Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.86, 2017
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum on Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. and S. rolfsii Sacc., causal agents of onion rot

    Zúñiga-Mendoza E, LF Ceja-Torres
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 7-13, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.007
    Abstract In vitro tests were carried out, to evaluate the antagonist capacity of a strain of Trichoderma isolated from soil in La Cienega de Chapala, Michoacán, Mexico against Sclerotium cepivorum and Sclerotium rolfsii, casual agents of onion rot, an important disease in Mexico and the rest of the world. Percentages of radial growth inhibition (PRGI) were calculated every 24 h, until a rate of antagonism was obtained according to the Bell’s scale, as well as the percentages of inhibition of the production of sclerotia and their parasitism. The PRGI was 17.4% against S. rolfsii and 22.2% against S. cepivorum after 48… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chitinase, chitosanase, and antifungal activities from thermophilic streptomycetes isolated from compost

    González-Franco AC1, L Robles-Hernández1, JL Strap2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 14-27, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.014
    Abstract The Streptomyces genus comprises a large and diverse group of bacteria, many of which are commercially exploited for the production of antibiotics and lytic enzymes. The thermophilic species are less studied than the predominant mesophilic species. However, the first ones are a potential source of thermostable bioactive products and enzymes with novel properties. In this study, two selected thermophilic streptomycetes were identified and their chitinolytic activities were evaluated. The identification of these two isolates was performed by microscopic morphology, partial 16S rDNA sequences, and its phylogenetic analysis. To study the chitinolytic activities of these isolates, the effects of colloidal chitin… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vermicompost and water stress effects on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): productive parameters and water relations

    Aguilar-Benítez G1*, CB Peña-Valdivia2, R Castro-Rivera3, JP Lara-Ávila1, E Cruz-Crespo4, AN Rojas-Velázquez1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 28-39, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.028
    Abstract It is documented that vermicompost increases germination and productivity of crops, but little is known of its effect on plant physiological responses under soil water deficit. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of vermicompost and irrigation interruption on stomatal conductance, gas exchange, and yield of common bean cultivars (drought tolerant -cv. 92 and drought susceptible-cv. 122). Plants were cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with 1.5 and 3% of vermicompost, with irrigation during the whole cycle but irrigation interruption at the flowering stage. Changes in soil moisture, stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), CO2 assimilation (A),… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Growth induction of root and tubercle in Caladium bicolor with organic fertilizer

    González-Cervantes G1, JA Chávez-Simental2, IA Ortiz-Sánchez3, LM Valenzuela-Núñez4, MA Macías-Corral5, JG Arreola-Avila6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 40-45, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.040
    Abstract The introduction of ornamental crops to the Comarca Lagunera is a great market opportunity for producers of flowers, just as it is the case of Caladium bicolor which is exported to Europe, USA, Caribbean islands and Africa. The use of organic products derived from cattle manure for fertilization, improves physical soil conditions and provides significant amount of nutrients to plants and reduce production costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the growth of tubercle and root of the ornamental plant Caladium bicolor by applying organic fertilizer (OF) extracted from cattle manure. The experimental design was completely randomized… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Capsaicinoids concentration in Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum collected in Tamaulipas, Mexico

    Aguirre-Hernández E1, R San Miguel-Chávez2, M Palma Tenango2, ME González-Trujano3, E de la Rosa-Manzano4, G Sánchez-Ramos4, A Mora-Olivo4, A Martínez- Palacios5, JG Martinez-Ávalos4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 46-52, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.046
    Abstract HPLC analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicine concentrations obtained from fruits of Capsicum annuum var. glabrisculum, collected from four localities in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, was investigated. Selection of localities for this study was carried out considering that 65% of the people living in them gather wild chilli pepper for either autoconsumption or commercial purposes. An ANOVA analysis was carried out for determining capsaicinoids composition variation. Also, a multivariate analysis was carried out using Pearson correlation and principal components analysis to elucidate the influence that environmental factors might have on capsaicinoids concentration. Fruits from the locality El Gavilán had the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The influence of soil compaction and conservation tillage on sunflower’s (Helianthus annuus L.) below ground system

