduction in the studied parameters was observed at higher PEG concentration (i.e., 20% PEG). As compared to control, the drought treatments viz. 10% and 20% PEG decreased the values for germination indices, such as germination percentage, coefficient of variation of germination time, germination index, and seedling vigor index. Similarly,… More
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  • OsMAPK6 Affects Male Fertility by Reducing Microspore Number and Delaying Tapetum Degradation in Oryza sativa L.
  • Abstract The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is important in stress signal transduction and plant development. In the present study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant with reduced fertility, Oryza sativa mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (osmapk6), which harbored a mutated MAPK gene. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, TUNEL assays, RNA in situ hybridization, longitudinal and transverse histological sectioning, and map-based cloning were performed to characterize the osmapk6 mutant. The gene OsMAPK6 was expressed throughout the plant but predominantly in the microspore mother cells, tapetal cells, and microspores in the anther sac. Compared with the wild type,… More
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  • Effects of Salt-Alkaline Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Seedlings
  • Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate carbohydrate metabolism in rice seedlings subjected to salt-alkaline stress. Two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Changbai 9) and sensitive (Jinongda 138) rice cultivars, grown hydroponically, were subjected to salt-alkaline stress via 50 mM of salt-alkaline solution. The carbohydrate content and the activities of metabolism-related enzymes in the leaves and roots were investigated. The results showed that the contents of sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the leaves and roots increased under salt-alkaline stress. Starch content increased in the leaves but decreased in the roots under salt-alkaline stress. The activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, amylase,… More
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  • Genome-Wide Analysis of Snapdragon WRKY and VQ Gene Families and Their Expression in Response to Drought and Cold Stresses
  • Abstract Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) is one of the most widely cultivated grass flowers in the world. WRKY transcription factors, VQ proteins and their interactions play crucial roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about WRKY and VQ gene families in snapdragon. In the present study, WRKY and VQ genes and their interactions were comprehensively analyzed in snapdragon using bioinformatics approaches, and their expression in response to drought and cold stresses was examined using real-time PCR. A total of 67 AmWRKY genes were identified in snapdragon, which were classified into different groups or subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis.… More
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  • Tree Height-Related Hydraulic Strategy to Cope with Freeze-Thaw Stress in Six Common Urban Tree Species in North China
  • Abstract Urban trees are sensitive to extreme weather events under climate change. Freeze-thaw induced hydraulic failure could induce urban tree dieback and nullify the services they provide. Plant height is a simple but significant trait for plant ecological strategies. Understanding how urban trees with different heights adapt to freeze-thaw stress is increasingly important under climate change. We investigated the relationship between tree height and stem hydraulic functional traits of six common urban tree species in North China to explore tree height-related hydraulic strategies to cope with freeze-thaw stress. Results showed that tall trees had wider vessels, higher hydraulic conductivity, more winter… More
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  • Diversity of Saxicolous Lichens along an Aridity Gradient in Central México
  • Abstract Lichens are symbiotic organisms that comprise a fungus and a photosynthetic partner wich are recognized as a good indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of how aridity affects the diversity of saxicolous lichens in drylands is still limited. To evaluate the relationship between saxicolous lichen diversity and aridity in a central México dryland, a geographical transect was established of 100 km to build an aridity gradient in the semiarid zone of the State of Querétaro, Mexico, comprising ten sampling sites with a 10 km separation. Species richness, abundance and diversity of soil lichen species were recorded using two sampling methods: the… More
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  • Genotype Screening of Recipient Resources with High Regeneration and Transformation Efficiency in Chrysanthemum
  • Abstract Genetic transformation is one of the key steps in the molecular breeding of chrysanthemum, which relies on an optimal regeneration and transformation system. However, the regeneration system of different chrysanthemum cultivars varies, and the regeneration time of most cultivars is long. To screen cultivars with highly efficient regeneration, leaves and shoot tip thin cell layers (tTCL) from eight chrysanthemum cultivars with different flower colors and flower types were cultured on Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 1.0–5.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 0.1–1.0 mg L−1 α-naphthaleneacetic (NAA). The results showed that the most efficient regeneration media were MS +… More
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  • Vital Parameters Assessments of Starvation Tolerance of in vitro Populus alba Culture
  • Abstract Populus alba is a large woody deciduous plant. The plant has been introduced to shooting, then multiplication of rooting on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. This work was designed to estimate the effect of two factors (low levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid NAA and sucrose) on P. alba response resulting in 6 treatments compared to the control, with twelve measured responses. There was a significant difference in some measurements in morphology, like plantlets fresh-weight, shoot-, root-length, and leaf number. In the physiological measurements, there were significant differences in all the measured parameters. The low concentrations of sucrose and media composition/power (MS… More
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