Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.91, No.4, 2022

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Wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, using arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and exogenous application of phytohormones, seed priming, and nutrient management can be important tools to improve wheat performance under salinity stress.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Salinity Stress in Wheat: Effects, Mechanisms and Management Strategies

    Mahmoud F. Seleiman1,2,#,*, Muhammad Talha Aslam3,#, Bushra Ahmed Alhammad4, Muhammad Umair Hassan5, Rizwan Maqbool3, Muhammad Umer Chattha3, Imran Khan3, Harun Ireri Gitari6, Omer S. Uslu7, Rana Roy8, Martin Leonardo Battaglia9
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 667-694, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017365
    Abstract Salinity stress is a major threat to global food production and its intensity is continuously increasing because of anthropogenic activities. Wheat is a staple food and a source of carbohydrates and calories for the majority of people across the globe. However, wheat productivity is adversely affected by salt stress, which is associated with a reduction in germination, growth, altered reproductive behavior and enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress, and yield reductions. Thus, a better understanding of wheat (plant) behavior to salinity stress has essential implications to devise counter and alleviation measures to cope with salt stress. Different approaches… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Climate Change and Its Adverse Impacts on Plant Growth in South Asia: Current Status and Upcoming Challenges

    Mohammad Saidur Rhaman1,*, Tahjib-Ul-Arif2, Mohammad Golam Kibria3, Anamul Hoque3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 695-711, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018898
    Abstract Socioeconomic development, adaptive capacity of the population, and demographic conditions across the states of South Asia make it more vulnerable to climate change. South Asia is daily going to be more vulnerable to climate change and climatic variability. This region is facing multiple challenges in terms of climate change, dilapidation of ecosystems, and food insecurity. Climate is the primary determining factor for agricultural output, which unswervingly influences food production across the globe. South Asia is mainly an agricultural foundation based region and thus the economy of these regions directly depends on agriculture and agricultural production. Due to the extensive dependence… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes in Germination and Seedling Traits of Sesame under Simulated Drought

    Mukhtar Ahmed1,*, Ahmed M. S. Kheir2,3, Muhammad Zeeshan Mehmood1, Shakeel Ahmad4, Mirza Hasanuzzaman5,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 713-726, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018552
    Abstract Drought is considered one of the leading abiotic constraints to agricultural crop production globally. Present study was conducted to assess the effects of different drought treatments (viz. Control, 10% PEG, and 20% PEG) on seed germination, germination indices, seedling traits, and drought tolerance indices of sesame. Our results showed that maximum reduction in the studied parameters was observed at higher PEG concentration (i.e., 20% PEG). As compared to control, the drought treatments viz. 10% and 20% PEG decreased the values for germination indices, such as germination percentage, coefficient of variation of germination time, germination index, and seedling vigor index. Similarly,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    OsMAPK6 Affects Male Fertility by Reducing Microspore Number and Delaying Tapetum Degradation in Oryza sativa L.

    Wuzhong Yin#, Hongxia Yang#, Yantong Wang, Ping Feng, Yao Deng, Yang Liu, Danyang Chen, Yijie Ban, Weichi Liu, Guanghua He*, Nan Wang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 727-744, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017811
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is important in stress signal transduction and plant development. In the present study, we identified a rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant with reduced fertility, Oryza sativa mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (osmapk6), which harbored a mutated MAPK gene. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR analysis, TUNEL assays, RNA in situ hybridization, longitudinal and transverse histological sectioning, and map-based cloning were performed to characterize the osmapk6 mutant. The gene OsMAPK6 was expressed throughout the plant but predominantly in the microspore mother cells, tapetal cells, and microspores in the anther sac. Compared with the wild type,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Salt-Alkaline Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Seedlings

    Xiwen Shao1, Dongsheng Gai1, Dapeng Gao1, Yanqiu Geng1,*, Liying Guo1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 745-759, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018933
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate carbohydrate metabolism in rice seedlings subjected to salt-alkaline stress. Two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Changbai 9) and sensitive (Jinongda 138) rice cultivars, grown hydroponically, were subjected to salt-alkaline stress via 50 mM of salt-alkaline solution. The carbohydrate content and the activities of metabolism-related enzymes in the leaves and roots were investigated. The results showed that the contents of sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the leaves and roots increased under salt-alkaline stress. Starch content increased in the leaves but decreased in the roots under salt-alkaline stress. The activities of sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, amylase,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Overexpression of a Glycosyltransferase Gene from a Metabolically Poly-Resistant Beckmannia syzigachne Population Alters Growth and Confers Herbicide Resistance to Brachypodium distachyon

