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Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a ubiquitous four-carbon non-protein amino acid that is involved in various physiological processes of plant growth and development, such as root architecture, stem elongation, leaf senescence, pollen tube growth, fruit ripening, and seed germination. GABA is also related to plant stress responses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stresses. Regulation of GABA in plant stress responses is complex and involves multiple signaling pathways, including calcium and hormone signaling. This paper systematically reviews the synthesis, metabolic pathways and regulatory role of GABA in plants, which will provide new insights into the understanding of plant growth and stress responses and offer novel strategies for improving crop productivity and stress.
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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    The Function of GABA in Plant Cell Growth, Development and Stress Response

    Yue Jin1, Lulu Zhi1, Xin Tang1, Yilin Chen1, John T. Hancock2, Xiangyang Hu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2211-2225, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.026595
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Crop)
    Abstract Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a ubiquitous four-carbon non-protein amino acid that is involved in various physiological processes of plant growth and development, such as root architecture, stem elongation, leaf senescence, pollen tube growth, fruit ripening, and seed germination. GABA is also related to plant stress responses, such as drought, salt, cold, and heat stresses. Regulation of GABA in plant stress responses is complex and involves multiple signaling pathways, including calcium and hormone signaling. This paper systematically reviews the synthesis, metabolic pathways and regulatory role of GABA in plants, which will provide new insights into the More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Effect of Dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz.) Intercropping with Different Plant Spacing on Blight and Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Peixin Li1,2,#, Hanbing Liu1,2,#, Yingtong Chen3, Xin Zhang1,2, Ning Cao1,2, Ying Sun1,2, Meimei Jia1,2, Mengran Wu1,2, Xuejiao Tong1,2, Xinmei Jiang1,2, Xihong Yu1,2,*,#, Yao Cheng1,2,*,#
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2227-2244, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027392
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Advances in Molecular Genetics and Physiology towards a Better Understanding of Agricultural Crop Plants)
    Abstract Intercropping of crops that can secrete bacteriostatic active substances can not only inhibit the occurrence of disease but also have an important effect on plant growth. However, the effects of dandelion intercropping on pepper blight control and pepper growth remain unclear. In this study, the control effect of dandelion on pepper blight was studied by inoculating the pepper leaves with Phytophthora infestans, and it also discusses the correlation of the occurrence of pepper epidemic disease with the pepper canopy environment, soil environment, pepper photosynthesis, and yield index. The results showed that best plant distance for dandelion… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    The Ability of Some Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants to Purify Domestic Wastewater

    Abida Kausar1,*, Noreen Zahra1,2, Humaira Kiran1, Sadia Asim3, Abid Raza4, Ali Raza5,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2245-2260, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028264
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Physiological and Molecular Interventions in Improving Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants)
    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the ability of some terrestrial and aquatic plants for wastewater purification. Aquatic plants can remove pollutants from wastewater by consuming and accumulating various contaminants in different parts of plants. Different aquatic and terrestrial plants (Rosa sinensis, Typha latifolia, Ocimm bacilicum, Azolla pinnata, and Salvinia molesta) which have the ability to decrease water pollution were utilized in this study. The capability of five different species of plants was investigated by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and pH of the medium. In this research, some aquatic… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    The Mechanisms of Trichoderma Species to Reduce Drought and Salinity Stress in Plants

    Mohammad Reza Boorboori, Haiyang Zhang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2261-2281, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029486
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: New Approaches to Mitigate Abiotic and Biotic Stresses for Improving Crop Productivity and Quality)
    Abstract Environmental stresses caused by climate change have severely affected agriculture in the present century; Salinity and drought have challenged most forecasts for increased agricultural production in the past few decades, therefore, different methods that reduce the effect of these stresses on plants have attracted scientists’ attention. The effect of beneficial soil microorganisms on soil health and increasing plants’ resistance to stresses is one of the solutions that researchers have paid attention to. This study investigated how Trichoderma species can be affected by the molecular and morphophysiological mechanisms of plants and improve their salt and drought resistance. More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Elicitation-Based Modulation of Shelf Life in Fruits: Physiological and Molecular Insights

    Ankita Kundu1, Abir Das1, Sayan Pal1, Arijit Ghosh1, Malay Kumar Adak1,*, Masayuki Fujita2, Mirza Hasanuzzaman3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2283-2300, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028178
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Phytohormones in Improving Crop Production and Stress Tolerance)
    Abstract The process of ripening involves physiological and biochemical events that become a concern during postharvest storage. We have documented different approaches for the preservation and maintenance of fruit quality during the postharvest period that are biocompatible and fully safe for consumption. Chemical residues that sustain sensory characteristics, such as color, flavor, aroma, and texture, are considered. In fruit ripening, both physical and chemical elicitors are described that regulate ethylene biosynthesis or its signaling for gene expression. The key regulatory enzymes, such as ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, for ethylene biosynthesis, are important for both climacteric… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Selenium: A Game Changer in Plant Development, Growth, and Stress Tolerance, via the Modulation in Gene Expression and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis

