Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.80, 2011
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selection of double purpose wheat genotypes. Vernalization requirements

    Morant AE, HD Merchán, EE Lutz
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 5-8, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.005
    Abstract This study aimed to characterize wheat cultivars for their chilling requirements for differentiation and their relationship to flowering time, to establish a dual purpose ideotype. Seeds of eight genotypes (cultivars and advanced lines) of bread wheat were exposed to constant temperature (4 °C) in germination chambers for 8, 6, 4 and 2 weeks. A control treatment was kept at room temperature. Four replicates of each treatment were placed in the greenhouse in 250 cc pots containing 4 seedlings each, with irrigation and natural photoperiod, following a randomized complete block design. The greenhouse temperature was constant (20 °C) and the natural… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Diversity patterns of climbing plants and vascular epiphytes in the Valdivian rain forest of South America: a synthesis between 2000 and 2010

    Pincheira-Ulbrich J
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 9-18, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.009
    Abstract Knowledge about the diversity patterns of vascular epiphytes and vines in the Valdivian rainforest of South America between 2000 and 2010 was systematized. The method was based on the review of publications available in four electronic databases using keywords. The results showed 12 studies conducted in Chile and two in Argentina, mostly in primary forests within protected areas. Research was carried out essentially at the habitat level, although there were one study at a landscape level and two reviews at a regional scale. The samples used came from ground-based observations and only two studies accessed the canopy of emergent trees.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic effect estimation related to seed and seedling vigor in Mexican tropical corns

    Cervantes Ortiz F1, G García De los Santos2, A Carballo Carballo2, D Bergvinson3, JL Crossa3, M Mendoza Elos1, E Andrio Enríquez1, JG Rivera Reyes1, E Moreno Martínez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 19-26, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.019
    Abstract We determined the genetic components, and the correlation between the F1 and the F2 generations, for traits like seed and seedling vigor using a diallel crossing design. The study involved six tropical maize inbred lines from the CIMMYT. Crosses were formed in CIMMYT’s Maize Research Station in Tlaltizapan, Morelos during the summer of 2004. In order to produce F2 seeds, F1 crosses were grown at Tepalcingo, Mor. and Iguala, Guerrero. This was accomplished by controlling pollinations (half sibs). Seeds from the F1 and the F2 crosses were evaluated at the Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Mexico. F1 and F2 seeds were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic variability of non-typical Azospirillum brasilense isolates by PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA

    Pérez Castañeda LM, MA Cruz Hernández, A Mendoza Herrera
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 27-34, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.027
    Abstract Various studies have shown the symbiotic association of Azospirillum brasilense with different grasses of nutritional importance. A high variability among the isolated strains has been observed. This is consistent with the genetic diversity that Azospirillum has shown in sugarcane isolates. However, if this is also the case in maize and sorghum isolates is unknown. In addition, it has also been reported that most of the isolates come from tropical regions where water is not limiting for maize and sorghum production. We analyzed the genetic variability of Azospirillum brasilense isolates obtained from arid zones of Northeast Mexico in maize and sorghum.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seventeen spp. new records for the Moss flora of Iraq

    Farhad H. Aziz
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 35-46, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.035
    Abstract Samples and specimens of mosses were collected in different parts of Erbil, Sulaimani, Duhok and Even Kirkuk provinces in Iraq Kurdistan Region, since 1998 to April 2010. This collection could be taken as the representative species of mosses on the soil surface, rocks and tree barks of either terrestrial and aquatic habitats of foothills, mountains and plains. A total of 67 species distributed in 32 genera, 16 families and 9 orders were found. Among them there were 17 species in 10 genera, the 2 families Schistogaceae and Ephemeraceae and the single order Schistostegales. The rarest species recorded in this study… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Growth analysis of three varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in an arid region of Mexico

    Orozco-Vidal JA1, P Yescas-Coronado1, MA Segura-Castruita1, R Valdez-Cepeda2, E Martínez-Rubín de Celis1, JA Montemayor-Trejo1, M Fortis-Hernández1, P Preciado-Rangel1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 47-52, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.047
    Abstract The development of three cotton varieties was evaluated through the growth analysis technique. Study varieties were two of normal leaf (Cian Precoz and NuCotton 35B) and the other of okra leaf (Fiber Max 832). Vegetative and reproductive samplings effected at different days after planting (dap) allowed us to determine the (1) growth dynamics, (2) production efficiency and (3) the biomass distribution of the three cotton varieties. Seeding was conducted following the production system of narrow rows (0.76m, between rows; 0.20m between plants) to obtain a plant density of 65500 plants/ha. Varieties were distributed in a random block experimental design with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    AFLP marker application to explore heterosis in Capsicum spp.