    Yizhao Huang1, Nannan Li2, Deya Wang4, Jian Du1, Weitang Liu3, Jinxin Wang3,*, Wei Li1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 761-772, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018462
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Beckmannia syzigachne is a noxious weed for rice-wheat rotations in China. The B. syzigachne (AH-02) population evolved metabolic resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron-methyl. To investigate the function of GT73C1 in this population, the GT73C1 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the sequence was 100% consistent with the transcriptome data. Its phylogenetic tree was displayed and annotated using FigTree v1.4.4. The plant overexpression vector of GT73C1 gene was constructed and used to transform Brachypodium distachyon plants. Furthermore, the expression of GT73C1 was significantly induced by fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and mesosulfuron-methyl, which was consistent with the findings from the whole plant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Analysis of Snapdragon WRKY and VQ Gene Families and Their Expression in Response to Drought and Cold Stresses

    Huaqiao Ding*, Lihui Mao, Qingcheng Zou, Wei Hu, Xuerui Cao, Qing Dong*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 773-789, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018075
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) is one of the most widely cultivated grass flowers in the world. WRKY transcription factors, VQ proteins and their interactions play crucial roles in plant response to abiotic stresses. However, little is known about WRKY and VQ gene families in snapdragon. In the present study, WRKY and VQ genes and their interactions were comprehensively analyzed in snapdragon using bioinformatics approaches, and their expression in response to drought and cold stresses was examined using real-time PCR. A total of 67 AmWRKY genes were identified in snapdragon, which were classified into different groups or subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Population Structure Analysis and Genome-Wide Association Study of Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) K untze) Germplasm in Qiannan, China, Based on SLAFSeq Technology

    Fen Zhang1, Weili Tian1, Lu Cen1, Litang Lv2, Xiaofang Zeng1, Yulu Chen1, Yichen Zhao2,*, Yan Li1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 791-809, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018104
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Duyun Maojian tea is a famous tea in China. In this study, the specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing method was used to analyze the population structure and conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 2 leaf traits of 123 tea plants in Qiannan, China. A total of 462,019 SLAF tags and 11,362,041 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were obtained. The results of phylogenetic tree analysis, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis showed that 123 tea germplasms were clustered into three groups, and the heterozygosity rates for Groups I, II, and II were 0.206, 0.224, and 0.34, respectively. Generally, tea germplasms in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tree Height-Related Hydraulic Strategy to Cope with Freeze-Thaw Stress in Six Common Urban Tree Species in North China

    Cunyang Niu, Wenkai Shou, Li Ma, Jianqiang Qian*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 811-825, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019386
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Urban trees are sensitive to extreme weather events under climate change. Freeze-thaw induced hydraulic failure could induce urban tree dieback and nullify the services they provide. Plant height is a simple but significant trait for plant ecological strategies. Understanding how urban trees with different heights adapt to freeze-thaw stress is increasingly important under climate change. We investigated the relationship between tree height and stem hydraulic functional traits of six common urban tree species in North China to explore tree height-related hydraulic strategies to cope with freeze-thaw stress. Results showed that tall trees had wider vessels, higher hydraulic conductivity, more winter… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Diversity of Saxicolous Lichens along an Aridity Gradient in Central México

    José Carmen Soto-Correa1, Abraham Saldaña-Vega1, Víctor Hugo Cambrón-Sandoval1, Laura Concostrina-Zubiri2, Mariela Gómez-Romero3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 827-840, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017929
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Lichens are symbiotic organisms that comprise a fungus and a photosynthetic partner wich are recognized as a good indicator of climate change. However, our understanding of how aridity affects the diversity of saxicolous lichens in drylands is still limited. To evaluate the relationship between saxicolous lichen diversity and aridity in a central México dryland, a geographical transect was established of 100 km to build an aridity gradient in the semiarid zone of the State of Querétaro, Mexico, comprising ten sampling sites with a 10 km separation. Species richness, abundance and diversity of soil lichen species were recorded using two sampling methods: the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Optimization of Organic Mulches Thickness Improves Soil Moisture Retention under Controlled Conditions

