Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.91, No.7, 2022

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Quality control of ginseng mainly focuses on the contained saponins. In this work, the volatile components simultaneously from 12 Panax-derived herbal medicines were comparatively analyzed by an untargeted metabolomics approach using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differential volatile components showed the potential to discriminate different ginseng species, which provided a new viewpoint for the precise quality control of ginseng.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Sorghum: Nutritional Factors, Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical and Application in Food Systems: A Review

    Heba I. Mohamed1,*, Eman M. Fawzi1, Abdul Basit2, Kaleemullah3, Rafiq Lone4, Mahmoud R. Sofy5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1303-1325, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020642
    Abstract After wheat, rice, maize, and barley, sorghum is the fifth most widely grown cereal on the planet. Due to its high production, drought resistance, and heat tolerance, this crop is replacing maize in some areas. Sorghum is available in a variety of colors, including cream, lemon-yellow, red, and even black. The principal grain anatomical components are pericarp, germ or embryo and endosperm. This review provides an overview of key sorghum grain components, including starches, fiber, proteins, lipids, and vitamins. Also, we summarized phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, carotenoids, vitamin E, amines, Policosanols and Phytosterols in sorghum grains. Sorghum is used to… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Formation Mechanism and Occurrence Law of Pod Shattering in Soybean: A Review

    Jinfeng Liu1, Yuzhe Zhang1, Yushi Jiang1, Hongji Sun1, Ruijie Duan1, Jing Qu2, Dan Yao1, Siyan Liu2,*, Shuyan Guan2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1327-1340, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019870
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Seed shattering refers to the phenomenon in which the pods split along the abdominal and back sutures before the crop is received, so that the seeds are spread. Seed shattering is vital to the reproduction of their offspring in wild plants, but it is also the main cause of crop yield loss reason. Pod-explosion resistance is a complex process of physical and physiological and biochemical reactions. Soybean seed shattering phenomenon is widespread, which severely restricts the development of soybean industry. Seed shattering (pod cracking or fruit dropping) is essential for the reproduction of its offspring in wild plants, but it… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Chemical Products on Fire Blight Suppression, and Fruit Production and Quality in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. Golden Glory

    Álvaro Rodríguez-Peña1, Ana C. Gonzalez-Franco1, Jared Hernández-Huerta1, Nora A. Salas-Salazar1, Dámaris L. Ojeda-Barrios1, Esteban Sánchez2, Loreto Robles-Hernández1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1341-1351, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019728
    Abstract Antibiotics are widely used in fire blight management programs, yet there are no studies that demonstrate the evaluation of their efficacy in Mexico. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the active ingredients in five commercial products (Kasumin® 2L, Agrygent Plus®, Agricultural Terramycin®, Agrimicin® 100, and Actigard®) on fire blight suppression, and fruit yield and quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. Golden Glory. The experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard using a completely randomized block design, with six treatments: (1) Oxytetracycline [Ox], 110 mg L−1; (2) Kasugamycin [Kas], 4.7 mL L−1; (3) Oxytetracycline + Gentamicin [Ox… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS)-Based Untargeted Metabolomics Analysis for Comparing the Volatile Components from 12 Panax Herbal Medicines

    Simiao Wang1,#, Xiaohang Li1,#, Meiting Jiang1, Xinlong Wu2, Yuying Zhao1, Meiyu Liu1, Xiaoyan Xu1, Huimin Wang1, Hongda Wang1, Heshui Yu2, Wenzhi Yang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1353-1364, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021093
    Abstract Quality control of ginseng currently is mainly based on ginsenoside analysis, but rarely focuses on the volatile organic components. In the current work, an untargeted metabolomics approach, by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS), was elaborated and further employed to holistically compare the compositional difference of the volatile components simultaneously from 12 Panax herbal medicines, which included P. ginseng (PG), P. quinquefolius (PQ), P. notoginseng (PN), red ginseng (PGR), P. ginseng leaf (PGL), P. quinquefolius leaf (PQL), P. notoginseng leaf (PNL), P. ginseng flower (PGF), P. quinquefolius flower (PQF), P. notoginseng flower (PNF), P. japonicus (PJ), and P. japonicusMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Microalgae Improve the Photosynthetic Performance of Rice Seedlings (Oryza sativa L.) under Physiological Conditions and Cadmium Stress

