Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.89, No.4, 2020
  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Conservation Strategy for African Medicinal Species: In Vitro Biotechnological Approach

    Priyanka Jha1, Swati Chahal2,3, Devendra Kumar Pandey2,3, Joginder Singh4, Ram Prasad5,*, Vijay Kumar2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 779-794, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09421
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Recent Advances and Opportunities)
    Abstract The use of medicinal plants for different therapeutic values is well documented in African continent. African diverse biodiversity hotspots provide a wide range of endemic species, which ensures a potential medicinal value. The feasible conservation approach and sustainable harvesting for the medicinal species remains a huge challenge. However, conservation approach through different biotechnological tools such as micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, synthetic seed production, hairy root culture, molecular markers based study and cryopreservation of endemic African medicinal species is much crucial. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide different in vitro biotechnological approaches for the conservation of African medicinal… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Therapeutic Applications of Naringenin, a Flavanone Enriched in Citrus Fruits, for Disorders beyond Diabetes

    Jaswinder Kaur1, Manish Vyas2, Joginder Singh1, Ram Prasad3,*, Jeena Gupta1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 795-803, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.09420
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Recent Advances and Opportunities)
    Abstract In recent years, there has been an increase in epidemiological studies to highlight the health benefits of plant secondary metabolites. Flavonoids (polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites) are recently emerging as an important source for the discovery of new drugs increasing their pharmaceuticals, nutraceutical and medicinal applications. Naringenin is a flavanone, enriched in citrus fruits, tomatoes, bergamot, etc. which has been evaluated extensively for managing diabetes. However, in addition to this, naringenin had been ascribed to various important biological activities like antioxidant, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiestrogenic, etc. This article aims at highlighting the therapeutic value of naringenin in managing disorders other than… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Flesh Color Diversity of Sweet Potato: An Overview of the Composition, Functions, Biosynthesis, and Gene Regulation of the Major Pigments

    Hanna Amoanimaa-Dede, Chuntao Su, Akwasi Yeboah, Chunhua Chen, Shaoxia Yang, Hongbo Zhu*, Miao Chen*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 805-833, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011979
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Recent Advances and Opportunities)
    Abstract Sweet potato is a multifunctional root crop and a source of food with many essential nutrients and bioactive compounds. Variations in the flesh color of the diverse sweet potato varieties are attributed to the different phytochemicals and natural pigments they produce. Among them, carotenoids and anthocyanins are the main pigments known for their antioxidant properties which provide a host of health benefits, hence, regarded as a major component of the human diet. In this review, we provide an overview of the major pigments in sweet potato with much emphasis on their biosynthesis, functions, and regulatory control. Moreover, current findings on… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Ethyl Methanesulfonate as Inductor of Somaclonal Variants in Different Crops

    José Gregorio Joya-Dávila, F. A. Gutiérrez-Miceli*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 835-850, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.013679
    Abstract Ethyl methanesulfonate is a chemical mutagen, which is currently being used in plant breeding, to increase genetic variability in genes of agronomic interest, of species useful in agriculture. It primarily causes single base point mutations by inducing guanine alkylation, resulting in GC to AT transitions. Its effect is different between clones of a genotype and between genotypes of the same species. This review presents the results obtained in recent research, where its effect on plant tissues, callus, and cells in suspension has been evaluated. Changes in the phenotypic expression of somaclonal variants were reported, involving morphology, production of secondary metabolites,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variation for Resistance to Alternaria tenuissima and Potential Structural Mechanism among Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Huiyun Li, Ye Liu, Sumei Chen, Jiafu Jiang, Aiping Song, Weimin Fang, Fadi Chen*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 851-859, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.012361
    Abstract Black spot disease, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima (Fr.) Wiltsh (A. tenuissima), is considered a highly destructive disease of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.). A set of 17 accessions of commercial chrysanthemum cultivars were evaluated for resistance to A. tenuissima by seedling artificial inoculation. It was found that the reaction of the accessions to artificial inoculation ranged from resistant to highly susceptible. Five varieties of chrysanthemum (‘Zhongshan Taogui’, ‘Jinba’, ‘Zhongshan Jinguan’, ‘Jinling Wanhuang’ and ‘Jinling Yangguang’) were resistant; two varieties of chrysanthemum (‘Zhongshan Xinggui’ and ‘Zhongshan Jinkui’) were moderately resistant; and others were susceptible to various degrees, four varieties… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Novel Allelic Variation of Brittle-1 with Endosperm Mutant in Maize