    Mirleau-Thebaud V1,2, J Dayde1, JD Scheiner1,3,4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 53-67, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.053
    Abstract Soil compaction represents an important issue in the actual context of agricultural system sustainability. Research on the various developments of root systems under tillage has been explored for many crops, whether for the biomass area or the underground, but very little concerns Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The objectives of the study were to understand the impact of soil tillage and of the induced mechanically compacted soil on: i) sunflower’s root system architecture, ii) biomass area iii) production. Two complementary experiments were realized in the south of France (France’s main sunflower production area). In both experiments, increased resistance of the soil… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Comparative effectiveness of two phosphorus sources for wheat in southwestern Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    Ron MM, T Loewy
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 68-73, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.068
    Abstract In the southwest of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies are important wheat yield limiting factors. The objective of this paper was to report on the comparative effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple superphosphate (TSP) in the area covering a range of soils and years. Between 1983 and 1992, 13 experiments were carried out in farmer’s fields. Soils were classified as Ustolls and Udolls. The design of the experiments was of complete randomized split blocks. Horizontal treatments were P-sources (DAP and TSP) and rates (0 to 135 kg/ha). Vertical treatments were check and a single… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Calcium content on apple fruit influences the severity of Penicillium expansum

    Guerrero-Prieto VM1, DI Berlanga-Reyes2, JL Jacobo-Cuellar1, C Guigón-Lopez3, DL Ojeda-Barrios4, GD Ávila-Quezada4, A Núñez-Barrios4, OA Hernández-Rodríguez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 74-78, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.074
    Abstract Calcium content and damage severity of Penicillium expansum because of its high concentration on “Red Delicious” postharvest apples were evaluated during the 2012-2013 winter in Cuauhtemoc, Chih. Mexico. Fruit weight, diameter, total soluble solids, pulp firmness and starch index were also determined. Penicillium expansum was inoculated into two wounds of eight mm diameter and 10 mm depth, on a total of 20 apple fruits per treatment. The inoculum was 0.2 mL of a suspension containing 1×108 conidia/mL. After inoculation, apple fruit was stored at 0 °C and 90% relative humidity during five weeks. Treatments were: apple fruit with high (2.28… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological traits during ripening showing the appropriate timing for harvest to improve the organoleptic quality of “Flavorcrest” peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch)

    Altube HA, MG Ontivero Urquiza, RS Rivata, L Baghin, RJ Taborda, MP Blanco
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 79-83, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.079
    Abstract Determining the harvest time is a difficult decision for the fruit grower. The objective of this paper was to study the changes of some variables involved in the ripening of the fruit to determine the adequate harvest time. This would help to guarantee high-quality fruits in “Flavorcrest/Nemared” peach trees. Plants were set to the free palmette system at 4.5 x 3 m with a drip irrigation system. Harvesting was complete in three trees at three dates. Fruit weight, height and diameter, flesh firmness, total soluble solids and acidity were evaluated at harvesting and after three days at room temperature (25… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Boosting forage yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) with multi-species bacterial inoculation in Pakistan

    Iqbal A1, MA Iqbal1, A Iqbal1, Z Aslam1, M Maqsood1, Z Ahmad2, N Akbar1, HZ Khan1, RN Abbas1, RD Khan1, G Abbas1, M Faisal1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 84-88, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.084
    Abstract Seed inoculation with bacterial species has the potential to increase yield and agro-qualitative attributes of forage crops. This study determined the response of forage maize to three plant growth promoting rhizobacteria [PGPR1 (Azotobacter chroococcum), PGPR2 (Pseudomonas flourescens) and PGPR3 (Bacillus megaterium)] inoculated individually and in different combinations (PGPR1+2, PGPR1+3, PGPR2+3 and PGPR1+2+3). A non-inoculated treatment was kept as a control. We used a completely randomized block design with four replicates. The PGPR1+2+3 treatment showed an outstanding performance by improving yield attributes, green forage yield, dry matter biomass, crude protein and total ash. The same treatment gave the lowest crude fiber… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Grain yield, and chemical and protein composition of Lupinus angustifolius varieties grown in Mexico