    Ekaterina Yotsova1, Martin Stefanov1, Georgi Rashkov1, Margarita Kouzmanova2, Anelia Dobrikova1, Emilia Apostolova1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1365-1380, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020566
    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on the rice seedlings at physiological conditions and under cadmium (Cd) stress. We examined the effects of C. vulgaris in the nutrient solution on rice seedlings grown hydroponically in the presence and the absence of 150 μM CdCl2, using the low (77 K) temperature and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence, P700 photooxidation measurements, photochemical activities of both photosystems, kinetic parameters of oxygen evolution, oxidative stress markers (MDA, H2O2 and proline), pigment content, growth parameters and Cd accumulation. Data revealed that the application C. vulgaris not… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Proteomics Analysis of Soybean Seedlings under Short-Term Water Deficit

    Xiyue Wang, Zihao Wu, Chao Yan, Chunmei Ma, Shoukun Dong*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1381-1401, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020251
    Abstract Soybeans are one of the most important grain crops worldwide. Water deficit, which seriously affects the yield and quality of soybeans, is the main abiotic stress factor in soybean production. As a follow-up study, the droughttolerant soybean variant Heinong 44 was analyzed via proteome analysis. Soybean was exposed to water deficit for 0, 8, and 24 h, and protein samples were extracted for detection of differentially expressed proteins. Protein sequencing of leaf tissues under water stress yielded a total of 549 differentially expressed proteins: 75 and 320 upregulated proteins as well as 70 and 84 downregulated proteins were obtained after… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Proteomic Profiling and Protein-Protein Interaction Network Reveal the Molecular Mechanisms of Susceptibility to Drought Stress in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Reza Shokri-Gharelo1, Ali Bandehagh1,*, Mohammad Anwar Hossain2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1403-1417, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020431
    Abstract Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses that plants face frequently in nature. Under drought conditions, many morphological, physiological, and molecular aspects of plants are changed and as a result plants experience a remarkable reduction in growth, yield, and reproduction. To expand our understanding of the molecular basis of the plant response to drought stress, the proteomic profile and protein-protein network of canola (Brassica napus L.) were studied. The focus was to show molecular mechanisms related to canola susceptibility to drought stress. The experiment used a completely randomized design, implemented in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phytohormones Accumulation and Distribution in Shoots and Roots of Haploid, Diploid and Tetraploid Barley Seedlings Derived from Microspore Culture

    Longhua Zhou1,2,#, Ting He1,2,#, Jing Li1,2,3, Guimei Guo1,2, Yingbo Li1,2, Hongwei Xu1,2, Runhong Gao1,2, Linli Huang1,2, Yifei Wang1,2, Ruiju Lu1,2, Zhiwei Chen1,2,*, Chenghong Liu1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1419-1428, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019912
    Abstract Phytohormones play important roles in plant growth and development, and polyploids are thought to be an important method for plant breeding. However, the relationship between ploidy and phytohormone is still unclear. In this study, barley at three ploidy levels were produced by microspore culture. Therefore, we further analyzed the phytohormone content in the shoots and roots of the three kinds of barley materials to study the effect of ploidy on phytohormones accumulation and distribution. The results showed that Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA), jasmonic acid (JA), auxin (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and cytokinin (CTK) were successfully determined in shoots and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Discovering Candidate Chromosomal Regions Linked to Kernel Size-Related Traits via QTL Mapping and Bulked Sample Analysis in Maize