    Sen Wang1, Fei Zheng1, Meijing Zhang1, Jun Tu2, Yanping Chen1,3, Jianhua Yuan1,3, Qingchang Meng1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 861-871, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011762
    Abstract Endosperm mutants are critical to the studies on both starch synthesis and metabolism and genetic improvement of starch quality in maize. In the present study, a novel maize endosperm mutant A0178 of natural variation was used as the experimental material and identified and then characterized. Through phenotypic identification, genetic analysis, main ingredients measurement and embryo rescue, development of genetic mapping population from A0178, the endosperm mutant gene was located. The results showed that the mutant exhibited extremely low germination ability as attributed to the inhibited embryo development, and amounts of sugars were accumulated in the mutant seeds and more sugars… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phytosulfokine-α Promotes Root Growth by Repressing Expression of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitor (PMEI) Genes in Medicago truncatula

    Liangliang Yu*, Wenjun Zhou, Danping Zhang, Junhui Yan, Li Luo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 873-881, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011882
    Abstract Phytosulfokine-α (PSK-α), a sulfated pentapeptide with the sequence YIYTQ, is encoded by a small precursor gene family in Arabidopsis. PSK-α regulates multiple growth and developmental processes as a novel peptide hormone. Despite its importance, functions of PSK-α in M. truncatula growth remains unknown. In this study, we identified five genes to encode PSK-α precursors in M. truncatula. All of these precursors possess conserved PSK-α signature motif. Expression pattern analysis of these MtPSK genes revealed that each gene was expressed in a tissue-specific or ubiquitous pattern and three of them were remarkably expressed in root. Treatment of M. truncatula seedlings with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Promote Root Growth by Interfering with Auxin Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Jiali Wei*, Ying Zou, Ping Li, Xiaojun Yuan
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 883-891, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010973
    Abstract TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are widely used in the world, and a considerable amount of nano-TiO2 is released into the environment, with toxic effects on organisms. In the various species of higher plants, growth, including seed germination, root elongation, and biomass accumulation, is affected by nano-TiO2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we observed that nano-TiO2 promoted root elongation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that nano-TiO2 elevated auxin accumulation in the root tips of the auxin marker lines DII-VENUS and DR5:: GUS, and, correspondingly, quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that nano-TiO2 increased the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Nano-Cerium Oxide on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Vitex negundo

    Zi Yang, Shixian Fan, Xuehan Wei, Zhiming Zhang, Xin Gui*, Yong Zhao*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 893-903, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.013644
    Abstract Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are likely to have dramatic impacts on plant performances, yet the effects of CeO2NPs on seed germination and seedling growth have not been fully explored. In this study, the seed germination and seedling growth of subshrub species Vitex negundo under different concentrations of CeO2NPs (low-1 mg/L, medium-100 mg/L, high-500 mg/L) have been discussed. Results showed that: (1) The seed germination rate reduces by 11.25% and 2.5% under the low and medium concentrations of CeO2NPs, respectively, but increased by 7.08% under the high concentration; (2) CeO2NPs had significant effects on the growth traits (root length, shoot height… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Grapevine Phenological Quantitative Trait SSR Genotyping Using High-Throughput HRM-PCR Analysis

    Murad Awad1, Photini V. Mylona2, Alexios N. Polidoros1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 905-923, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011235
    Abstract Discrimination among grapevine varieties based on quantitative traits, such as flowering, veraison and ripening dates is crucial for variety selection in the context of climate change and in breeding programs. These traits are under complex genetic control for which 6 linked SSR loci (VVS2, VVIn16, VMC7G3, VrZAG29, VMC5G7, and VVIB23) have been identified. Using these markers in HRM-PCR analysis, we assessed genetic diversity among a large collection of 192 grapevine varieties. The grapevine germplasm used encompasses the majority of Greek vineyard with 181 varieties, 3 prominent foreign varieties and 11 varieties of Palestinian origin. The SSR markers used were highly… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Characterization and Expression of Ammonium Transporter in Peach (Prunus persica) and Regulation Analysis in Response to External Ammonium Supply

    Meiling Tang1,2,#, Yuhe Li1,3,#, Yahui Chen1,4, Lei Han1,3, Hongxia Zhang1,3, Zhizhong Song1,3,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 925-941, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011184
    Abstract As the preferred nitrogen (N) source, ammonium (NH4+ ) contributes to plant growth and development and fruit quality. In plants, NH4+ uptake is facilitated by a family of NH4+ transporters (AMT). However, the molecular mechanisms and functional characteristics of the AMT genes in peach have not been mentioned yet. In this present study, excess NH4+ stress severely hindered shoot growth and root elongation, accompanied with reduced mineral accumulation, decreased leaf chlorophyll concentration, and stunned photosynthetic performance. In addition, we identified 14 putative AMT genes in peach (PpeAMT). Expression analysis showed that PpeAMT genes were differently expressed in peach leaves, stems… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Exogenous Manganese (Mn) on Mineral Elements, Polyamines and Antioxidants in Apple Rootstock Malus robusta Rehd.