    Lara-Rivera AH1, MA Ruiz-Lopez1, R Rodriguez-Macias1, C Soto-Velasco1, PM Garcia-López1, L Barrientos-Ramirez2, JF Zamora-Natera1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 89-96, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.089
    Abstract Given that the agronomic potential of Lupinus angustifolius is not yet known in Mexico, we evaluated the yield and chemical composition of six L. angustifolius varieties (Haags Blaue, Boregine, Borlu, Probor, Sonate, and Boruta) in Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico. Studies were conducted during the Autumn-Winter seasons of 2012-2013. We identified the varieties with the highest and lowest protein concentrations and analyzed their respective amino acid profiles. The major protein constituents were determined by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This experiment was conducted in an agricultural facility at the University of Guadalajara using a completely randomized block design and four replicates. The highest grain yield… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Modelling the spatial behavior of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in growing avocado

    Maldonado FI1, JF Ramírez2, M Rubí2, X Antonio3, AV Lara4, AD Acosta4, R Rivera4, AL Ávila5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 97-111, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.097
    Abstract Avocado (Lauraceae: Persea americana Mill.) is a crop of great economic importance for Mexico in terms of perennial production systems, since in recent years the marketing of this fruit has increased markedly at national and international levels. In 2013, 168113.64 ha were cultivated in Mexico, with an average yield of 10.2 ton/ha, obtaining a production of approximately 1467837.35 ton. Like any other fruit can suffer damage from pests (insects, nematodes, mites etc.) and diseases (caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses). In this regard, one of the most problematic insects is rankliniella occidentalis, which causes significant crop losses, feeding preferably on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Floristic associations and filtering ability of riparian vegetation strips

    Giaccio GCM1, P Laterra2, F Cabria3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 112-123, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.112
    Abstract The analysis of lateral flow runoff of superficial nutrients and sediments from an agricultural origin and their retention by infiltration of riparian vegetation strips are of great importance in reducing the agricultural externalities on surface water quality. The aim of this study was to relate soil infiltration to the main biophysical properties of riparian environments in the Pampa Austral of Argentina, defined by the composition of its plant community and the coverage of exotic species. We explored the relationships between hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and aboveground, litter and root biomasses, organic matter concentration, terrain slope, soil bulk density, texture and electrical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Colour, antioxidant capacity, phenolic and flavonoid content of honey from the Humid Chaco Region, Argentina

    Cabrera M1, M Perez2, L Gallez3,4, A Andrada3, G Balbarrey3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 124-130, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.124
    Abstract Our objective was to correlate colour with total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of honey from the Humid Chaco region. With this purpose, 19 representative samples were selected from the 2009-2012 year period. Pollen analysis showed a predominance of native species of different landscapes such as forests and wetlands. Of the total number of samples, eleven were mixed or multifloral and eight samples were dominated by different native nectariferous woody species. The colour of honey, according to the Pfund scale, ranged from extra light amber to dark amber. Total phenolic content ranged from 40.18 to 118.82 mg GAE/100… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of preharvest foliar sprays of calcium nitrate on melon fruit quality

    Muñoz FF, VE Ruiz, CA Bouzo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 131-136, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.131
    Abstract The aim of this work was to study the effect of preharvest foliar spraying with calcium nitrate solutions on the fruit melon quality. Treatments included a combination of five solutions with Ca(NO3)2 (0.0; 1.3; 2.6; 5.2 and 10.5 g/L) and two postharvest storage environments [(24.0 ± 1.5 °C and 6.4 ± 0,8 mbar of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and 10.0 ± 0.5 °C and 3.0 ± 0.5 mbar (VPD)]. Fruits stored at 24 °C for 11 days had the lowest water loss with treatments 1.3 and 2.6 g/L Ca (NO3)2. It was observed that at both 24 °C and 10… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evolutionarily conserved untranslated regions facilitate the cloning of complete coding sequences of chondriogenes encoding NADH dehydrogenase subunits in higher plants

