Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.78, 2009
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    The use of sunflower transcription factors as biotechnological tools to improve yield and stress tolerance in crops

    Chan RL
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 5-10, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.005
    Abstract Transcription factors (TFs) are proteins able to specifically recognize DNA sequences in the regulatory regions of their target genes. They bind these specific sequences, an event that leads to the activation or repression of whole signal transduction pathways. In plants about 1500 TFs were informatically identified; identification was mainly based in the presence of DNA-binding domains in the translated sequences. They were classified in families and subfamilies according to several features, including the conservation of the DNA binding domain, the genes structures and the functions they exert. Among transcription factors, several seem to be potential powerful biotechnological tools to improve… More >

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    Nitrogen metabolism in roots and leaves of green bean plants exposed to different phosphorus doses

    Sánchez E1, G Ávila-Quezada1, AA Gardea1, E Muñoz1, JM Ruiz2, L Romero2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 11-16, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.011
    Abstract The objective of this work was to determine the effect of different P doses on nitrogen assimilation in roots and leaves of green beans plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Strike). Phosphorus was applied in the nutrient solution as H3PO4, at the nutrient doses of: P1 = 0.40 mM; P2 = 0.80 mM; P3 = 1.60 mM; P4 = 3.20 mM; P5 = 4.80 mM, and P6 = 6.40 mM P. Our results indicate that both P toxicity and deficiency gave similar responses to N assimilation. Phosphorus and NO3 - interacted on the absorption and translocation processes affecting N assimilation. The… More >

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    Effect of post-fire defoliation on growth of two native grasses in the Caldenal, Argentina

    Peláez1 DV, RM Bóo2, MD Mayor3, OR Elia4, SA Martínez5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 17-24, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.017
    Abstract Plant growth in semiarid rangelands may be affected by time grazing is excluded during the post-fire regeneration period. The objective of this field work was to study the effect of post-fire defoliation at different phenological stages [vegetative (early-season defoliation) and internode elongation (late-season defoliation)] on growth of Piptochaetium napostaense and Poa ligularis, two very important perennial native grasses in the temperate semi-arid region of central Argentina (Caldenal). In general, the post-fire defoliation treatments did not affect the number of green leaves on tillers of P. napostaense. Early-season post-fire defoliation generally reduced the number of green leaves on tillers of… More >

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    RAPD-determined genetic diversity of Phytophtora cinnamomi Rands of aguacate, Michoacán, Mexico

    Ochoa-Fuentes YM1, E Cerna2, J Landeros2, O Vazquez1, V Olalde3, A Flores2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 25-30, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.025
    Abstract Forty two Mexican isolates of Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands were examined for genetic diversity by the random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. The amount of genetic variation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction amplification with a set of twenty one random 10-mer primers. All amplifications revealed scorable polymorphisms among the isolates, and a total of 23 band positions were scored for the 21 primers tested. Genetic distances among the isolates were calculated, and cluster analysis was used to generate a dendogram which showed relationships between them. These results suggest that the geographic groups were strong. More >

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    ARTICLE

    Effect of cell size and cytokinins on growth of petunia plants

    Lagoutte1 S, M Divo de Sesar2, F V ilella3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 31-36, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.031
    Abstract Annual floral plant crops are produced in cells or pots of various sizes. Varying container size alters the volume which plant roots can explore, which in turn affect plant growth. This work assesed the effect of the initial container size on growth of Petunia x híbrida cv Dream Mix, supplemented with cytokinins after potting. Seedlings obtained in trays of 90 or 288 cells, were transplanted to 1l pots. They were then supplemented with 6-bencyladenine (BA). The assay consisted of 4 treatments: two container sizes by two BA conditions (with and without). Cell size conditioned growth above ground and below ground;… More >

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    Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on phytic acid concentration and vigor of oat seed (var. Saia) in Mexico

    Rivera-Reyes1 JG, FA Peraza-Luna2, JC Serratos-Arévalo2, P Posos-Ponce3, SH Guzmán-Maldonado4, E Cortez-Baheza1, G Castañón-Nájera5, M Mendoza-Elos1*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 37-42, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.037
    Abstract Oats cereal is a worldwide significant crop. It is grown in restrictive climates and in rainy regions of temperate areas. Cultivation of oats produces high forage yields and grain quality, which gives it a wide variety of uses as animal feed and human food. However, the physiological quality of oat seeds in Mexico faces problems, which impact both their import and export. Phytic acid concentration in the oat seed plays a very important role since it affects seed viability, its germination capacity and potential seedling vigor. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemical fertilization on… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Database development for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) characterization in an artificial vision system

