Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.83, 2014
  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological and immunochemical characterization of the pollen grains of Chenopodium album L. (Chenopodiaceae) in a temperate urban area in Argentina

    Bianchimano AS1, MG Murray2,3, ME Aztiria1, B Montes2,3, ML Calfuán2, MI Prat1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 9-15, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.009
    Abstract Chenopodium album is a very polymorphic, cosmopolitan, annual herb that grows spontaneously in modified soils in wasteland in the outlying urban zones of Bahía Blanca. In this city, the flowering period is mainly during February and March, which coincides with the highest concentrations of this pollen type in the atmosphere of the city. The objective of this study was to characterize the pollen grains of Chenopodium album, both morphologically and immunochemically, that were obtained from three different zones in the urban area of Bahía Blanca. Samples were collected from the three separate zones in the city that were far apart.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Volatile compounds of unifloral honey and floral nectar from Quillaja saponaria

    Santander F1, C Fredes1, G Nuñez1, G Casaubon2, MI Espinoza2, G Montenegro1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 17-26, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.017
    Abstract Currently, the search for chemical markers related to the botanical origin of honey is an important issue because of its potential use as a complementary tool for melisopalinological analysis. The objective of this research was to compare the (1) volatile compounds of Quillaja saponaria Mol. (Fam. Quillajaceae) floral nectar with those of unifloral honey of this same species, and (2) volatile compounds in Q. saponaria honeys from the same geographical origin. For the identification and semiquantification of volatile compounds, Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was performed. The nectar of Q. saponaria presented volatile compounds different from the compounds identified… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Pollen production pattern in the capitulum of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Astiz V1, LF Hernández2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 27-36, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.027
    Abstract The intra-plant pollen production in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was quali- and quantitatively studied. Two modern self-pollinated, high oleic sunflower hybrids were grown during two consecutive seasons: 2009 in three planting dates, and 2010 in two planting dates. Two cross-pollinated varieties of sunflower, Hopi and Havasupai, were also studied to determine if an anomalous intracapitulum pollen gradient observed in preliminary studies could be a remnant character inherited from primitive genotypes. Pollen grains per flower (PGF), anther volume (AV), pollen grain volume (PGV) and pollen viability (PV) were measured in three capitulum sectors, external (ES), middle (MS) and internal (IS).… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variability of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae based on the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique

    García-Pereyra J1, GN Aviña-Martínez1, AA Orozco-Flores2, OG Alvarado-Gómez3, M García-Montelongo4, G Alejandre-Iturbide5, JN Uribe-Soto5, H Medrano-Roldan6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 37-43, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.037
    Abstract It was analyzed the genetic variability of (1) three strains of a pathogenic fungi of the genus Metharhizium anisopliae var anisopliae, named MA22, MA24 and MA25, brand spesifik®; (2) two strains of the product Metasaven®, named MA1A and MAII; one strain of the product Metatron®; and a native strain named MACN. This latter strain was directly isolated from the insect chapulin (Brachystola magna), from the farmer, corn plots in Durango, located in north central Mexico. Studies were conducted in the laboratory of molecular biology of the Technological Institute of the Valley of Guardiana in Durango, Mexico, from September 2008 to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In vitro antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from soils of the Yucatan Peninsula against Macrophomina phaseolina and Meloidogyne incognita

    Ruiz SE, AJ Cristóbal, RA Reyes, SJ Tun, RA García, AJ Pacheco
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 45-47, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.045
    Abstract The antagonistic activity of native Bacillus subtilis strains from Yucatán peninsula soils were evaluated on two soilborne pathogens. Bacillus subtilis cbck36 and cbrf24 caused more than 60% inhibition of colony growth in Machophomina phaseolina. Cell-free culture filtrate of B. subtilis cbr24 were active against second- stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (LC50 25.8% v/v). More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biocontrol of pepper wilt with three Bacillus species and its effect on growth and yield