    Jin G1,2, XM Tang3, Y Niu4, XY Huang2, T Chen2, Q Huang2, J Zhang2, RY Zhou1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 137-142, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.137
    Abstract In plants, the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) is a large protein complex transferring electrons to ubiquinone. For the nine chondriogenes encoding complex I subunits (nad1, nad2, nad3, nad4, nad4L, nad5, nad6, nad7, and nad9), an efficient strategy for the cloning of complete coding sequences (CDSs) is important. Specific orthologous portions of untranslated regions (UTRs) were found based on multiple sequence alignments of chondriogene orthologues encoding complex I subunits in plant species. Based on the conservation of partial UTRs, a one-step PCR strategy was conceived for the cloning of CDSs of the nine chondriogene orthologues. Using this strategy, the five… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochemical and molecular evidences of the presence of a plant natriuretic peptide in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Valle-Rodríguez CM1, S Valdés-Rodríguez2, NL Vasco-Méndez1, C Garcidueñas-Piña1, RE Soria-Guerra3, JF Morales-Domínguez1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 143-150, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.143
    Abstract The natriuretic peptides (NP) are vertebrate hormones involved in the regulation of ion and water homeostasis in the cell. In plants, natriuretic peptides (PNP) have been identified by molecular and biochemical methods. It has been suggested that PNPs, have similar functions to the PN, since they mediate (1) ion transport through the cell, (2) the opening and closing of Na+ and K+ channels through the stimulation and synthesis of a second messenger such as cGMP, and (3) the aperture of stomata. In this study, a PNPs gene was partially identified by PCR in garlic (Allium sativum L.), which was called… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification and evolutionary relationships of partial gene sequences from dehydrin group in three species of cacti

    Hernández-Camacho S1, E Pérez-Molphe-Balch1, AG Alpuche-Solís2, JF Morales-Domínguez1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 151-162, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.151
    Abstract Dehydrins or Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins play an important role in the response and adaptation to different types of abiotic stresses such as droughts, high salinity and low temperatures. Using PCR techniques, we identified three gene fragments that encoded dehydrin-like proteins in three cactispecies Opuntia ficus-indica (OpfiDHN-like), Leuchtenbergia principis (LepDHN-like) and Mammillaria bombycina (MabDHN-like). Bioinformatic sequence analysis showed an identity between 96 and 97% with the Opuntia streptacantha dehydrin 1 (OpsDHN1) gene, demonstrating that the amplified fragments corresponded to dehydrin-like gene sequences, and that the designed oligonucleotides were effective for similar gene amplification in different cacti genera.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Interaction patterns on populations of two clonal species in restoring succession series in a degraded meadow in Northeast China

    Zhang J, YF Yang, HY Li, W Sun
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 163-170, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.163
    Abstract Community succession is an orderly replacement process between dominant species of such community. The mutual opulations changes of two clonal plant species, Leymus chinensis and Kalimeris integrifolia, were analyzed during a process of restoration succession in a degraded meadow in Northeast China. It was based on the methods of space-for-time substitution and continuous sampling in different mixed ratios of community sections. The results showed that the two species populations adjusted the size of ramets to ensure a relatively stable number in the mixed community. The fluctuation and instability were more obvious in the K. integrifolia than in the L. chinensisMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sex ratio and spatial distribution of pistillate and staminate plants of Dasylirion cedrosanum

    Reyes-Valdés MH, JD Hernández-Quintero1, YA Morales-Reyes2, DV Mendoza-Rodríguez, DU González-Uribe, F Ramírez-Godina, JA Villarreal-Quintanilla
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 171-180, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.171
    Abstract The genus Dasylirion forms a group of well-represented perennial, dioecious species called “sotoles” in Mexico. This genus is a main component of the arid lands of northern Mexico and southern United States, and plays important ecological and economic roles. Four D. cedrosanum populations from northeastern Mexico were surveyed to gather statistics related to sex ratios and spatial distribution. The statistics were performed on an unbiased sample of 448 plants. Tests for sex ratio and spatial distribution were carried out. No evidence of departure from a 1:1 sex ratio proportion was found, both at the global level and within sampling sites.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evapotranspiration and energy balance measurements over a soybean field in the semiarid sowthwestern region of Buenos Aires province (Argentina)