    Dazhuang Qi1,2,4,#, Meixia Liang1,2,4,#, Fudong Jiang3, Jianzhao Li1,2,4, Xuqiang Qiao1,2,4,*, Hongxia Zhang1,2,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 943-955, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.013801
    Abstract Manganese (Mn) is one of the essential microelements in all organisms. However, high level of Mn is deleterious to plants. In this study, the effects of exogenous manganese application on mineral element, polyamine (PA) and antioxidant accumulation, as well as polyamine metabolic and antioxidant enzyme activities, were investigated in Malus robusta Rehd., a widely grown apple rootstock. High level of Mn treatments decreased endogenous Mg, Na, K and Ca contents, but increased Zn content, in a Mn-concentration-dependent manner. Polyamine metabolic assays revealed that, except the content of perchloric acid insoluble bound (PIS-bound) spermine, which increased significantly, the contents of putrescine… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative Analyses and Phylogenetic Relationships between Cryptomeria fortunei and Related Species Based on Complete Chloroplast Genomes

    Yingting Zhang1,2,3, Junjie Yang1,2,3, Zhenhao Guo1,2,3, Jiaxing Mo1,2,3, Jiebing Cui1,2,3, Hailiang Hu1,2,3, Jin Xu1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 957-986, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011211
    Abstract Cryptomeria fortunei (Chinese cedar) is a highly adaptable woody species and one of the main forest plantation trees in subtropical high-altitude areas in China. However, there are few studies on its chloroplast (cp) genome. In this study, the complete cp genome of C. fortunei was sequenced and evaluated via comparative analyses with those of related species (formerly the Taxodiaceae) in Cupressaceae. The C. fortunei cp genome was 131,580 bp in length, and the GC content of the whole genome was 35.38%. It lost one relevant large inverted repeat and contained 114 unique genes, including 82 protein-coding genes, 28 tRNAs and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genome-Wide Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with β-glucan Traits in a Hulled and Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Population

    Longhua Zhou1,2,#, Ting He1,2,#, Guimei Guo1,2, Jing Li1,2, Ruiju Lu1,2, Yingbo Li1,2,*, Chenghong Liu1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 987-997, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011728
    Abstract Barley grain is a valuable source of β-glucan, which is an important component of dietary fiber with significant human health benefits. Although the genetic basis of β-glucan biosynthesis has been widely studied, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is still required for a scan of the candidate genes related to the complex quantitative trait based on the high-quality barley reference genome. In this study, a GWAS was conducted using a population composed of 87 barley landraces (39 hulled and 48 hulless, β-glucan from 2.07% to 6.56%) with 191,098 nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers to cover the chromosomes with the highest density. The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    2,4-D Hyper Accumulation Induced Cellular Responses of Azolla pinnata R. Br. to Sustain Herbicidal Stress

    Arnab Kumar De, Arijit Ghosh, Debabrata Dolui, Indraneel Saha, Malay Kumar Adak*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 999-1017, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010828
    Abstract In the present experiment with ongoing concentration (0 µM, 100 µM, 250 µM, 500 µM and 1000 µM) of 2,4-D, the responses of Azolla pinnata R.Br. was evaluated based on cellular functions. Initially, plants were significantly tolerated up to 1000 µM of 2,4-D with its survival. This was accompanied by a steady decline of indole acetic acid (IAA) concentration in tissues with 78.8% over the control. Membrane bound H+ -ATPase activity was over expressed within a range of 1.14 to 1.25 folds with activator (KCl) and decreased within a range of 57.3 to 74.6% in response to inhibitor (Vanadate) application.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes of the Flowering Time of Trees in Spring by Climate Change in Seoul, South Korea

    Hyewon Kim1, Chanwoo Park2, Jong Hwan Lim2, Hye Woo Shin3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1019-1033, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010649
    Abstract Flowering onset has attracted much attention in ecological research as an important indicator of climate change. Generally, warmer temperatures advance flowering onset. The effect of climate warming on flowering onset is more pronounced in spring because the difference between atmospheric and water temperatures creates more rapid convection than in other seasons. We analyzed the correlation between 73 species of spring woody plants in Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, South Korea and the spring minimum temperature and average precipitation over the past 50 years (1968–2018). The spring minimum temperature and average precipitation have increased over the past 50 years, resulting in the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of Biochar on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Root Morphology of Rice-Seedling in Two Contrasting Paddy Soils

    Lei Chu1,2, Yu Zhang1,2, Long Qian1,2, Dandan Zhu1,2, Haijun Sun1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1035-1042, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.014506
    Abstract Biochar may affect the root morphology and nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) of rice at seedling stage, which has not been clearly verified until now. To clarify it, we conducted a pot experiment regarding to two soil types (Hydragric Anthrosol and Haplic Acrisol), two biochar application rates (0.5 wt% and 1.5 wt %) and two rice varieties (common rice var. Xiushui134 and hybrid super rice var. Zhongkejiayou12-6) meanwhile. Seedling NUE of common rice Xiuhui134 was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 78.2% in Hydragric Anthrosol and by 91.4% in Haplic Acrisol following biochar addition with 1.5 wt%. However, biochar addition… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Critical Yield Factors for Achieving High Grain Yield in Early-Season Rice Grown under Mechanical Transplanting Conditions

