Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.90, No.6, 2021

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The extensive use of nanomaterials (e.g., zinc oxide nanoparticles: ZnO NPs) may affect the growth and development of plants. Our study found that increased ZnO NPs concentrations (1) increased the density of brown spots and chlorosis on the leaf surface, (2) inhibited root growth, (3) stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species, (4) affected either positively or negatively the activity of various enzymes, (5) increased the contents of malondialdehyde and proline, and (6) affected the expression levels of six stress-related genes on barley seedlings exposed to ZnO NPs stress. As a result of such stress, the growth and development of barley seedlings was reduced.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Insights into the Roles of Melatonin in Alleviating Heavy Metal Toxicity in Crop Plants

    Ling Li*,#, Xuyu Yan#
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1559-1572, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016692
    Abstract Alleviating heavy metal pollution in farmland soil, and heavy metal toxicity in plants is the focus of global agricultural environmental research. Melatonin is a kind of indoleamine compound that wide exists in organisms; it is currently known as an endogenous free radical scavenger with the strongest antioxidant effect. As a new plant growth regulator and signaling molecule, melatonin plays an important role in plant resistance to biotic or abiotic stress. Recent studies indicate that melatonin can effectively alleviate heavy metal toxicity in crop plants, which provides a new strategy to minimize heavy metal pollution in crop plants. This study summarizes… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.): An Overview on Causal Agent, Vector and Management

    Mustansar Mubeen1, Yasir Iftikhar1,*, Aqleem Abbas2, Mazhar Abbas3, Muhammad Zafar-ul-Hye4, Ashara Sajid1, Faheema Bakhtawar1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1573-1587, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016664
    Abstract Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) belongs to the Malvaceae family and is one of the most essential and popular vegetables globally. It is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, and vitamins. Abiotic and biotic factors threaten okra productivity. Okra yellow vein mosaic disease (OYVMD) is the most destructive disease of okra. The causal agent, [(i.e., Okra yellow vein mosaic virus (OYVMV)] of this disease belongs to the family Geminiviridae and genus Begomovirus. OYVMV is a monopartite with additional ssDNA molecule. This virus has two components DNA-A for protein coding and DNA-B for symptoms induction. Whitefly transmits OYVMV in persistent manner. Characteristic symptoms of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phenotype, Physiology, and Gene Expression of Barley Seedlings in Response to Nano Zinc Oxide Stress

    Mengyuan Dong#, Rong Sun#, Qianhui Yang, Lantian Zhang, Yangying Yong, Yunxia Fang, Xian Zhang, Xiaoqin Zhang*, Dawei Xue*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1589-1598, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.017465
    Abstract In recent years, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used as zinc fertilizers and pesticides. The use of ZnO NPs in this way can provide benefits to humans, but also has potential risks. ZnO NPs inevitably enter the environment during their production and use, which affects the ecological environment and crop growth. In order to investigate the phenotype, physiology, and gene expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings under ZnO NPs stress, the barely cultivars ZJU3 (P21), Golden Promise (GP) and L23 were chosen for study. Different ZnO NPs concentrations were applied to compare the physiological and biochemical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Expression and Interaction Analysis of FAZ1 Protein in Brassica oleracea

    Hecui Zhang1,#, Xiaoping Lian2,#, Yizhong Zhang1, Tonghong Zuo1, Chongmo Yuan1, Qinqin Xie1, Liquan Zhu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1599-1612, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015852
    Abstract To identify and characterize genes involved in reproductive tissue abscission in Brassica oleracea, the transcript data of pollinated pistil was analyzed. A differentially expressed gene, named BoFAZ1(FLOWER ABSCISSION ZONE1) was identified, which contains one exon and encompass a 139aa. Furthermore, a T-DNA insertion mutant (SALK_302_G01) (faz1 mutant) was obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana mutant library. Floral organ shedding from mutants was delayed and a V-shaped structure in the boundary region between the stalk and torus of the sepal abscission zone was obtained in faz1 mutant. The cell density of this structure was lower than that of the corresponding region in the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification, Isolation and Characterization of GaCyPI Gene in Gossypium arboreum under Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease Stress