    Cargnel MD1, AL Orchansky2, RE Brevedan2, SS Baioni2, MN Fioretti2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 181-189, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.181
    Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in a semiarid region of Argentina over a soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) field. The sites of study were San Adolfo (39˚ 23’ S, 62˚ 22’ W, 22 m.a.s.l.) and Nueva Roma (38˚ 29’ S, 62˚ 39’ W, 70 m.a.s.l.). Soybeans were planted on Jan 4 (San Adolfo) and Nov 27 (Nueva Roma) in 0.75 m wide rows and at 400000 pl/ha during two consecutive growing seasons. Energy balance and evapotranspiration (ET) were estimated during the reproductive stages from full bloom (R2) to full maturity (R8). In Nueva Roma ET or latent heat flux… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Defoliation management of kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L. var coloratum) cv Verde

    Ferri CM, VV Jouve, AM Sáenz
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 190-198, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.190
    Abstract The defoliation frequency determines above and below ground biomass accumulation, pasture structure and nutritive value. Two defoliation experiments with Panicum coloratum were performed, from September to March. One of them was conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, and the other one in field plots for three growing seasons (EC) at the Faculty of Agronomy, La Pampa, Argentina (36˚ 46' S; 64˚ 16' W). Defoliation frequency treatments were four cutting intervals (IC; 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks). In greenhouse experiment, live leaf blade accumulation rates (TAL), tiller appearance (TAM) and death (TMM) rates, live leaf blade length (LL) and above… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    PGPR inoculation improves growth, nutrient uptake and physiological parameters of Capsicum chinense plants

    Castillo-Aguilar C de la C1, JJ Zúñiga-Aguilar2, AA Guzmán-Antonio2, R Garruña3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 199-204, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.199
    Abstract The Habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) is intensively cultivated in the Yucatan peninsula, México. Because of adverse environmental conditions, it required seeding in germination trays, from which six-week-old seedlings were transplanted to the soil. Adequate nursing and fertilization programmes were made to improve health and vigour before seedlings transplanting. During seed germination, we investigated the effects of inoculation with four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth, nutrient uptake and gas exchange of 8-week-old Capsicum chinense plants. Inoculation was made with Pseudomonas sp. -P61-, Pseudomonas sp. -A46-, Bacillus pumillus -R44-, and Paenibacillus polymyxa-BSP1.1-. The BSP1.1 strain produced the highest increase in plant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of mixed salt stress on malondialdehyde, proteins and antioxidant enzymes of Leymus chinensis in three leaf colors

    Zhou C1,2, CA Busso3, YG Yang2, Z Zhang4, ZW Wang1, YF Yang5, XG Han1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 205-213, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.205
    Abstract The mixed salt stress is common in nature. Salt stress always affects plant growth. Different plant species have different adaptive capacity to salty soils. Leymus chinensis is an herbaceous plant with different leaf colors. However, little research was conducted to explore the different tolerance mechanisms to salt stress among the three different leaf colour genotypes of Leymus chinensis (grey green, transitional color, yellow green). Pot experiments for Leymus chinensis in three leaf colors were conducted under mixed salt treatments in 2010. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein concentrations, and the activity of various antioxidant enzymes [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Generation and characterization of a population of Tagetes minuta of broad genetic base - Obtaining selected individuals

    Massuh Y1,2, LE Torres1, SF Ocaño1, P Bruentti1, AG Chaves1, JA Zygadlo2, MS Ojeda1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 214-223, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.214
    Abstract Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herb that is of great interest due to the bioactive properties of its essential oil (EO) and its industrial use. In Argentina, 0.5 tons/year of EO are obtained from wild populations and commercialized with a value of 80-120 US$/kg. The introduction of the species in culture, and the initiation of a process of domestication, selection and breeding material aimed at generating higher yields and quality of EO as an alternative to wild collection. The goal of this work was to generate a population with a broad genetic base to obtain high phenotypic variability,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic stability of a synthetic variety

    Rodríguez-Pérez JE, J Sahagún-Castellanos, JL Escalante-González, JJ López-Reynoso, C V illanueva-Verduzco
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 224-227, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.224
    Abstract Synthetic varieties (SVs) have been assumed to be genetically stable populations through generations. However, it has been recognized that the randomness of the genetic mechanism, the presence of parents with heterozygous genotypes, and the finite sample sizes of the individuals that represent each parent of a SV may cause gene loss, which may make it difficult to obtain the expected genotypic array of a given SV. To study this issue, the number of non-identical by descent (NIBD) genes in the sample of m plants of each parental line was considered as a random variable (Ym). The objectives were: (1) to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic analysis for quantitative traits in bread wheat exposed to irrigated and drought stress conditions