    Hameed Gul1, Mengya Qian1, Mohammad G. Arabzai1,2, Tianhui Huang1, Qiannan Ma1, Fangyu Xing1, Wan Cao1, Tingting Liu1, Hong Duan1, Qianlin Xiao1,*, Zhizhai Liu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1429-1443, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019842
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Kernel size-related traits, including kernel length, kernel width, and kernel thickness, are critical components in determining yield and kernel quality in maize (Zea mays L.). Dissecting the phenotypic characteristics of these traits, and discovering the candidate chromosomal regions for these traits, are of potential importance for maize yield and quality improvement. In this study, a total of 139 F2:3 family lines derived from EHel and B73, a distinct line with extremely low ear height (EHel), was used for phenotyping and QTL mapping of three kernel size-related traits, including 10-kernel length (KL), 10-kernel width (KWid), and 10-kernel thickness (KT). The results… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Bioinformatics Analysis of Disease Resistance Gene PR1 and Its Genetic Transformation in Soybeans and Cultivation of Multi-resistant Materials

    Huimin Cui, Shuo Qu, Abraham Lamboro, Yaolei Jiao, Piwu Wang*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1445-1464, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020010
    Abstract In agricultural production, a single insect-resistant and disease-resistant variety can no longer meet the demand. In this study, the expression vector pCAMBIA-3301-PR1 containing the disease-resistant gene PR1 was constructed by means of genetic engineering, and the PR1 gene was genetically transformed to contain the PR1 gene through the pollen tube method. In CryAb-8Like transgenic high-generation T7 receptor soybean, a new material that is resistant to insects and diseases is obtained. For T2 transformed plants, routine PCR detection, Southern Blot hybridization, fluorescence quantitative PCR detection, indoor and outdoor pest resistance identification and indoor disease resistance identification were performed. The results showed… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cloning of the Soybean sHSP26 Gene and Analysis of Its Drought Resistance

    Siyan Liu1,*, Jinfeng Liu1, Yuzhe Zhang1, Yushi Jiang1, Shaowang Hu1, Andi Shi1, Qiyao Cong1, Shuyan Guan2,*, Jing Qu2, Yao Dan1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1465-1482, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018836
    Abstract Exploring the molecular mechanism of soybean response to drought stress, providing a basis for genetic improvement and breeding of heat-resistant varieties, relying on the transcriptome sequencing data of unpollinated ovary at the seven-leaf stage of soybean Jinong 18(JN18) and Jinong 18 mutant (JB18) soybeans, using reverse transcription, one gene in the sHSP family was cloned using PCR (RT-PCR) and it was named sHSP26. In this experiment, the soybean sHSP26 gene was successfully cloned by RT-PCR, the protein encoded by the sHSP26 gene was analyzed by bioinformatics, and the sHSP26 gene overexpression vector and CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing vector were constructed. The positive… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Rate and Source Organo-Mineral Material on Forage Yield and Nutritive Value of Barley-Pea Mixed under Arid Conditions

    Walid Soufan*, Nasser A. Al-Suhaibani
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1483-1493, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020264
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Cereal-legume intercropping plays a vital role in the subsistence food production system that prevails in the arid regions. It not only provides profitable crop productivity for agricultural communities but also plays an important role in improving soil fertility. Therefore, the present research was conducted to assess the effect of the organic and mineral fertilizers on the forage yield and nutritional value in barley-pea intercropping system. The results revealed that the quality of forage grass is significantly influenced by both organic and inorganic fertilizer. Thus, organic fertilizer application has significantly influenced the dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP),… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Different Irrigation Management on the Textural Properties of Double-Cropping Late Indica Rice in South China

    Ruoyu Xiong1, Liming Chen1, Daren Jiang1, Yingjie Zhou1, Xueming Tan1, Xiaohua Pan1, Yongjun Zeng1, Jun Zhang2, Yanhua Zeng1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1495-1502, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018485
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract In order to investigate the effects of different irrigation management on the textural properties of two different double-cropping late Indica rice, the effects of three irrigation management including conventional irrigation (CK), constant irrigation (CI) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) on textural properties has been researched under field conditions of two years. The results indicated that the firmness, cohesiveness and chewiness were decreased under AWD treatment, and the stickiness was increased compared with CK, while the textural properties under CI treatment showed the opposite trend with AWD treatment. Additionally, AWD treatment signifi- cantly improved the springiness of TY871 compared with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Four Origin Plants of Lonicerae Flos (Lonicera; Caprifoliaceae)