    Martínez-Corral1 L, E Martínez-Rubín2, F Flores-García1, GC Castellanos2, AR Juárez2, MJD López3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 43-47, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.043
    Abstract The increasing demand of alfalfa crop production in the Lagunera Region has caused the search of new alternatives to the conventional methods of nutritional and hydric evaluation of alfalfa, where costs and time are optimized. The use of a machine vision system for computerized visual recognition of the crop hydric and/or nutritional stress implies the analysis and processing of certain characteristics, such as color, shape and object dimensions from a digital image. Due to the fact that identification parameters are closely related, it is necessary to compile information from specialists, foliar analysis, mathematical morphology and alfalfa crop deficiency photographs. The… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Phosphorus nutrition on nitrogen metabolism of non-nodulated soybean

    Brevedan1 RE, MI Aveldaño2, MN Fioretti1, MA Varillas2, SS Baioni1, HR Mirassón3, IR Palomo1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 49-52, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.049
    Abstract Two experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions to study the influence of P deficiency on nitrogen nutrition of non-nodulated soybean. There was a reduction of N and P content in P deficient (P-) plants of almost 50% after 50 days. During this period, dry matter of these plants was reduced by 33%. Nitrate reductase activity and shoot nitrate content were lower in Pthan in P+ plants. Seventy five percent of nitrates in P- plants were in the roots. Nitrate accumulation in roots would be due to the lower nitrate reductase activity in this organ and a reduced water flux to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Amaranthus (Amaranthus spp.) grain yield and forage quality after cultivation at various densities in Northeastern Mexico

    García-Pereyra1 J, CGS Valdés-Lozano2, E Olivares-Saenz2, O Alvarado-Gómez2, G Alejandre-Iturbide3, E Salazar-Sosa4, H Medrano-Roldán5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 53-60, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.053
    Abstract We tested five Amaranthus genotypes (A. hypochondriacus 655, 653, 153-5-3, and Criollo Tlaxcala and A. cruentus genotype 33) at four population densities (31,250; 41,666; 62,500 and 125,000 plants/ha, during spring-summer (PV; July-December) 2000 and autumn-winter (OI) 2001 and 2002. Studies were conducted at the experimental station of the Agronomy Faculty of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico. A split plot experimental design on completely randomized blocks was used, with two replicates. The evaluated agronomic characteristics were grain yield (RG), dry matter yield (MS), plant height (AP), stem diameter (DT) and panicle length (LP). Crude protein (PC), ashes (C), acid… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Analysis of volatile compounds in three unifloral native Chilean honeys

    Montenegro G1,*, M Gómez1, G Casaubon2, A Belancic2, AM Mujica1, RC Peña1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 61-65, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.067
    Abstract Three unifloral honeys were identified by the pronounced presence of specific compounds by means of sensorial analysis and SPME-GC-MS. Smoky and resinous (‘propolis’) odors characterized unifloral “quillay” (Quillaja saponaria) honey. “Corontillo” (Escallonia pulverulenta) honey was characterized by caramel and vanillin aromas, and “ulmo” (Eucryphia cordifolia) honey by having an anise scent with a floral jasmine note. Safranal was a useful marker for “corontillo” honey. Isophorone and cetoisophorone were the distinctive compounds of unifloral “ulmo” honey. In “quillay” honeys, megastigmatrienone, 2-p-hydroxyphenylalcohol and minor quantities of β-pinene and linalool oxide were correlated with their sensory properties such as resinous. More >

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    Herbal medicinal teas from South Africa

    Bhat1 RB, G Moskovitz2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 67-73, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.061
    Abstract An investigation of herbal medicinal teas from Western Cape, South Africa was conducted to assess the varieties of herbal teas used to treat various ailments. Each packet of medicinal tea is a blend of carefully selected four or more herbs which are commonly grown in the organic garden in an ancient valley near the southernmost tip of South Africa and some indigenous herbs picked up in the nearby mountains. The teas are specific for the diseased organ/s and also include the herbs to support and strengthen the systems serving the ailing organ/s. The study shows that there are about twenty-one… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Heavy metal accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum: Effects on growth and development

    Orroño DI, RS Lavado*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 75-82, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.075
    Abstract Ornamental plants have been proposed for growing in heavy metal (HM) contaminated soils, and also for phytoremediation. We evaluated (1) biomass production and (2) HM accumulation in Pelargonium hortorum. Plants were grown for 16 weeks on HM (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc) enriched soils. Treatments were i) control, non-enriched soil, ii) medium concentration treatment, and iii) high concentration treatment. Four destructive harvests were carried out, and roots, stems, leaves, and flowers were analyzed each time. Concentrations of HM were determined using ICP. Significant reductions in biomass production were observed in HM-enriched soils compared with the control. Different indexes… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Molecular and cultural analysis of seasonal actinomycetes in soils from Artemisia tridentata habitat