    Ataei R1, M Gholamhoseini1, M Kamalizadeh2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 228-235, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.228
    Abstract Understanding the genetic control of traits associated with yield helps breeders to utilize their germplasm in a more efficient and consistent manner and to make good choices in breeding programs. The current study was carried out to study the genetic control of some quantitative traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and to examine plant responses under full irrigation and drought stress conditions. For this purpose, six generations derived from a cross between two lines (Bezostaya as tolerant parent and 518 as a susceptible parent) were evaluated for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), peduncle (PL) and spike (SL) lengths,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparative proteome analysis in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after space flight

    Xie LB1, X Wang1, M Peng2, Y Zhou1, LX Chen1, LX Liu3, YL Gao1, YH Guo1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 236-245, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.236
    Abstract Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important crop all over the world. To explore and identify differentially expressed proteins of hot pepper after space flight, three space-induced mutants (Y1, Y2 and Y3), which obtained new traits after space flight compared with their control lines (W1 and W2), were analyzed using comparative proteome analysis. In this study, leaf morphological characteristics of five kinds of hot pepper variations were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that obvious changes of cellular structure were seen in space induced mutants. Thirty nine out of the 255 differentially… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Genetic components of agronomic traits in maize landraces and their hybrid progeny

    Antuna Grijalva O1, SA Rodríguez Herrera1, A Espinoza Banda1, P Cano Ríos1, G Llaven Valencia2, JL Coyac Rodríguez1, A González Torres1, DG Reta Sánchez3, M Mendoza Elos4, E Andrio Enríquez4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 246-251, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.246
    Abstract Knowledge of the genetic components of agronomic traits is an important factor to characterize landraces of maize to make them useful in plant breeding programs. The objective of this work was to know the genetic action and combining ability of several agronomic traits of five maize races and their crosses. Maize landraces analyzed were Jala, Tuxpeño, Celaya, Pepitilla and Dulce. Plant height, days to male and female flowering date after planting, and dry matter and grain yields were recorded. Those variables showed highly significant differences among genotypes. With the exception of dry matter yield, the other variables showed significant general… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of chemical mutagens and X-rays on morphological and physiological traits of tulips

    edaghathoor S, F Sharifi, A Eslami
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 252-257, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.252
    Abstract The tulip (Tulipa sp.) is an ornamental plant produced by bulbs. Wild tulips are native to several areas of Iran, especially the Alborz and Zagros mountains. Endemic Iranian tulips are the origin of some commercial cultivars of tulip, and mutagens are commonly used to produce new traits and varieties. In this trial, X-rays were applied at 60, 70 and 80 kV; sodium azide (SA) at doses of 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.03%, and diethyl sulfate (DES) at doses of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4 on Kess Nelis and Jan Van Ness varieties of tulip. Morphophysiological traits of the treated plants were measured.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological, molecular and pathogenic diagnostic of fungi in lawn’s root and neck in Mexico

    García-Munguía CA1, M Acosta-Ramos2, O Vázquez-Martinez3, M Pérez-Sato5, A García-Munguía4, O García-Munguía6, AM García-Munguía3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 258-264, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.258
    Abstract The illnesses that cause root and neck rot in golf courses constitute a limiting factor for grass development worldwide. This is mainly true when management guidelines are not conducted. Our research was conducted in the Golf Club “Mexico”, located in Mexico, D.F. Isolates were taken from plants that presented yellowing symptoms and root and neck rot. The identified pathogenic fungi, isolated from axenic media, were Giberella avenacea, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and Pythium ultimum. The molecular characterization showed a comparison of the DNA-obtained sequences which was morphologically determined as F. avenaceum and was molecularly corroborated as G.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro antifungal/fungistatic activity of manganese phosphite against soybean soil-borne pathogens