    Hernández-Castillo FD1, RH Lira-Saldivar2, G Gallegos-Morales1, M Hernández-Suárez1, S Solis-Gaona2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 49-55, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.049
    Abstract One of the most severe phytosanitary problems that face chili pepper producers in Mexico, and in many other parts of the world, is the disease known as "secadera" or wilting, caused by diverse pathogens. These patogens are mainly controlled with synthetic pesticides, thus causing a severe ecological impact, toxicity to humans, generation of plant resistance to fungicides, and increments of production costs. Because of this, it rises the need of finding more environmentally friendly options. We evaluated rhizospheric bacteria as a possible biological control of pepper wilt. We used three bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus genera. These strains were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Endophytic fungi from Camellia sinensis show an antimicrobial activity against the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea

    Zhu XJ, YF Hu, X Chen, YH Wang, WP Fang, XH Li
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 57-63, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.057
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antagonistic activity of two endophytic fungal strains, Pseudocercospora kaki and Penicillium sclerotiorum, isolated from the leaves of Camellia sinensis, against the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea. The inhibitory activity of the two endophytes against M. grisea in dual-culture was compared with that in monoculture. It was confirmed that the broth and its ethyl acetate extract of the dual-culture had a much stronger inhibition activity against M. grisea than the monocultures of P. kaki and P. sclerotiorum. The antagonism index of the broth and ethyl acetate extract from dual-culture to the mycelial… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Yield stability of wheat in the Mexicali Valley, México

    Rodríguez-González RE1, JJ Paz Hernández1, CG Iñiguez Monroy3, EO Rueda Puente2, L Avendaño-Reyes1, M Cruz-Villegas1, CE Ail-Catzim1, M Stoycheva4, R Koytchev Zlatev4, P Renganathan2, AM García López1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 65-70, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.065
    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate grain yield (RG) stability of some commercial wheat varieties, and to assess the stability of other parameters which are not typically measured for grain release purposes: performance of straw (RP), weight per hectoliter (PH), white belly (PB), harvest index (IC), grain protein (PG) and gluten strength (W). The evaluation was performed with the wheat varieties Cachanilla F-2000 (C), Yécora F-70 (Y) and Triguenio F-00 (TR), in El Valle de Mexicali, Baja California under four test environments, with the application of the Eberhart and Russell model. The study was developed during the 2010-2012… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Evaluation of N sources, cover crops, and tillage systems for corn grown under organic management

    Suarez Tapia A1, MB Villamil1, LJ Grabau2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 71-81, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.071
    Abstract Public demand for healthier foods and more sustainable food systems in the U.S. has triggered market prices and production of organic alternatives of major crops such as corn (Zea mays L.). Two cover crops and their interactions with tillage systems, N sources and N rates were studied to evaluate the possibility of using these agronomic practices to facilitate growing corn under organic management in Kentucky. A split-split plot design in a RCBD with four replications was evaluated in three environments (SP08, UKR08, UKR09). The main plot treatments were cover crops [hairy vetch, HV (Vicia villosa Roth) and rye (Secale cerealeMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of propagule size and plant density on seedling emergence, yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    Jiménez-Vázquez P1, JA Rangel-Lucio2, M Mendoza-Elos1, F Cervantes-Ortíz1, JG Rivera-Reyes1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 83-91, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.083
    Abstract The production and quality of garlic (Allium sativum L.) depend on agronomics management, physiological and sanitary characteristics of bulbs or bulbils used at sowing, and economic resources. The objective of this assay was to evaluate the effects of garlic bulb and bulbil sizes, and of plant density, on seedling emergence, and garlic bulb yield and quality cv. Taiwan. The garlic bulbs and bulbils classified and selected by size were made from Extra Flor, Gigante and Jumbo garlic bulbs. They were sown at three plant densities (333000, 285710 and 250000 plants/ha) in a split plot experimental design. During garlic growth, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Integral evaluation of fertilization on triticale seed production (X Triticum secale Wittmack)