    Castañón-Najera G1, M Ramírez-Meraz3, R Ruiz-Salazar4, N Mayek-Pérez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 53-58, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.053
    Abstract The chili varieties: (1) Mirador, (2) Piquín huasteco, (3) Pico paloma, (4) Ozulamero and (5) Chilpaya Tabasco were crossed in a diallel without reciprocal crosses to produce 10 F1 hybrid combinations. While the previous varieties (1), (2) and (4) belong to Capsicum annuum varieties, (3) and (5) pertain to Caspicum frutescens. The four study AFLP markers amplified 282 bands or fragments, and of these, 264 were polymorphic. The estimated Genetic Parameters showed that there was dominance based on the genetic distances in the study DNA fragments. Heritability, which was estimated in a narrow sense, was moderate (0.53). This indicated the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Obtaining new germplasm in Cenchrus ciliaris L. through induced-mutation and in vitro selection

    López Colomba E1, A Prina2, S Griffa1, AN Ribotta1, E Carloni1, E Tommasino1, C Luna1, E Biderbost1, K Grunberg1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 59-64, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.059
    Abstract Cenchrus ciliaris L., a forage grass of wide distribution in the north-west of Argentina, is a tetraploid (4x = 36) and obligate apomictic species. One way of obtaining novel germplasm is by induced mutations. In this work, physical and chemical mutations are combined with in vitro selection procedures seeking for new germplasm, with emphasis on salinity and drought tolerance. Mature seeds of Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv Biloela were subjected to treatments with X rays (400 Gy) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) water solution (5.5 mM for 24 h). To perform in vitro selection, after 7 days of EMS or X rays… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Macronutrient extraction in banana ‘Dominico’ (Musa spp.)

    Castillo González AM1, JA Hernández Maruri1, E Avitia García1, J Pineda Pineda2, LA Valdéz Aguilar3, T Corona Torres4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 65-72, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.065
    Abstract Musa spp. is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Production in Mexico is ranked in the eighth place in the world. Nutrient imbalance is one of the main agronomic problems this species has to deal with. Modern fertilization programs must be designed based on nutrient demand by the cultivated plants, and according to their phenological phase. However, no information is available for ‘Dominico’, one of the most widespread cultivars in Mexico. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate dry mass and macronutrient accumulation and distribution in banana ‘Dominico’ during the fruit development phase. This… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed and seedling morphology of Dicliptera squarrosa Nees (Acanthaceae) as a character identification source, and its relationship with survival structures

    Perissé P1, RJ Lovey2, CV Arias3, M Scandaliaris2, ML Molinelli1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 73-78, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.073
    Abstract Dicliptera squarrosa Nees, “canario rojo”, “coral de campo” or “ajicillo”, is a perennial native herb of the north, center and east of Argentina. It is cited as an ornamental, apiarian, emergency forage plant, and as a glyphosate-tolerant weed. The objectives were to characterize the seed and seedling of D. squarrosa and to establish the relationships with the structures that ensure its survival. The materials were treated with the conventional methodology to perform morphological studies, using stereoscopically and optical microscopy. The germination assays were carried out to determine the germination percentage and the germination type. The weight of 1000 seeds was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of axillary buds of potato seedlings based on a vision system with fuzzy logic