    Jiayi Zhang1, Guohua Fu2, Zhiyang Jin3, Lihang Chi1, Guocheng Xu1, Daran Yue1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 841-857, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017938
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Organic mulch can improve the moisture, chemical composition, dust, and dust suppression of soil, and beautify the environment. In view of the rapid evaporation rate and serious loss of soil water in tropical areas, this paper explored the effect of organic mulch materials with different thickness on the increase of soil water retention rate and the improvement of soil water loss caused by evaporation. Rubberwood sawdust (RWS), rubberwood bark (RWB), coconut fiber (CF), and Mulch (MC) were selected as the mulching materials. Field experiment and laboratory experiment were performed, and soil-moisture content and temperature were continuously monitored. However, from the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Reaction-Finished Solution of Hydrochar (HRFS) Application on Rice Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Saline Soil

    Zhenghua Yi1, Paramsothy Jeyakumar2, Jiang Jiang1, Xiaomian Zhang3, Chunlei Yue3, Haijun Sun1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 859-868, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018396
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Comprehensive Effects of Biochar or other Additives after Applied to Agricultural and Forest Soils)
    Abstract We conducted a pot experiment to examine the feasibility of applying a reaction-finished solution of hydrochar (HRFS) to enhance rice production in a saline soil. With this purpose, HRFS was applied (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mL/pot) and rice yield and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) were determined. HRFS application significantly (P <0.05) increased rice grain yield by 19.6%–30.0% compared to the control treatment (CKU, with N but without HRFS addition). Moreover, HRFS application promoted plant height and straw biomass of rice. Increases of rice yield were mainly achieved by increases in the number of panicles and grains… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genotype Screening of Recipient Resources with High Regeneration and Transformation Efficiency in Chrysanthemum

    Yajun Li1,#, Yumeng Cui1,#, Bingjie Wang1, Yue Li1, Mengmeng Zhang2, Silan Dai1, He Huang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 869-888, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018659
    Abstract Genetic transformation is one of the key steps in the molecular breeding of chrysanthemum, which relies on an optimal regeneration and transformation system. However, the regeneration system of different chrysanthemum cultivars varies, and the regeneration time of most cultivars is long. To screen cultivars with highly efficient regeneration, leaves and shoot tip thin cell layers (tTCL) from eight chrysanthemum cultivars with different flower colors and flower types were cultured on Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 1.0–5.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 0.1–1.0 mg L−1 α-naphthaleneacetic (NAA). The results showed that the most efficient regeneration media were MS +… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vital Parameters Assessments of Starvation Tolerance of in vitro Populus alba Culture

    Mohamed Fathy Ahmed1, Eman Zakaria Ahmed2, Salman Aloufi3, Mohammed Alqurashi3, Amal Alyamani3, Eman Fayad3, Eman Tawfik Hussien2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 889-902, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018600
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Tree Somatic Embryogenesis and Application)
    Abstract Populus alba is a large woody deciduous plant. The plant has been introduced to shooting, then multiplication of rooting on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. This work was designed to estimate the effect of two factors (low levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid NAA and sucrose) on P. alba response resulting in 6 treatments compared to the control, with twelve measured responses. There was a significant difference in some measurements in morphology, like plantlets fresh-weight, shoot-, root-length, and leaf number. In the physiological measurements, there were significant differences in all the measured parameters. The low concentrations of sucrose and media composition/power (MS… More >

  • Open Access

    ERRATUM

    Benzyl Amino Purine and Gibberellic Acid Coupled to Nitrogen-Limited Stress Induce Fatty Acids, Biomass Accumulation, and Gene Expression in Scenedesmus Obliquus

    Hans Christian Correa-Aguado1,3, Gloria Viviana Cerrillo-Rojas1, Alejandro Rocha-Uribe2, Ruth Elena Soria-Guerra2, José Francisco Morales-Domínguez1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.4, pp. 903-903, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020625
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

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