    Mendoza Elos M1, S Sámano Rodríguez1, F Cervantes Ortiz1, E Andrio Enríquez1, JA Rangel Lucio1, JG Rivera Reyes1, LP Guevara Acevedo1, E Moreno Martínez2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 93-100, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.093
    Abstract Seed production requires not only the application of appropriate techniques but also a good knowledge and planning aspects of agricultural production that allow an effective use of the staff and available production facilities. The advantage in using biofertilizers in agriculture is the reduction in production costs. This is because less chemical fertilizers are needed, and in turn this implies a reduction in input costs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the best combination of chemical and organic fertilization for seed production on triticale (X Triticum secale Wittmack). The study was conducted at the Instituto Tecnológico de Roque,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Land equivalent ratio, grain and pod yield and ethereal extract of Helianthus annuus L. in monoculture and associated with Pisum sativum L. in function of stabilized urea

    Piña-González JL1, EJ Morales-Rosales2, A Domíngez-López2, JF Ramírez-Dávila2, G Estrada-Campuzano2, O Franco-Mora2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 101-108, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.101
    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the land equivalent ratio, biomass, grain yield and ethereal extract of Helianthus annuus in monoculture and associated with Pisum sativum in function of stabilized urea (0, 40, 80 kg N/ha) in El Cerrillo, México. It was also estimated pod yield obtained by P. sativum as a pure stand and associated with H. annuus. The six treatments (in each experiment) were evaluated in a 2 × 3 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. When F values were significant, the honestly significant difference test at the 5% level of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Temporal variation of phytoplankton populations in response to granular and liquid fertilizers

    Tizkar B1, A Seidavi2, M Sudagar3, JT Ponce-Palafox4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 109-116, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.109
    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a granular or liquid fertilizer on the temporal variation of phytoplankton. Enrichment of the pond water with nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in an increased gross photosynthesis and biomass of the dominant algal species. Nutrient concentrations and dilution rates can determine the temporal variation in phytoplankton abundance and primary production. The variation may be largely maintained by nutrient regeneration or turnover from different forms. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Chemical characterization and sensory evaluation of new sweets made with Geoffroea decorticans fruits, Fabaceae

    Orrabalis C1,2, H Gorostegui1,2, E Calandri1, C Guzmán1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 117-125, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.117
    Abstract We evaluated the possibility of making jam (product A) and simile sweet potato jam (product B) from the edible pulp of the fruits of Geoffroea decorticans. The first step was the chemical characterization of the flour (pulp) highlighting their carbohydrate (85.6%), protein (9.4%) and mineral (4.2%) concentrations. Sucrose (29.5%), glucose (3.80%) and fructose (5.30%) levels were quantified using gas chromatography. Contents of protein (5.7%), minerals (3.4%), dietary fiber (0.97%), sucrose (46.8%), glucose (1.9%) and fructose (2.4%) were very good in jam. The simile sweet potato jam had low calories (140 Kcal/100g) and provided protein (4.6%). During the 12-month-storage period, the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Is Poa spiciformis tolerant to defoliation? Defoliation effects on its productive performance

    Ferrante D1,2, A Cesa1,2, S Lewis2, G Jaurena3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 127-131, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.127
    Abstract In plants, compensatory growth takes place when the positive effects of defoliation compensate the negative ones, and defoliated plants show a similar or increased production in relation to non-defoliated plants. Our objective was to evaluate the ability to compensate defoliation of Poa spiciformis, a forage perennial tussock grass in southern Patagonia (Argentina). The experiment was performed in potted plants that grew under controlled conditions of watering and fertilization. Three defoliation frequencies were imposed (zero, three or five) using 20-25 day intervals among them. Harvest intensity was always equivalent to 50% of the aerial biomass. Fifteen plants were sampled per treatment,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intraradices co-inoculation stimulates growth and yield of cherry tomato under shadehouse conditions