    Martínez Corral L1, E Martínez-Rubin2, F F lores-García3, M Vázquez-Rueda3, J Frías-Ramírez2, MA Segura-Castruita2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 79-84, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.079
    Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a crop whose production yield at national level is very low compared with that in the most productive countries. This is because it is a partially automated crop with deficient and inadequate agronomic practices, low technification levels and great quantity of work wages required per hectare of cultivation. The necessity to generate technical and modern procedures that increase crop production, quality and yield has fostered development of projects leading to obtain seedlings free of pathogens with material of high genetic, physiological and sanitary quality. Utilization of a vision system for the computerized visual recognition of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Composition and abundance of phytoplankton ın relation to physical and chemical variables in The Kars River, Turkey

    Özbay H
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 85-92, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.085
    Abstract The phytoplankton of the Kars River was studied from May to October 2005 at five sampling stations. Sixty-six phytoplankton taxa were determined, consisting of Cyanophyta (9), Chlorophyta (25), Euglenophyta (18), Bacillariophyta (7), Cryptophyta (3), Dinophyta (1) and Chrysophyta (3). Total phytoplankton density increased from May to July and then decreased until October. The dominant phytoplankton group was Cyanophyta (36.5 - 64.4%) for most of the study period, followed by Bacillariophyta (20.4 – 38.7%) and Chlorophyta (20.9 – 28.9%). Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen ranged from 9.6 °C to 21.6 °C; 7.6 to 8.0, and 5.9 to 7.4 mg/L, respectively. Chlorophyl… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Indole-3-butyric acid on rooting and endogenous plant hormones in tetraploid and diploid Robinia pseudoacacia hardwood cuttings

    Wang XL1,2, Z Zhao1, JE Quan1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 93-100, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.093
    Abstract Robinia pseudoacacia (locust hereafter) is an ornamental tree with various uses. Both homologous tetraploid (tetraploid hereafter) and diploid cultivars are commercially available. The tetraploids have advantageous traits, but poor germinability, and cuttings are difficult to root. Since auxin applications can promote rooting, we evaluated the effects of dipping cuttings in various indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations for four hours on rooting parameters. IBA significantly affected all measured parameters of both tetraploid and diploids cuttings. Tetraploid cuttings produced no roots without IBA. The effects were strongest at 1000 and 800 mg/L IBA for tetraploids and diploids, respectively. Values for tetraploids and diploids… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of cold storage, heat, smoke and charcoal on breaking seed dormancy of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Ericaceae)

    Jurado E1, M Márquez-Linares2, J Flores3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 101-105, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.101
    Abstract We evaluated the effect of cold storage and fire-related cues on seed germination of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Mexican Manzanita), a common shrub in poorly managed pine-oak forests in Durango, Mexico. Because this shrub has a high density in previously burnt forests, we investigated the effect that high temperatures, smoke and charcoal might have on seed germination of this species. Seeds were collected fresh from the shrubs. The highest germination was 30% for seeds that had been cold stored, heat shocked, past through smoke and watered with diluted charcoal. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Tuberous root yield of Dahlia variabilis Wild (Desf.) under different agronomic management practices

    Arenas Julio YR1, R Delgado-Martínez1, EJ Morales-Rosales2, A Laguna-Cerda2, O Franco-Mora2, E Urbina Sánchez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 107-112, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.107
    Abstract The Dahlia variabilis Wild (Desf.) is considered the Mexican national flower and their exploitation is mainly for ornamental purposes. Recent studies have shown that the tuberous roots dry weight of this species contains from 38 to 53% of a polysaccharide of fructose called inulin. The consumption of this compound does not elevate the levels of glucose in the blood of human beings, making this polysaccharide an attractive product for the food industry. This fact has helped to diversify (1) the production of Dahlia variabilis and (2) research towards the production of their roots. The aim of this study was to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variety responses to vernalization and photoperiod in double purpose wheat varieties

    Morant AE, HD Merchán, EE Lutz
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 113-117, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.113
    Abstract The wheat vernalization response is controlled by three recessive alleles identified and located, that allows to characterize varieties through genetic analysis. However, it is unknown whether the same genetic constitution at a loci scale in different varieties implies the same (1) requirement of cold hours, and (2) interaction with the photoperiod for induction. Therefore, we conducted an experiment with varieties carrying the alleles (vrn-A1, vrn-B1 vrn-D1), extreme condition of vernalization requirements, to compare the duration of the vegetative phase under different photoperiods. The study was conducted in a greenhouse with four varieties of double purpose wheat. The treatments were 8,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of photosynthetic and morphological characteristics, and microstructure of roots and shoots, between columnar apple and standard apple trees of hybrid seedlings