    Carmona MA1, E Simonetti2,3, ME Ravotti1, MM Sc,iani4, AG Luque4, NA Formento5, FJ Sautua1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 265-269, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.265
    Abstract Soybean root and stem rots caused by soil-borne pathogens are diseases commonly found in soybean fields, and one of the most important causes of crop losses. In the present study, the mycelial sensitivity of Fusarium virguliforme, F. tucumaniae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Macrophomina phaseolina was evaluated on potato dextrose agar media (25 mL) supplemented with different concentrations of manganese phosphite (MnPhi) diluted in water (0, 25, 37.5, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 800 and 1000 μg/mL). Mycelial growth sensitivity was analyzed using logarithmic linear regression analysis. The MnPhi concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the mycelial growth (IC50) ranged from… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of phenolic compounds present in Argentinian plant extracts on mycelial growth of the plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Hapon MV1,2, JJ Boiteux1,2, MA Fernández1, G Lucero1,2, MF Silva1, PH Pizzuolo1,2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 270-277, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.270
    Abstract The polyphagous plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea has the ability of growing fast under several conditions, and producing grey moulds in different plant tissues. Because of its adaptive plasticity, resistant strains have made difficult their chemical control. Therefore, new strategies of management and the use of natural compounds could be important control alternatives. The aim of this work was to study the potential value of four Argentine native plant extracts and some of its phenolic compounds as biodrugs on B. cinerea. Aqueous plant extracts of Larrea divaricata, Prosopis strombulifera, Tessaria absinthioides and Schinus molle var. areira, were used. The capability to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nocturnal accumulation of titratable acidity in Tillandsia makoyana (Bromeliaceae), epiphytic bromeliad of the tropical dry forest

    Díaz-Álvarez EA1,2, AP Rojas-Cortés1,2, E de la Barrera1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 278-281, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.278
    Abstract The epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia makoyana was studied to assess the contribution of the environmental factors, water, temperature, and light, to the expression of the Crassulacean acid metabolism. In particular, nocturnal titratable acidity accumulation and maximum leaf temperature were measured in response to watering and incident light. Plants that were watered and exposed to direct sunlight had the highest nocturnal accumulation of titratable acidity (25.52 ± 0.34 H+/m2), while those without irrigation and shaded showed a 59% reduction in their titratable acidity. Our results illustrated a rapid response of the photosynthetic activity to water availability in Tillandsia makoyana, a native species… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of Prohexadione calcium, 6-benzyl amino purine and 6-furfuryladenine on vegetative growth and fruit quality in apple

    Ramírez H1, JC Sánchez-Canseco1, VM Zamora-Villa2, JH Rancaño-Arrioja3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 282-289, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.282
    Abstract It is well established that the climatic change is altering yield in fruit trees. This adversity reflects, among others, extreme temperature modifications in northern Mexico. This effect modifies negatively the physiology of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.), originating excessive shoot growth and a decrease in flower bud formation. In this study, Prohexadione-Ca (P-Ca), 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) and N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin) were evaluated on shoot and reproductive growth in Golden Delicious apple trees in Arteaga Coah., Mexico. A completely randomized design with 12 treatments was used. These were: Control, Prohexadione calcium (Ca-P) at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/L, cytokinins… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of PEG8000 and NaCl on germination and seedling traits of tropical maize (Zea mays L.)

    Castañón-Nájera G1, L Latorunerie-Moreno2, YA Gálvez Muñoz3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 290-295, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.290
    Abstract Among the different types of abiotic stresses, water is the most damaging for crops. In the current research, the effect of water stress, induced with Polyethylene Glycol 8000 (PEG8000) and Sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions, was studied in maize genotypes. A randomized block design (RBD) with a factorial arrangement and four replications of 25 seeds each was used. The studied maize genotypes were RC2C39, RC2C51 (wild varieties of the State of Tabasco backcrossed with the endogamic line CML247 of the International Center for the Improvement of Maize and Wheat), wild Tamulte, VS536, and Asgrow 7573 hybrid, study osmotic pressures (OP) were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reproductive biology of Chinese herbaceous perennial Peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) using the Paraffin Method