    Lira-Saldivar RH1, A Hernández1, LA Valdez2, A Cárdenas1, L Ibarra1, M Hernández3, N Ruiz4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 133-138, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.133
    Abstract The response of cherry tomato to biofertilization with beneficial microorganisms was evaluated under shadehouse conditions. Seeds were inoculated and/or co-inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense (Az) and/or Glomus intraradices (Gi). Thereafter, seedlings of six treatments received two applications of a suspension containing Az + Gi at 15 and 30 days after the transplant, and were compared against a non-inoculated treatment which only received conventional inorganic fertilization. Seed co-inoculation with A. brasilense and G. intraradices plus two applications of Az + Gi at 15 and 30 days after transplant increased on average 6% plant height, 11% leaf area, 10.5% dry biomass and 16%… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Extension of postharvest shelf-life of tomato fruits using biocompatible synthetic latex

    Ramos G1, RH Lira1, RD Peralta2, GY Cortez2, A Cárdenas1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 139-143, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.139
    Abstract Tomato fruits are perishable products that require treatments such as coating films to extend their shelf life. Because of this and to avoid use of synthetic chemicals to prevent physical deterioration during postharvest, we evaluated the effects of an edible coating polymer latex poly (vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol), P (VAc-co-VA), at three concentrations (0, 50 and 100%) in tomato fruits. The trial was conducted at room temperature conditions (31 ± 4 °C; with RH of 30 ± 5%) and temperature-controlled (12 ± 1 °C; with RH of 75 ± 5%). Fruits coated with P (VAc-co-VA) at 100 and 50% showed significantly… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variability of Baccharis crispa Spreng. wild populations in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina

    Chaves AG, PC Brunetti, Y Massuh, SF Ocaño, LE Torres, MS Ojeda
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 145-153, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.145
    Abstract Baccharis crispa Spreng., "Carqueja", is found among the medicinal plants of Argentina, registered in the pharmacopoeia, the species. It is a rhizomatous dioic subshrub, with branches provided with three wings, 2 to 6 mm wide. According to the Conservation Priority Index (developed for the Paravachasca Valley of the Province of Córdoba), the carqueja is third in order of importance as a priority for conservation. In general, conservation includes the preservation and sustainable use of genetic resources, protecting their variability, which is essential for their maintenance. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of variability, from morphological, chemical,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in treatment of ticks

    Magwede K1, MP Tshisikhawe1, D Luseba2, RB Bhat1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 155-165, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.155
    Abstract The documentation of traditional knowledge on medicinal use of plants has provided many important drugs that are used worldwide on a daily basis. Traditional remedies had been (and still are) the main source of livestock ailment treatments, especially in regions of poor resources of the Vhembe District, South Africa. In many rural areas of the Republic of South Africa, traditional medicine is sometimes the only available modern orthodox health care for managing both human and animal health. Much work remains to be done regarding the documentation of the existing ethnobotanical knowledge. In this work, we report an inventory list of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of heat-unit methods to predict tomato anthesis

    Bouzo CA, JC Favaro
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 167-170, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.167
    Abstract The aim of this work was to compare methods to predict the time of anthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Two independent experiments were carried out using seeds of the Tauro commercial hybrid. Daily maximum and minimum air temperatures were measured by means of an electronic thermometer with data storage; the photoperiod was calculated using a mathematical procedure. The moment at which each inflorescence presented 50% of its flowers in anthesis was recorded. The use of calendar days (CD) had a high dispersion, which was measured with a variation coefficient (VC) higher than 3.70% for all inflorescences. The method that… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Agronomic efficiency of phosphorus, biomass and yield of two native varieties of maize and one hybrid in central Mexico