    Zunaira Sher1, Muhammad Umair Majid1, Sameera Hassan1, Fatima Batool1, Beenish Aftab1,2, Bushra Rashid1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1613-1632, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016154
    Abstract Pakistan is facing the threat of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV) which is transmitted through whitefly to cotton crop. Molecular mechanism of leaf epicuticular wax protects the plants from different pathogens including insect attack and disease transmission. Objective of current study is the isolation and characterization of a wax related gene GaCyPI from Gossypium arboreum under CLCuV infection. A fragment of 475 bp was isolated from the total RNA and 3’ and 5’ RACE-PCR products were arranged by overlapping the extended sequences at both the ends. Deduced protein sequence of GaCyPI showed homology with Cyclophilin cis-trans isomerase gene of Gossypium… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Spatial-Temporal Heterogeneity of Understory Light Availability in a Temperate Forest of North China

    Jie Li1, Ziyu Zhou2, Yun Chen2, Qiusheng Yang1,*, Carlos Alberto Busso3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1633-1644, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016795
    Abstract The spatial-temporal variation of understory light availability has important influences on species diversity and community assembly. However, the distribution characteristics and influencing factors of understory light availability have not been fully elucidated, especially in temperate deciduous, broad-leaved forests. In this study, the understory light availability was monitored monthly (May–October) in a temperate deciduous, broad-leaved forest in Henan Province, China. Differences in the light availability among different months and habitat types were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis method, respectively. Partial least squares path modeling (PLS-PM) was used to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of stand structure, dominant species and topographic factors… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Villin Family Members Associated with Multiple Stress Responses in Cotton

    Fenni Lv1,2,#, Sen Wang3,#, Ruiping Tian1, Peng Wang2, Kang Liu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1645-1660, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016947
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Villin (VLN) is considered to be one of the most important actin-binding proteins, participates in modulating the actin cytoskeleton dynamics, plays essential role in plant development and resisting adverse environments. However, systematic studies of the VLN gene family have not been reported in cotton (Gossypium). In this study, 14 GhVLNs were identified in G. hirsutum. These GhVLN genes were distributed in 6 A-subgenome chromosomes and 6 D-subgenome chromosomes of the allotetraploid upland cotton and classified into three phylogenetical groups based on the classification model of AtVLNs. In addition, the 14 GhVLN genes have highly conserved gene structure and motif architecture.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Piriformospora indica on the Respiration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei under Water Stress

    Longsheng Hu, Xinru He, Pujie Wei, Bing Sun, Yongjun Fei, Die Hu*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1661-1672, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015871
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Seedlings of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were used as experimental materials to study the adaptation of Piriformospora indica to this plant under water stress. The materials were divided into two groups, namely, with or without inoculation with P. indica. Each group was subjected to four different levels of water stress. Vitality and physiological and biochemical indexes of the roots of T. chinensis var. mairei were regularly measured. Under water stress, T. chinensis var. mairei had significantly decreased root vitality; root vitality was higher in inoculated roots than in uninoculated roots. Under intense water stress, the inoculated roots had a higher… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of Morphological and Anatomical Characteristics of Taxus chinensis var. mairei Seedlings Root under Waterlogging Stress in Different Substrates

    Xinru He, Qiong Ding, Bing Sun, Yongjun Fei, Die Hu*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1673-1684, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015617
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Four different ratios of river sand, ceramic pellets, vermiculite and perlite (1:1), and field soil were selected as the substrates in this experiment, and four gradient levels of root waterlogging, half waterlogging, full waterlogging and normal were set to investigate the effects of different gradients of waterlogging stress on the root morphology of Taxus chinensis var. mairei seedlings under different substrates. In this study, the root anatomical structure of Taxus chinensis var. mairei under different waterlogging stress was observed by the paraffin section method. The roots of T. chinensis var. mairei were diarch, with no pith and resin canals. There… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Structural and Histochemical Features of the Slow-Growing Perennial Coptis chinensis Franch. (Ranunculaceae)

    Jingyuan Yang1, Jie Zhou1, Jiaojiao Jin1, Yi Li2, Xia Zhang3, Teng Li3, Mengdi Zhang3, Xiaodong Cai3, Chaodong Yang3, Cunyu Zhou3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1685-1696, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015533
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Huanglian (Coptis chinensis Franch.) is a slow-growing perennial medicinal herb with considerable economic value. This study aimed to determine the structural characteristics and the levels of berberine deposits in the organs and tissues of Huanglian using light and epifluorescence microscopy. The adventitious roots are composed of primary and secondary structures with endodermis, exodermis, and phellem. The rhizome structures are composed of primary and secondary structures with cuticle and phellem. The leaves are composed of sclerenchymatous rings, isolateral mesophyll, and thin cuticles. We detected berberine in the xylem walls of the roots and rhizomes as well as in the sclerenchymatous rings… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium in Different Bamboo Species Using the Candidate Gene Approach