    Jiana Chen1, Ruichun Zhang2, Fangbo Cao1, Xiaohong Yin1,3, Tianfeng Liang3, Min Huang1,*, Yingbin Zou1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1043-1057, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011361
    Abstract Double-season rice cropping systems occupy a large portion of the rice production area in southern China. Because the problem of insufficient labor, mechanical transplanting (in contrast to the manual transplanting) was become more attractive in double-season rice system. However, the decisive yield factors which resulting in high grain yield of early-season rice are unclear under mechanical-transplanted conditions. In present study, the field experiments were conducted in the early season in 2017 and repeated in 2018 in Santang Town, Hunan Province, China. Ten early season rice cultivars (Zhuliangyou 819, Lingliangyou 268, Lingliangyou 104, Luliangyou 996, Xiangzaoxian 24, Xiangzaoxian 32, Xiangzaoxian 45,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    DNA-Barcoding of Some Medicinal Plant Species in Saudi Arabia Using rbcL and matK Genes

    Abdulrahman Alasmari*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1059-1081, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010952
    Abstract In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), thousands of plants are considered to have therapeutic value. The ambiguous use of identification mainly morphological characteristics of many plants has resulted in the adulteration and displacement of plant products which undermine their therapeutic value and weak documentation of plant resources. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate genetic variability and explore the phylogeographic architecture for Saudi medicinal plant samples using rbcL and matK genes as barcodes for genomic identification. The matK and rbcL sequences collected for these samples were used as key markers for examining the relationship between Saudi medicinal… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chemical Constituents of Pedicularis longiflora var. tubiformis (Orobanchaceae), a Common Hemiparasitic Medicinal Herb from the Qinghai Lake Basin, China

    Feng Liu1,2,3, Zilan Ma1,2,3, Marcos A. Caraballo-Ortiz4, Hui Zhang5, Xu Su1,2,3, Yuping Liu1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1083-1090, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.011239
    Abstract Pedicularis longiflora var. tubiformis (Orobanchaceae) is an abundant parasitic herb mainly found in the Xiaopohu wetland of the Qinghai Lake Basin in Northwestern China. The species has an important local medicinal value, and in this study, we evaluated the chemical profile of its stems, leaves and seeds using mass spectrometry. Dried samples of stems, leaves and seeds were grinded, weighted, and used for a series of extractions with an ultrasonic device at room temperature. The chemical profiles for each tissue were determined using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (LC-MS). Twenty-seven amino acids and organic acids were identified… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Different Geographical Aspects and Ontogenetic Variability on Total Hypericin Content of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. and Hypericum scabrum L.

    Emine Aslan, Dogan Arslan*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1091-1099, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010835
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Secondary Metabolites: Recent Advances and Opportunities)
    Abstract The present study was conducted to determine the total hypericin contents of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. and Hypericum scabrum L. species which are naturally distributed in the flora of Siirt province, Turkey. Hypericin contents of Hypericum species grown in different geographical aspects (North, South, East, and West), and it was measured at different harvest times (full blooming and post blooming period). In the current study, it has been determined that total hypericin content varies considerably according to aspects, plant developmental stages (ontogenetic variance), and species. According to species x aspect interaction, the highest total hypericin content was recorded from the west… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Metabolic Profiling in Banana Pseudo-Stem Reveals a Diverse Set of Bioactive Compounds with Potential Nutritional and Industrial Applications

    Guiming Deng1,2,3, Ou Sheng1,2,3, Fangcheng Bi1,2,3, Chunyu Li1,2,3, Tongxin Dou1,2,3, Tao Dong1,2,3, Qiaosong Yang1,2,3, Huijun Gao1,2,3, Jing Liu4, Xiaohong Zhong4, Miao Peng4, Ganjun Yi1,2,3, Weidi He1,2,3, Chunhua Hu1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.89, No.4, pp. 1101-1130, 2020, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2020.010970
    Abstract Banana (Musa spp.) is an ancient and popular fruit plant with highly nutritious fruit. The pseudo-stem of banana represents on average 75% of the total dry mass but its valorization as a nutritional and industrial by-product is limited. Recent advances in metabolomics have paved the way to understand and evaluate the presence of diverse sets of metabolites in different plant parts. This study aimed at exploring the diversity of primary and secondary metabolites in the banana pseudo-stem. Hereby, we identified and quantified 373 metabolites from a diverse range of classes including, alkaloids, flavonoids, lipids, phenolic acids, amino acids and its… More >

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