    Díaz-López E1, JM Loeza-Corte2, I Brena-Hernández2, JM Campos Pastelín2, IJ Orlando-Guerrero2, G Salgado-Benítez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 171-178, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.171
    Abstract The Toluca´s México valley is considered a high valley because it is situated at 2560 m.a.s.l. In this region, maize is the most important crop; free pollination [Yellow, red, blue and flour maize (Cacahuacintle)] and hybrid materials are grown. Corn yield is negatively affected by an inadequate P fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the agronomic effectiveness of phosphorus in terms of biomass and yield on three cultivars of maize as a function of six levels of phosphorus fertilization in the Toluca´s valley, Mexico. The materials Amarillo Almoloya, Cacahuacintle and Cóndor were sown under a completely randomized… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Polyphenolic profile of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viridulum from Argentina

    González MD, CM Luis, PL Lanzelotti
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 179-184, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.179
    Abstract Characterization of oregano in Argentina is limited. They are normally known with fancy names, but it is not possible to recognize whether they are genetically equivalent or not. This paper presents a non-volatile polyphenol study of one of the subspecies of Origanum vulgare, O. vulgare L. ssp. viridulum (Martrin-Donos) Nyman [= O. vulgare L. ssp. virens (Hoffmannsegg et Link) Ietswart]. The polyphenols 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, 4-(3.4-dihydroxybenzoyloxymethyl)phenyl β-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analysis from leaves and inflorescences of classified material. In addition, the polyphenol profile of the hydroalcoholic extract of this oregano was… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Carotenoid content, antioxidant capacity and volatile compounds of the aroma during tomato ripening

    López-Vidal1 O, H Escalona-Buendía2, C Pelayo-Zaldívar2, J Cruz-Salazar1, JM Villa-Hernández1, F Rivera-Cabrera1, O Villegas-Torres3, I Alia-Tejacal3, L J Pérez-Flores1, F Díaz de León-Sánchez1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 185-192, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.185
    Abstract During ripening, tomato fruit accumulates high levels of carotenoids. These compounds, besides their function as pigments, nutrients and antioxidants, are precursors of some important volatile compounds for the development of the characteristic aroma of these fruits. In the present work, the antioxidant capacity, lycopene and β-carotene levels, and the production of aromatic substances derived from the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway were analyzed in the tomato cultivar 7705 at different ripening stages. Results showed a significant (p<0.05) increase of lycopene and β-carotene (22.1 and 2.9 fold, respectively) from the mature green to the breaker stage. Lycopene levels increased and those of β-carotene… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Spatial distribution of Asclepias curassavica L., in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Ramírez-Dávila JF1, RA Jiménez-Carrillo2, JR Sánchez-Pale1, M Rubí Arriaga1, DK Figueroa-Figueroa1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 193-202, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.193
    Abstract This study contributes to the knowledge of the biodiversity of the flora of the State of Mexico through an analysis of the distribution and abundance of Asclepias curassavica L., which is planted with ornamental and medicinal potential. The study was carried out in the municipalities of Temascaltepec, Malinalco and Valle de Bravo. The spatial statistical method was used to determine the distribution of A. curassavica based on the method SADIE (spatial analysis by remote indexes). Sampling transects of 200 m, marked every 10 m, were used in the three municipalities, during three times of the year, spring, summer and winter.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Inventory of fruit species and ethnobotanical aspects in Sultepec, Mexico State, Mexico

    Rubí-Arriaga M, A González-Huerta, I Martínez-De La Cruz, O Franco-Mora, JF Ramírez-Dávila, JA López-Sandoval, GV Hernández-Flores
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 203-211, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.203
    Abstract Sultepec, State of Mexico, located on the central part of Mexico, belongs to the Physiographic province “Sierra Madre del Sur” and to the Subprovince “Depresión del Balsas”. Although it is known for its floristic richness, it lacks an inventory of vascular plants, including the fruit species. The aim of this work was to elaborate a database including family, scientific name, local name, biological form, origin, use, management, production and service of the fruit species. Plants were collected continuously from June 2010 to June 2011. Subsequently, they were determined in the herbarium “Eizi Matuda” (CODAGEM) from the Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The nutrient accumulation pattern and cycling in natural secondary forests in North China. A case study from the Caijiachuan watershed, Shanxi Province