    Zhang YG, HY Dai
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 119-125, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.119
    Abstract The photosynthetic and morphological characteristics, and microstructure of roots and shoots, were studied between columnar apple and standard apple trees derived from the crosses of ‘Fuji’ × ‘Telamon’ and ‘Gala’ × ‘Telamon’. The results showed that chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, the content of chlorophyll A+B, and leaf area index were higher in columnar apple trees than in standard apple trees. In a day cycle, the net photosynthetic (Pn) and transpiration rates (Tr) were higher in the columnar apple trees than in standard apple trees. The daily variations of Pn and Tr were of a double peak cure. Light saturation points… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Population dynamics of Millettia stuhlmannii Taub. in Ha-Makhuvha, Vhembe district of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Tshisikhawe MP1, NM Siaga1, RB Bhat1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 127-132, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.127
    Abstract The population dynamics of Millettia stuhlmannii Taub. was investigated to determine its current structure in Ha- Makhuvha. Plant populations are being utilized only for medicinal purposes under the close supervision of a local headman. It is used in treating stomach aches, as well as protecting homesteads and properties. Given the dependence of many rural communities on plants for medicine, timber, and various other non-timber resources, plant populations experience human pressures. These pressures demand great effort for in situ conservation and associated management needs of medicinal plants. Efforts also apply to sustainable usage and ex situ cultivation practices. The size-class distribution… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Notes on the sexual condition of Myriophyllum aquaticum, Haloragaceae

    Torres Robles SS1, G Peter1,2, NM Tur3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 133-138, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.133
    Abstract Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. is native of South America and has a pantropical distribution. This species has been cited as dioecious, monoecious and polygamous. The purpose of this paper was to contribute to the discussion of its sexual condition, based on herbarium material, and supported by field observations. Herbarium material from Argentina was examined. Also, twenty branches from the Punta Lara Nature Reserve (Buenos Aires, Argentina) were periodically sampled to record the sex of flowers present on each whorl during the flowering period of 2002. Both in herbarium material and in field, we observed specimens with branches bearing either female… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A revision of Eupatorium (Compositae: Eupatorieae) from Michoacan

    Garcia Sanchez E1,2, CB Ramirez Lopez1,2, REN del Rio Torres2, MM Martinez Pacheco2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 139-146, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.139
    Abstract An important study in species of the genus Eupatorium, that inhabits other parts of the world, was conducted in the search for new molecules with pharmacological activities, thus showing that it is a potential source of novel secondary metabolites. We reviewed the number of Eupatorium species that have been described in the State of Michoacan, and that can be available for harvesting, to make a phytochemical screening. It was found that 69 Eupatorium spp are growing in 69% of the Michoacan territory. Within this group there are ten species used in Mexican traditional medicine. It was evident the difficulty in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Yield and stability of safflower varieties (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in the Semiarid Pampean Region

    Mirassón HR1, IR Palomo2, RE Brevedan2, MN Fioretti2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 147-151, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.147
    Abstract Safflower production is mainly concentrated in northwestern Argentina although the most suitable area for its production is the central, Semiarid Pampean Region. The response of different varieties able to produce high sustainable yields was studied under different environments, with the idea of promoting these varieties in the study region. Six variety trials were carried out at two locations in the study area, Santa Rosa (La Pampa, 36° 39’ S, 64° 16’ W) and Tres Picos (Buenos Aires, 38° 16’ S, 62° 13’ W), during several years. Relative yield was used as a measure of safflower stability. Varieties S-541, S-200 and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed germination after fire: a study with a plant inhabiting non-fire-prone areas