    Ali Bandehagh1,*, Zahra Dehghanian2, Vahideh Gougerdchi1, Mohammad Anwar Hossain3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2301-2324, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028586
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Selenium, Silicon and their Nanoparticles-mediated Environmental Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants)
    Abstract The presence of selenium (Se) is not widely established as crucial for crops, although it is commonly recognized as an important nutrient for animals as well as humans. Even so, it is inevitably accepted that Se usually contributes positively to the life cycle of plants. Previous findings suggested that small amounts of Se seem to have a productive role in growth and production. As a result, Se is assumed to function in multiple ways, primarily by influencing a variety of biochemical and physiological functions. Also, Se also acts as a plant antioxidant and pro-oxidant and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Biological Analysis and Response to Low Phosphate Stress of Phosphate Transporter Family 1 (PHT1)) Genes in Solanum tuberosum L.

    Yangyang Du1, Yuanyuan Bao2, Lu Zheng1, Qinglong Tian1, Xinyong Zhang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2325-2348, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027642
    Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is one of the main nutrients necessary for plant growth. Phosphate transporters mediate the acquisition, transport and recycling of phosphate, which is essential for plant growth and development. Although PHT1 has been reported in many plants at home and abroad, it is rarely studied in potato. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the PHT1 family members in order to understand the molecular response mechanism of potato in low phosphate state. In this study, a total of 6 potato PHT1 genes were identified and isolated. It was found that after the expression of… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Genotypic Divergence, Photosynthetic Efficiency, Sodium Extrusion, and Osmoprotectant Regulation Conferred Salt Tolerance in Sorghum

    Ashaduzzaman Sagar1 , Md. Sabibul Haque1, Md. Alamgir Hossain1, Md. Nesar Uddin1, Jannat E. Tajkia1, Md. Ashik Mia1, Toufika Hossain Shabi2, Md. Solaiman Ali Fakir1, Md. Abdul Kader3,4,5, Walid Soufan6, Md. Atikur Rahman7, Muhammad Aamir Iqbal8, Mohammad Sohidul Islam9, Ayman El Sabagh10,*, A. K. M. Zakir Hossain1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2349-2368, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.028974
    Abstract Salt stress is one of the major limitations to modern agriculture that negatively influences plant growth and productivity. Salt tolerant cultivar can provide excellent solution to enhance stress tolerance with plant fitness to unfavorable environments. Therefore, this study was aimed to screen salt tolerant sorghum genotypes through evaluating of different morphological, biochemical, and physiological attributes in response to salinity stress. In this study, we have been evaluated total six sorghum genotypes including Hybrid sorgo, Debgiri, BD-703, BD-706, BD-707, and BD-725 under salt stress (12 dS m−1 NaCl). The response variables included length and weight of root… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Cloning and Functional Validation of Mung Bean VrPR Gene

    Xiaokui Huang1, Yingbin Xue1, Aaqil Khan1, Hanqiao Hu1, Naijie Feng1,2,*, Dianfeng Zheng1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2369-2382, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.027457
    Abstract For the purpose of functional validation, the mung bean (Vigna radiata) VrPR gene was cloned and overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. The findings revealed that the ORF of VrPR contained 1200 bp, in which 399 amino acids were encoded. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the VrPR protein belonged to the NADB Rossmann superfamily, which was one of the non-transmembrane hydrophilic proteins. VrPR was assumed to have 44 amino acid phosphorylation sites and be contained in chloroplasts. The VrPR secondary structure comprised of random coil, α helix, β angle, and extended chain, all of which were quite compatible with the anticipated tertiary structure. More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Overexpression of the LcPIN2 and LtPIN2 Gene in Arabidopsis thaliana Promotes Root Elongation

    Zijian Cao#, Guoxia Xue#, Lingfeng Hu, Haoxian Qu, Shuang Liang, Jisen Shi, Jinhui Chen*, Zhaodong Hao*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2383-2397, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029845
    Abstract The auxin polar transporter, PIN-FORMED 2 (PIN2) plays an important role in root development. However, it remains unclear whether PIN2 genes form two Liriodendron species, L. chinense (LcPIN2) and L. tulipifera (LtPIN2), are both involved in root development and whether and to what extent these two genes diverge in function. Here, we cloned and overexpressed LcPIN2 and LtPIN2 in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) and Atpin2 mutant. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed a small degree of differentiation between these two Liriodendron PIN2 genes. Tissue-specific gene expression analysis indicated that both Liriodendron PIN2 genes were highly expressed in roots, implying a potential role in root… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Manganese on the Antioxidant System and Related Gene Expression Levels in the “Hong Yang” Kiwifruit Seedlings