    Gonzalez-Franco AC1, L Robles-Hernandez1, A Nuñez-Barrios1, JL Strap2, DL Crawford3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 83-90, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.083
    Abstract In order to understand the temporal dynamics of actinomycete communities of the rhizosphere of the desert plant Artemisia tridentata (sagebrush), two complementary methods were used. They were: (1) 16S rDNA-based PCR coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and (2) an agar plate enumeration methodology in which three different media were used to quantify total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi. The objective of this research were: (1) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the structure of actinomycete populations, and (2) their dynamics in the rhizosphere of young and old sagebrush plants during two distinct seasons. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that actinomycete groups… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Lilium sp. response to phosphorus and its relationship with Glomus fasciculatum and Bacillus subtilis

    Rubí Arriaga1 M, A González Huerta2, AM Castillo González3, V Olalde Portugal4, BG Reyes5, LI Aguilera Gómez6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 91-100, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.091
    Abstract Among commercial plants utilized in floriculture in Mexico State, Lilium species have a great production volume, with problems associated with high use of chemical fertilizers, soil salinity and water pollution. Sustainable strategies are required to minimize impacts on the ecosystem without diminishing quality products. Main effects and the interactions of phosphorous, Glomus fasciculatum and Bacillus subtilis were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Twelve treatments arranged in a 2x3x2 factorial with 10 replications by treatment were studied. Results showed that G. fasciculatum combined with 22 μg/ml P and B. subtilis had a positive correlation with root colonization, root dry weight, stem diameter,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of nitrogen fertilization on heavy metal content of corn grains

    Rui Yu-kui, Zhang Fu-suo, Shen Jian-bo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 101-104, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.101
    Abstract Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive nitrogen inputs do not significantly increase crop yields but may lead to many serious environmental problems. The effects of nitrogen fertilization rate were studied on heavy metal content of corn grains. Our results show that nitrogen fertilization management is beneficial for reducing production costs, protecting the environment, and improving the quality of farm products. More >

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    ARTICLE

    Biological control of chili pepper root rot (Capsicum annuum L.) by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Mojica-Marín1* V, HA Luna-Olvera2, CF Sandoval-Coronado2, B Pereyra-Alférez2, LH Morales-Ramos2, NA González-Aguilar2, CE Hernández-Luna2, OG Alvarado-Gomez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 105-110, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.105
    Abstract Wide spreading of pepper blight on new plantations and on different production areas in Mexico, and the difficulty in controlling this disease, makes it compulsory to develop new control measures. It is expected that these measures provide new tools for controlling this disease in the context of integrated management strategies. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and determine the antagonistic potential of 64 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora capsici and Fusarium oxysporum by dual culture assays. Strains of B. thuringiensis came from the International Collection of Entomopatogenic Bacillus from FCBUANL. Results showed that 16 strains… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infecting cultivated and invasive plants in the southern Pampas and northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Delhey R1, M Kiehr1, MI Allievi1, J Lusto2, S Frayssinet1, B Sidoti Hartmann3, I Kröger1, PJ Paoloni4, D Zappacosta1, A Servera3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 111-115, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.111
    Abstract A report is given on plant hosts, distribution, damage and importance of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the southern Pampas region and northern Patagonia (Argentina). Spontaneous infections were recorded on 25 plant species, including oil crops, vegetables, and ornamental and invasive plants. Carduus thoermeri, Xanthium cavanillesii, Marrubium vulgare and Ranunculus repens are new hosts of S. sclerotiorum. The records on Helianthus tuberosus, Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Cucurbita pepo are new to Argentina. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes important damage on Helianthus annuus, Glycine max, Apium graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Lactuca sativa. S. sclerotiorum is also reported on Daucus carota, Petroselinum crispum, Brassica oleracea, B. rapa… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Estimation of the genetic diversity of Opuntia spp. using molecular markers AFLP

    García-Zambrano2 EA, F Zavala-García2, A Gutiérrez-Diez, MC Ojeda-Zacarías, I Cerda-Hurtado3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 117-120, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.117
    Abstract The objective of this study was to apply the AFLP-type molecular marker technique to estimate genetic diversity in cactus pear within the Germplasm Bank of FAUANL. Twelve accessions have been reported as possible duplicates through type RAPD- molecular markers in such Bank. DNA was extracted using the cellular ruptor technique, and then digested and bound. A preamplification and subsequent selective amplification were conducted. Amplified fragments were then separated and analyzed. It was concluded that none of the accessions was duplicated. This was because 8 groups were formed in the dendogram obtained after applying the UPGMA method. There were 3 accessions… More >

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    Patch size and shape and their relationship with tree and shrub species richness