    Menezes LCCR de1, MN Rossi2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 153-160, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.153
    Abstract After a fire event, germination of seeds with hard coats can be enhanced. In the present study, we investigated whether germination of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze (Fabaceae) seeds, which present hard coats, is increased after fire, even though these trees usually occur in damp areas, where fire is a transient event. Fire events were manipulated in trays filled with soil covered with different amounts of dry grasses, characterizing three treatments: a) 0g (control group); b) 300g, and c) 450g of dry grass. Burning treatments were applied to seeds positioned either on the soil surface or buried in the soil. Germination… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Relationships between the bioactive compound content and environmental variables in Glycyrrhiza uralensis populations in different habitats of North China

    Zhang JT1, B Xu1, M Li2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 161-166, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.161
    Abstract The content of active compounds in Glycyrrhiza uralensis may vary among populations in different regions, and be influenced by environmental variables. We determined the effects of soil and climate on contents of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin in various populations of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Fifty individuals from 5 rangeland populations in arid and semi-arid regions of North China were collected and analyzed. The contents of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin were determined using the HPLC method. Contents of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin varied significantly among populations as follows: Chifeng > Hangjinqi > Minqin > Aletai > Kashi. These contents were significantly correlated with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Interaction genotype x environment and analysis of stability in amaranth genotypes (Amaranthus spp.)

    García-Pereyra J1, CGS Valdés-Lozano2, G Alejandre-Iturbide3, I Villanueva Fierro3, OG Alvarado Gómez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 167-173, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.167
    Abstract Five genotypes of amaranth were evaluated: four of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. (collect 153-5-3, 653, 655 and Criollo Tlaxcala) and one of A. cruentus L. genotype 33. Studies were conducted in the cycle of spring-summer (PV) 2000 in Marín, N. L., and PV 2001 and PV 2002 in El Valle del Guadiana, Dgo. A completely randomized design with two repetitions was used, with factorial arrangement using split-plots, divided in space and time. The study population densities (DP) were 125000; 62500; 41666; 32500 and 18666 plants/ha. They analyzed (1) the stability of the genotypes exposed to different environments following Eberhart & Russell… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Hyperhydricity control of in vitro shoots of Turbinicarpus valdezianus (Möller) GL & F

    García Osuna HT, A Benavides Mendoza, L Escobedo Bocardo, JA Villarreal Quintanilla, E Cornejo Oviedo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 175-179, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.175
    Abstract Turbinicarpus valdezianus is a species under special protection, according to the current law NOM-059-ECOL-2010. It spreads preferably through shoot proliferation in vitro. A common problem associated with the propagation of this species by tissue culture is the hyperhydricity or excess of water accumulation in the tissues of shoots explants. The literature on this topic indicates that such response is related with oxidative stress. Because of this, the effects of inhibitors of the gibberellins [paclobutrazol (PBZ) and calcium prohexadione (PCa)] and salicylic (SA) and benzoic acids (BA) were tested to diminish the hiperhydrycity of the sprouts, which was measured after twelve… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Relationships among six herbal species (Curcuma) assessed by four isozymes

    Deng JB1, CB Ding1, L Zhang1, YH Zhou2, RW Yang1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 181-188, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.181
    Abstract Four isozymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and cytochrome oxidase (COD) were studied for identification of six herbal species (Curcuma L.). All the 37 study specimens produced a total of 168 polymorphism isozyme bands. The genetic distance coefficients (GS) varied from 0.08 to 0.54. The dendrogram, obtained according to the polymorphism isozyme bands by the UPGMA method with the software NTSYS–pc2.1, contributed to improve the resolution of phylogeny. From the dendrogram, it was possible to differentiate between the wild and cultivated specimens of C. longa, and within C. sichuanensis species. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production in soil at different bulk densities under controlled conditions

    Martínez-Rubin de Celis E1, E Rivas-Robles2, L Martínez-Corral3, J Frías-Ramírez1, J Orozco-Vidal1, M Fortis-Hernández1, MA Segura Castruita1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 189-192, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.189
    Abstract Soil compaction or increase of soil bulk density (Da) as a result of applied loads is expressed as an increase in soil bulk density and soil resistance to penetration. Factors in soil compaction due to vehicular traffic include: the amount of load, soil moisture content and the number of passes over the land. Soil compaction results in the formation of layers that can limit or delay (1) the aeration process; (2) root penetration and infiltration; (3) absorption capacity and soil water retention; (4) nutrient movement; (5) heat transfer, and (6) seedling emergency. At the same time, it will produce plants… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Segregation of patches by patterns of soil attributes in a native grassland in central Argentina