    Xihua Liu1, Min Luo1, Xiaofei Chen1, Changjun Ding2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1697-1709, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015295
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Bamboos are one of the most beautiful and useful plants on Earth. The genetic background and population structure of bamboos are well known, which helps accelerate the process of artificial domestication of bamboo. Partial sequences of six genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency in 32 different bamboo species were analyzed for occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The nucleotide diversity θw and total nucleotide polymorphisms πT of the sequenced DNA regions was 0.05137 and 0.03332, respectively. Both πnonsyn /πsyn and Ka/Ks values were <1. The nucleotide sequences of these six genes were inferred to be relatively conserved, and the haplotype… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification of Polymorphic Markers by High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Assay for High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Maize

    Zhigang Shang1,2, Yongzhe Zhu3, Xinmei Guo1,2, Meiai Zhao1,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1711-1725, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.015048
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) and high throughput genotyping are important techniques for the QTL mapping and genetic analysis of different crops. High-resolution melting (HRM) is an emerging technology used for detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in various species. However, its use is still limited in maize. The HRM analysis was integrated with SNPs to identify three types of populations (NIL population, RIL population and natural population), and the useful tags were screened. The patterns of temperature-shifted melting curves were investigated from the HRM analysis, and compared these with the kit. Among all 48 pairs of primers, 10 pairs… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Selection and Analysis of Polymorphisms in Somaclonal Variants of Agave americana Resistant to Fusarium oxysporum via an Ethyl Methanesulphonate Treatment

    Sheila Jazmín Reyes-Zambrano1,*, Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán1, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli1, Víctor Manuel Ruiz-Valdiviezo1, Arely Anayansi Vargas-Díaz2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1727-1739, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016171
    Abstract Agave americana L. callus were exposed to different concentrations of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM and to different times of exposure (2 and 4 h). The viability and capacity of shoot formation were shown to be affected when the callus were exposed to high concentrations (30–60 mM). Only the callus exposed to 15 mM EMS presented shoot formation; the exposure time of two hours produced the largest quantity of shoots regenerated per callus (21 shoots/callus). In order to generate somaclonal variants resistant to Fusarium oxysporum, a selection pressure was applied through of a culture filtrate… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Encapsulation of Immature Somatic Embryos of Coffea arabica L. for in Vitro Preservation

    Eliana Arias-Pérez1, Carlos Alberto Lecona-Guzmán1, Federico Antonio Gutiérrez-Miceli1, Joaquín Adolfo Montes-Molina1, Nancy Ruiz-Lau1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1741-1748, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016004
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Tree Somatic Embryogenesis and Application)
    Abstract The present study aimed to develop a protocol for somatic embryogenesis and encapsulation of coffee embryos (Coffea arabica L.), for the conservation of genotypes with characteristics of commercial interest. Somatic embryos were induced from leaf explants in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with 1 mg · L−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (2,4-D) combined with 2 mg · L−1 of benzyladenine (BA). Somatic embryos (SE) at the globular stage were encapsulated in a sodium alginate matrix; two treatments were tested: MS + 5 mg · L−1 BA + 1 mg · L−1 NAA + 3% (w/v) alginate, and MS + 7 mg · L−1 BA + 5.7 mg · L−1 indoleacetic acid (IAA) + 3% (w/v) alginate. Alginate was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Potential Antidiabetic and Anti-Genotoxic Activities of Silver Nanoparticles of Alkaloid Extract of Rhazya stricta in Rat Animal Model

    Mohammed Ali Ashehri*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.90, No.6, pp. 1749-1762, 2021, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2021.016290
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Therapeutic Efficiency of Phyto-Molecules)
    Abstract In most of Arabian courtiers Rhazya stricta is extensively utilized in public medicine for several diseases treatment. In this study, crude alkaloid extract of R. stricta (CAERS) coated with silver nanoparticles (CAERS-AgNPs) as potential treatment against diabetes in DM animal model was evaluated. Swiss albino male rats (n = 80) were injected with STZ to induce Diabetes Mellitus type-2 (DM). DM-rats were injected different doses of CAERS or CAERS-nanoparticles (CAERS-NPs) for 2 months. The results exhibited that mRNA expression of insulin and insulin receptor was down-regulated, activity levels of antioxidant enzymes were decreased, generation of ROS mediated DNA adducts and apoptosis in… More >

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