    Sisi Liu1, Lisi Zhou2, Jiaoli Huang1, Huijie Zeng1, Zhongquan Qiao1, Yongxin Li1,*, Gang Zhang3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1503-1516, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020390
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract Lonicerae Flos (LF) derived from the dried flower buds or opening flowers of four Lonicera plants (Lonicera macranthoides, L. hypoglauca, L. confusa, and L. fulvotnetosa), is a popular traditional Chinese medicine. Because the four origin plants are very similar in morphology, it is difficult to control the quality of LF in actual production. Over the past decade, many reports have pointed out the differences among them, including the botanical characteristics and active ingredients. However, there is still a lack of rapid methods that can be applied to the identification of the four origins. In this study, comparative analysis of the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Different Mechanisms of Adaptation to Environment among Three Species of Saussurea DC.

    Weimin Zhao1, Fengzhen Li1, Guomin Shi3, Jialei Guo1, Guifang He1, Tao He2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1517-1528, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019630
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Omics in Challenging Environment)
    Abstract Saussurea medusa, Saussurea hypsipeta and Saussurea obvallata are typical alpine snowline plants growing in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. They are characterized by a specialized morphology. S. medusa and S. hypsipeta have very dense trichomes on whole plant, whereas S. obvallata has transparent bracts covered inflorescences. The different forms reflect their adaptation to cold environments. To investigate the different mechanisms of adaptation of these species to cold temperatures, transcriptome sequencing was performed in three species of Saussurea DC. A total of 116394 137237 and 113879 Unigenes were identified from S. medusa, S. hypsipeta and S. obvallata, respectively. Of these, 55909 (48.03%), 65519… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Organic Materials Could Improve the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Soil Potentially Hazardous Metal by Sedum alfredii Hance

    Peifan Wang1,#, Shengting Rao1,#, Jia Fang2, Yongqiang Lv2, Anying Zhao2, Zhengqian Ye2, Weijun Fu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1529-1542, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019368
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Soil potentially hazardous metal (PHM) is continually attracting public attention worldwide, due to its highly toxic properties and potentially huge damage to human being through food chain. Phytoremediation is an effective and eco-friendly way in remediation technology. A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of different organic materials (biogas residue (BR), mushroom residue (MR), and bamboo-shoot shell (BS)) application on phytoremediation of two PHM-contaminated soils (Fuyang soil as ‘heavily-polluted soil’ and Wenzhou soil as ‘moderately-polluted soil’, respectively) by Sedum alfrecdii Hance. The results indicated: 1) for moderately-polluted soil, the 5% BR treatment had the strongest activation to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seasonal Changes in Soil Respiration with An Elevation Gradient in Abies nephrolepis (Trautv.) Maxim. Forests in North China

    Zhijie Tian1,*, Xueying Jia2, Tingting Liu1, Eryan Ma1, Lamei Xue1, Yanqiu Hu1, Qingrong Zheng1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.7, pp. 1543-1556, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020329
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Soil respiration (Rs) plays an important role in regulating carbon cycle of terrestrial ecosystems and presents temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Abies nephrolepis is a tree species that prefers the cold and wet environment and is mainly distributed in Northeast Asia and East Asia. The Rs variations of Abies nephrolepis forests communities are generally environmental-sensitive and can effectively reflect the adaptive responses of forest ecosystems to climate change. In this study, the growing-seasonal variations of Rs, soil temperature, soil water content and soil properties of Abies nephrolepis forests were analyzed along an altitude gradient (2000, 2100, 2200 and 2300 m) over… More >

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