    Villamil MB1, NM Amiotti2, N Peinemann3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 193-201, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.193
    Abstract Demand for greater cattle production at the El Caldenal area in central Argentina has resulted in overgrazing in a patchy grassland structure. Patches are clearly identified on the basis of dominant plant species resulting from their grazing history. Our primary objective was to examine the influence of individual plants at each patch on the local multivariate pattern of soil nutrients, assessing the magnitude of the association between the concentration of nutrients in the plant and its underlying soil. Canonical discriminant analysis highlighted the important role of soil organic matter, available P, and Zn content of soils to segregate among patches.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of soil tillage and Phoma macdonaldii on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) yield and oil quality

    Mirleau-Thebaud V1,2, JD Scheiner1, J Dayde1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 203-210, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.203
    Abstract Plant yield and oil content determine sunflower production. Those plant production determinants depend in turn on the plant–environment interaction. In the South West of France, there have been recent advances in soil tillage. To date, 35% of the soil surface dedicated to sunflower is cropped under a reduced tillage system. Major constraints to sunflower cropping are water stress and cryptogamic diseases. The second most important sunflower disease in the South West of France is premature ripening caused by Phoma macdonaldii. Aims of this work were to: 1) understand how these factors influence sunflower yield, and 2) quantify the fatty acid… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Molecular markers to study the variability within the Eragrostis curvula complex

    Zappacosta D1, M Meier1, A Carrera1, G Pacheco2, S Cardone3, JP Selva1, V Echenique1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 211-220, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.211
    Abstract Weeping lovegrass is well adapted for forage production and useful for soil conservation in semiarid regions, constituting a morphologically diverse group. Diploid genotypes are unfrequent and reproduce sexually, whereas the tetraploids and plants of higher ploidy levels reproduce by apomixis. In the present work RAPD, AFLP and EST-SSR were used in order to assess the reproductive mode through progeny tests, to determine intracultivar homogeneity or seed purity, to establish genetic relationships among the cultivars within the complex and to characterize the new materials obtained by our group. Eight commercial cultivars and three new plant materials were analyzed. Uniform and variable… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Freckles, a blemish of onion bulbs caused by Sclerotium sp.

    Kiehr M, R Delhey
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 221-225, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.221
    Abstract Freckles is a new blemish of white-scaled onion bulbs in the Lower Rio Colorado Valley (Argentina) characterized by the formation of small sclerotia imbedded in the dry scale tissue. The causal agent has been isolated from scales and symptomless roots of onion and was identified as Sclerotium sp. Although in its host range and morphology it resembles Sclerotium cepivorum, it is quite different with respect to other cultural and pathological traits. In inoculation experiments, onion and garlic plants could be infected and the typical sclerotia were formed, but no rot, a symptom characteristic for S. cepivorum, nor any other tissue… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vegetation dynamics after abandonment of agricultural fields in southern Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    Boccanelli SI
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 227-229, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.227
    Abstract This article has no abstract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Microbial diversity, metagenomics and the Yucatán aquifer

    Rojas-Herrera R1, M Zamudio-Maya1, L Arena-Ortiz2, RC Pless3, A O’Connor-Sánchez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.80, pp. 231-240, 2011, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2011.80.231
    Abstract Mexico counts among the five countries with the highest biodiversity in the world. In the Yucatán Peninsula, there are aquatic ecosystems with a very special microbial diversity. These ecosystems are essential for the ecological equilibrium of the region, and are seriously threatened by human activities. Access and knowledge of the microbial resources of these environments have an enormous scientific interest, and could potentially result in biotechnological products which could lead to more efficient and environmentally friendly processes; it could also offer a full arsenal of microorganisms and/or novel molecules to the local and world industry to face the current needs.… More >

Share Link

WeChat scan