    Peng M1,2, FL Huang1*, FJ Meng2, BZ Hu3*, XF Chen1, R Luo4, N Li1, RF Wang1, Y Zhao1, QW Zou1, CT Wu1, JL Dai5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 296-305, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.296
    Abstract Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is a popular ornamental plant. However, little is known about its reproductive biology by histological analyses. Here, we used the paraffin wax method to study the reproductive biology of the Chinese herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora ‘Dafugui’). The results showed that the flower bud of Chinese herbaceous peony was a mixed bud. The course of flower bud differentiation included some developmental morphology periods, such as bract, calyx, petal, stamen, and pistil. The anther wall development was related to a dicotyledonous type. Pollen was mainly 2-celled, only few of them were 3-celled. Moreover, the mature pollen… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cluster analysis of leaf macro- and micro- morphological characteristics of Vicia L. (Fabaceae) and their taxonomic implication

    Abozeid A1,2, Y Liu1, J Liu1, ZH Tang1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 306-317, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.306
    Abstract The genus Vicia L. belongs to the tribe Vicieae of the Fabaceae family. The genus includes about 190 species, from which about 40 species have economic importance. Some of them are food crops, but more than a dozen are forage plants. In this study, leaves of Vicia species from China, USA and Argentina were examined using stereo-microscopy and light microscopy. We determined macro- and micro-morphological characteristics that could be of taxonomic use. Forty eight characteristics of each taxon were determined including petiole and tendril length; leaflets number, length, width, shape, apex, base; blade surface, trichome shape, type, base and length;… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pollen and seed morphology of Zygophylum fabago and Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) from Bulgaria

    Semerdjieva IB1, EP Yankova-Tsvetkova2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 318-324, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.318
    Abstract Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the pollen and seed morphology of Peganum harmala L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), in native Bulgarian populations, was carried out. Additionally, a light microscope (LM) investigation on pollen grains was made in order to elucidate the peculiarities of the major parameters of pollen surface and size. It was established that pollen grains in Z. fabago are pantoporate. Exine ornamentation is reticulate. The pollen grains of P. harmala are oblate, spheroidal, elongated, oval in shape, colporate, exine striato-rugulate. The seeds of P. harmala are oblong-oval and slightly flattened at the side (incorrect tetrahedral to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Vegetation response to fire and roller-chopping in the south-west of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Peláez DV1, HD Giorgetti2, OA Montenegro2, OR Elia3, GD Rodríguez2, FR Blazquez3, RJ Andrioli3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 325-331, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.325
    Abstract The objective of this work was to study the effect of a controlled fire and/or roller-chopping on foliar cover and density of the most conspicuous woody and forage perennial grass species in the south of the Phytogeographical Province of the Monte, Argentina. All control treatments reduced the woody species mean percentage cover. This reduction persisted during the whole study period. Nevertheless, the woody species tended to recover their percentage cover towards the end of study. At the end of the study period, significant differences (P<0.05) were only detected between the control and controlled burn plus roller-chopping treatment. No significant differences… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Contributions of ecological facilitation for restoring environments with high conservation value in the Argentine Patagonia

    González FM, DR Pérez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 332-339, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.332
    Abstract The Argentine arid Patagonia, in general, and ‘La Payunia’ ecosystem in particular, are important areas for conservation due to the high number of endemic species. However, this region presents a high level of degradation as a result of human activities. Thus, ecological rehabilitation strategies need to be implemented to recover certain areas. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the reintroduction of two selected native species in severely degraded areas, and (2) determine if the survival and growth of an endemic shrub species, Senna arnottiana, increase when it is associated with a perennial grass, Pappostipa speciosa. These… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Reproduction of Solidago chilensis, native Asteraceae useful for gardening with low maintenance requirements

    Gil SP1, ME Reyna1, L Seisdedos1, IP Argüello2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.86, pp. 340-344, 2017, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2017.86.340
    Abstract TThe goals of this study were (1) to determinate the cultural practice of Solidago chilensis native Asteraceae from Argentina which have to be used in low maintenance gardening and (2) to describe germination and seedlings of S. chilensis and its morphology type. Germination assay treatments (3 repetitions/50 fruits/year) were intact non-scarified and scarified fruits (achenies), collected in La Mesada, La Calera, Dpto. Colón (Córdoba, Argentina) between 2011-2014. Statistical tests were performed. 50 rhizome cuttings, obtained from mother plants selected in the field, were cultivated in same conditions of the field-substrate with or without rooting solution, and they were cultivated in… More >

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