    Wei TX1, XJ Zhang1,2, JZ Zhu1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 213-223, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.213
    Abstract In order to examine the nutrient content, and the distribution and accumulation patterns of individual nutrients in the natural secondary forests (NSFs), sample NSF plots were selected in the Caijiachuan watershed on the Loess Plateau. On the basis of a comprehensive field inventory to the NSFs in Caijiachuan watershed, a 40 m × 40 m sample plot was selected as the representative plot. Each tree plant was then measured to select the standard tree in accordance with a diameter-scale. For measurement of the biomass in the above-ground part of the tree, it was divided into parts and measured. The study… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phenotype variation of chile morphotypes (Capsicum annuum L.) native to Oaxaca, Mexico

    Castellón Martínez E1, JC Carrillo-Rodríguez1, JL Chávez-Servia2, AM Vera-Guzmán2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 225-236, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.225
    Abstract Farmers’ role is important for the selection and conservation of the local diversity of native peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), which are distinguished by pod shape, plant traits, and show high levels of biogeographic and cultural heterogeneity. Our objective was to evaluate the phenotypic variation and postharvest changes of fruits in six morphotypes of native peppers from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. This would contribute information on the diversity of pepper landraces. Collection and characterization of plant and fruits were undertaken for 52 samples grouped into six morphotypes, under a completely randomized block design with three repetitions under greenhouse conditions.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cotton production with high sowing densities using organic fertilization

    López Martínez JD1, E Salazar Sosa1, HI Trejo-Escareño1, JL García Hernández1, M Navarro Morones2, C Vázquez-Vázquez1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 237-242, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.237
    Abstract The Laguna Region located in the states of Durango and Coahuila, Mexico, is the main cow milk production region of Mexico. Here there are about 500000 heads of cattle. This region produces about 1.2 million tons of cattle manure annually, which allows raising the possibility of their use in agriculture. Treatments evaluated in this study were: plant density (120000 and 240000 plants/ha), solarized cattle manure (0, 40, 80, 120 t/ha), and an additional chemical treatment of 120-60-00 kg/ha of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. A randomized block design with a strip arrangement was used. Three replicates were used per treatment.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Variability in the number of stems in Lotus tenuis seedlings growing at high density

    Entio LJ y MM Mujica
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 243-250, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.243
    Abstract Successful establishment of Lotus tenuis, an important legume to improve grasslands in the Pampa Deprimida, might be limited by low seedling vigor. The number of crown stems is an important component of vigor. The objective of this work was to determine the variability in the number of crown stems on seedlings of 11 Lotus tenuis natural populations sown at high density under semi-controlled conditions. Seeds of all populations were collected in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. They were sown in plastic pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. Eight weeks after seeding, seedlings of each population were grouped according to… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biology of Dittrichia viscosa, a Mediterranean ruderal plant: a review

    Parolin P, M Ion Scotta, C Bresch
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 251-262, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.251
    Abstract Dittrichia viscosa is a common plant species in the Mediterranean region which is adapted to a wide range of environmental stresses. It is an important species that can be used for phytoremediation, as bioaccumulator or bioindicator, and it has the potential for being employed in integrated pest management in the Mediterranean ecosystem due to its entomophilous character. More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Water stress response of Tricepiro and its progenitors Triticale and Trigopiro

    Ruiz MA1,3, A Golberg1,2, ML Molas1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 263-274, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.263
    Abstract In semiarid regions rainfall is often scarce and erratic in space and time, making valuable the exploration of news genotypes with superior behavior in dry land systems. Tricepiro (X Triticosecale Wittmack x X Agrotriticum Ciferri & Giacom) is a synthetic cereal with long cycle and high biomass production in semiarid environments. However its performance under controlled water stress has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of water stress on tricepiro genotypes in comparison with their progenitors: triticale and trigopiro. Morphophysiological traits related to forage yield were evaluated in the greenhouse and the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Strategies and survival tactics of Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC. (Fabaceae-Faboideae)