    Pincheira-Ulbrich1 J, JR Rau2, F Peña-Cortés1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 121-128, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.121
    Abstract The size and shape of 10 native forest patches were related to tree and shrub species richness in the pre coastal mountain range in Osorno province, southern Chile. Four regression models were adjusted (lineal, logarithm, exponential, and power regression) between patch size (area = x) and tree and shrub species richness (y). Patch shape was quantified through three indexes (Patton diversity index, compactness index and fractal dimension) which were correlated with the tree and shrub richness. Results allowed to conclude that (1) species richness tends to increase significantly with patch size; this relationship was explained by the four study models.… More >

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    Liquid compost factor: a biologically derived seed treatment for increased grain chickpea production

    Robles-Hernández1* L, AC González-Franco1, SO Guy2, WC Chun2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 129-134, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.129
    Abstract This study presents the effect of Liquid Compost Factor (LCF) seed treatments on plant height in greenhouse trials, and plant density, plant height and seed yield of chickpea in field conditions. The greenhouse trials were organized in a randomized block design, while in field experiments were established in a factorial complete randomized block design conducted in Moscow and Genesee, Idaho, USA locations during 2003 and 2004. In the greenhouse, LCF 1:64 had the highest plant growth, and was statistically similar to LCF 1:110, LCF 1:128 and LCF 1:140, but different to the non-treated control. The orthogonal contrasts of LCF treatments… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Morphoanatomical and micrographic study of Pluchea microcephala R. K. Godfrey (Asteraceae) employed in Argentine folk medicine

    Bucciarelli A, PV Hansen, VN Cambi
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 135-140, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.135
    Abstract Pluchea microcephala (“cuatrocantos”, “lucera”) is a perennial native species from northern Argentina, Bolivia and NW of Perú, commonly used to treat digestive and hepatic disorders in humans. It grows in humid and saline soils, and bordering watercourses. Morphoanatomical characteristics of leaves, stems and capitula have been studied in order to determine the main diagnostic characters for the identification of this species. Light microscope observations were carried out on herbarium specimens, dissociated material, and serial transverse sections of restored herbarium material. Leaves are decurrent, anfistomatic, with eglandulate septate-flagellate trichomes and glandular trichomes with a entire biseriate stem. The mesophyll is isobilateral… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antibacterial and antifungic activity of the unifloral honeys of Quillaja saponaria, an endemic Chilean species

    Montenegro G, F Salas, RC Peña, R Pizarro
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 141-146, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.141
    Abstract The detection of phenolics, flavonoids and related compounds by HPLC in extracts of unifloral honey of Quillay (Quillaja saponaria) showed phenolic compounds such as caffeic, coumaric and salicylic acids, the flavanone naringenin and the flavonol kaempferol. These extracts showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aureginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus typhi, S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae type β, and Vibrio cholerae, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Additionally, some aroma and decomposition compounds were identified in the ethanol extract. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Toxicity and accumulation of arsenic in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of China

    Zhang1 WD, DS Liu2, JC Tian1*, FL He1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 147-154, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.147
    Abstract Soil arsenic contamination becomes a potential agricultural and environmental hazard worldwide, and has been a serious problem for safe food production. A field experiment on soil contamination was conducted on four wheat varieties (Jimai, Gaoyou, Weimai and Wennong) in Eastern China, using 50 or 100 mg arsenic/kg soil. Biomass production and yield components were determined and arsenic concentrations were measured in plant tissues. Differential arsenic effects on wheat varieties were determined at maturity. Results showed that addition of arsenic significantly (p<0.05) reduced root, stem and spike dry weight and yield components, which resulted in the decrease of grain yield per… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of fusaric acid on Zea mays L. seedlings

    Diniz SPSS, RC Oliveira
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 155-160, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.155
    Abstract The effects of fusaric acid, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium sp, were investigated in relation to its action on corn seedlings. The mycotoxin inhibited the development of corn seedlings at 0.2 mM, causing root length reduction. Anatomically, alterations were only visible from 0.5 mM fusaric acid, directly influencing the cell differentiation process. Precocious differentiation reduces the elongation region. This explains (1) that root shortening is morphologically visible, and (2) the differentiation of a great number of lateral roots nearby the apex, which can be seen in longitudinal cuts. More >

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    ARTICLE

    Antibacterial activity of Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Born) from the Indian coast against human pathogens

    Manilal1 A, S Sujith2, J Selvin3, C Shakir4, G Seghal Kiran5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.78, pp. 161-166, 2009, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2009.78.161
    Abstract The antibacterial property of the red algae, Falkenbergia hillebrandii (Born) collected from the southwest coast of India (Indian Ocean) was evaluated against three multidrug resistant human pathogens. Four different solvents: ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, methanol and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were used with this purpose. Dried samples extracted with methanol showed broadest and highest antimicrobial activity when compared to other solvents. However, PBS extract showed no antibacterial activity. The highly active compounds red alga, F. hillebrandii were fractionated and purified using different chromatographic systems, including reverse phase HPLC and GCMS. The analysis revealed that the most abundant metabolite was the oleic… More >

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