    Chongpei Zheng1, Liangliang Li2, Zhencheng Han2, Weijie Li2,*, Xiaopeng Wen1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2399-2412, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029891
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: New Approaches to Mitigate Abiotic and Biotic Stresses for Improving Crop Productivity and Quality)
    Abstract

    To explore how manganese affects the antioxidant system and the expression levels of related genes of “Hong yang” seedlings, the leaves of its tissue cultured seedlings were taken as test materials, and single factor treatment was performed by changing the manganese chloride (MnCl2.4H2O) solution concentration when spraying the leaves. The expression levels of Mn-SOD, POD64 and POD27 genes in leaves were quantitatively analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) at different determination times. Meanwhile, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results

    More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Tissue Culture of Calla Lily (Zantedeschia spreng.): An Updated Review on the Present Scenario and Future Prospects

    Xuan Sun1,2, Xue Wang1, Bijaya Sharma Subedi3, Yin Jiang1,2, Di Wang1,2, Rongxin Gou1,2, Guojun Zhang2, Wenting Xu4,*, Zunzheng Wei1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2413-2428, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029667
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Tree Somatic Embryogenesis and Application)
    Abstract The calla lily (Zantedeschia spreng.) is a bulbous flower native to the tropical regions of Africa. Calla lily has gained significant popularity in the international market owing to its intricate morphology and prolonged flowering duration. Despite such advantages, for two sub-groups of calla lily, known as group Zantedeschia and group Aestivae, there are challenges in terms of hybrid production due to the ‘plastome-genome incompatibility’ therebetween. Tissue culture is a fundamental biotechnological tool used in gene editing research, with a focus on disease resistance and flower color in calla lily breeding programs. The present review provides a brief… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    In Vitro Synthetic Seed Production of Potato under Different Fungicide Levels and Storage Intervals

    Tahira Kalsoom1, Touqeer Ahmed1, Muhammad Azam Khan1, Mirza Hasanuzzaman2,*, Mukhtar Ahmed3,*, Stefaan P. O. Werbrouck4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2429-2450, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.030846
    Abstract Potato propagation through tubers and seed is an inefficient way of propagation thus we propose an alternative method in this study which is in vitro propagation. Plantlets were raised from True Potato Seeds (TPS) in test tubes containing 10 mL of Murashige Skoog (MS) medium. Subculturing was done after every 21 days and after four subsequent subculturing, when there was an adequate quantity of stock material, uninodal cuttings of about 3–4 mm in length were prepared from in vitro proliferated potato plants by excising leaves of 1–2 mm on each side of the node. Prepared uninodal cuttings… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    In silico Prediction and Analysis of Potential Off-Targets and Off-Target Mutation Detection in StERF3-Gene Edited Potato Plants

    Hafiza Arooj Razzaq1, Siddra Ijaz1,*, Imran Ul Haq2, Faisal Saeed Awan1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2451-2460, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.030501
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Agricultural Intensification, Climate Change, and Food Security)
    Abstract The imperative aspect of the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a short stretch of 20 nucleotides of gRNA that control the overall specificity. Due to the small size, the chance of its multiple occurrences in the genome increases; however, a few mismatches are tolerated by the Cas9 endonuclease activity. An accurate and careful in silico-based off-target prediction while target selection is preferred to address the issue. These predictions are based on a comprehensive set of selectable parameters. Therefore, we investigated the possible off-target prediction and their screening in StERF3 gene-edited potato plants while developing StERF3-loss-of-function mutants using CRISPR/Cas9 More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed Priming with MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2 as a Biofortification Based-Approach Induces Changes in Anise Seedlings Emergence

    Sibel Day*, Nilüfer Koçak-Şahin
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.92, No.8, pp. 2461-2471, 2023, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.029920
    (This article belongs to the Special Issue: Role of Biostimulants in the Alleviation of Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
    Abstract Aromatic and medicinal plant species having small seeds have field emergence problems due to low nutrient supply. Therefore, Pimpinella anisum seeds were hydro and osmoprimed with 100 mM MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2, for 2, 4, and 8 h each to compare their growth attributes during germination and seedling establishment stages. Nontreated seeds were used as control. Both hydro and osmo primed seeds were dried for 48 h before, they were sown in plastic trays in growth room conditions to see the impact of treatments on seedling emergence and growth. The maximum root length (12.90 cm), fresh weight (256.30… More >

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