    Perissé P1, R Lovey2, ML Molinelli1, M Scandaliaris2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 275-281, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.275
    Abstract Cologania broussonetii (Balb.) DC. stands out as valuable perennial, native forage that grows in northwestern Argentina, Cordoba hills and San Luis Province. The objectives of this study were to establish the vegetative and reproductive structures in function of the strategies and survival tactics of Cologania broussonetii. The specimens were collected in the Pan de Azúcar loaf mountain, Córdoba, and in the experimental plots of the FCA, UNC, and were then deposited in the Herbarium ACOR and in the Seed Collection. Seedlings were obtained from germination assays. Cross section cuts were performed on the survival structures of adult plants, and on… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Linking relative growth rates to biomass allocation: the responses of the grass Leymus chinensis to nitrogen addition

    Li1,2 YY, X-T Lü1, Z-W Wang1, C Zhou3,4, X-G Han1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 283-289, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.283
    Abstract Relative growth rate (RGR) of plants is a key component of fitness. Theoretically, the RGR of plants would be closely related with biomass allocation. Our mechanistic understanding of the relationship between RGR and biomass allocation under global change scenarios is still limited. We examined the responses of RGR and biomass allocation of Leymus chinensis, a dominant grass in the temperate steppe of northern China, to a wide range of N addition. We found that N addition increased RGR of L. chinensis up to a threshold of 10 g N/m2. While leaf and stem weight ratios were positively correlated with N… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of cadmium on root growth, cell division and micronuclei formation in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L.

    Wang QL, LT Zhang, JH Zou, DH Liu, JY Yue
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 291-298, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.291
    Abstract The effects of various cadmium (Cd) concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM) on root growth, cell division and micronuclei formation in root tip cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated to better understand the processes of Cd-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that 10 μM of Cd had an obviously passive influence on root growth during the 24 h treatment, and that the influence was even more serious with increasing Cd concentrations and duration of treatments. The mitotic index decreased with increasing Cd concentration and duration of treatments. Cadmium induced c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome stickiness and micronuclei. The frequency… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Cladistics of Mexican nopal genotypes (Opuntia spp.) based on AFLP markers and fruit characters

    Espinoza Sánchez EA1, H Silos Espino1, S Flores Benitez1, LL Valera Montero1, E Rodríguez Salazar2, C Gallegos Vázquez3, F Guevara Lara4, M González Chavira5, HS Guzmán Maldonado5
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 299-306, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.299
    Abstract Dendrograms were constructed based on AFLP markers and a table was used to group fruit characters of wild and cultivated genotypes of Mexican nopal (Opuntia spp.). The AFLP dendrogram obtained using ≈57.5 markers (from primers Mse I-CAC/Eco RI-AAG) did not agree with the known taxonomic classification for this species. Additionally, a complementary table for fruit characters (morphological and °Brix) showed a wide range for wild genotypes, e.g. from 21-22 °Brix for ‘Tapón Blanco’ and ‘Guilanche’ genotypes, to 5.0-8.2 °Brix for xoconostles (acidic fruits). Even though there were some divergences with taxonomic classification, it is expected that both genetic and physicochemical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Comparison of four DNA extraction methods on various tissues and types of Sechium edule ( Jacq.) Sw.

    Galindo-Tovar ME, VS Gasperin-Sanatta, JA Alejandre-Rosas, OR Leyva-Ovalle, J Murguía-González, HE Lee-Espinosa, I L,ero-Torres
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 307-310, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.307
    Abstract Sechium edule is an important crop in Southern Mexico and Central America, and México was the main producer, with 53% of the world production in 2012. This species presents high levels of morphological variation that have resulted in different types of varieties not clearly defined. However, morphological characteristics have not been sufficient to classify S. edule varieties, and it has been difficult to study the species genetic diversity. Because of it, there is a need to develop methods for studying the genetic diversity in S. edule. In this regard, the first step is to find a suitable DNA extraction method.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Prediction of tomato hybrid performance with genomic markers

    Hernández-Ibáñez L, J Sahagún-Castellanos, JE Rodríguez-Pérez, MG Peña-Ortega, LM Rodríguez-Martínez
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 311-318, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.311
    Abstract In many countries, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most important horticultural species, but good variety seeds are expensive. In hybrid breeding, the number of possible single crosses is too large with only a few lines. With 60 lines, for example, 1770 single-cross hybrids can be formed. This makes it expensive and even impossible to conduct an adequate experimental evaluation. These cases require the availability of methods for predicting hybrid performance. This study was designed to evaluate a method to predict fruit yield in tomato hybrids based on genomic fingerprints, the theory of mixed models, and the experimental evaluation of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Oleic conversion effect on the tocopherol and phytosterol contents in sunflower oil

    Ayerdi Gotor A1,5, M Berger1, F Labalette2, S Centis3, J Daydé1, A Calmon4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 319-324, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.319
    Abstract In sunflower, conventional breeding is widely used for the modification of traits such as the fatty acid composition, disease resistance, and mainly for obtaining commercial oil with high oleic acid content. There is a growing interest on tocopherols and phytosterols present in sunflower, due to their human health benefits. This emphasizes the need of studies on breeding programs for these bioactive components. A hundred of isogenic pairs of classic and its oleic version of hybrids and parental lines were cultivated in different locations in France between 2003 and 2006. The results indicated that sunflower oil is rich in α-tocopherol and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Growth rate and pathogenicity of isolates of Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora

    Grijalba P1 y A del C Ridao2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 325-332, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.325
    Abstract Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora is the major causal agent of stem canker in soybean (CTS) in Argentina. It has appeared mainly in the Southern Pampeana sub-region, but also in warm areas, and it has been observed with different levels of incidence, severity and virulence. The objective of this work was to study the growth rate in vitro and the pathogenicity of isolates from soybean plants at different temperatures. Twenty isolates from Buenos Aires Province were selected. The daily growth rate was measured in nine of them and in two reference isolates in potato dextrose agar (APD), under different light/darkness conditions… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Flower production of Gerbera jamesonii cv. Dream as a function of gibberellic and salicylic acids

    Morales-Pérez E1, EJ Morales-Rosales2, O Franco-Mora2, D de Jesús Pérez-López2, A González-Huerta2, E Urbina Sánchez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 333-340, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.333
    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess different doses of gibberellic and salicylic acids for the production of flowers on Gerbera jamesonni after applications to their foliage or substrate under greenhouse conditions. The ten treatments (growth regulators) were evaluated in a 10 x 2 factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications. When F values were significant, the honestly significant difference test (HSD) at the 5% level of significance was used. The principal components analysis was also used to study the interrelationship among the ten treatments and the two forms of application (foliar or substrate). The… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of immersion in solutions with 6-benzylaminopurine on the germination and growth of seeds of Ginkgo biloba L.

    Boschi CL, M Palazuelos, E Gandolfo
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 341-346, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.341
    Abstract Ginkgo biloba seed germination has hormonal inhibitors. Because of this, it has to be stratified in cold (4 °C) for 9 weeks before planting. This study evaluated other management by dipping prior to the sowing of seeds in solutions of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) to obviate those nine-week waiting period and thus increase seedling growth period during the first year of cultivation. Dose experiments were performed combining BA and cold days. Treatments were two solutions with BA (2.5 ppm and 5 ppm), four periods of cold stratification (25, 31, 38 and 49 days) and two growth conditions:(a) in pots and (b) in… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Impact of selenium fertilization on the activity of detoxifying enzymes of H2O2 in bean plants

    Hermosillo-Cereceres MA1, E Sánchez1, E Muñoz-Márquez1, A Guevara-Aguilar1, M García-Bañuelos1, D Ojeda-Barrios2
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 347-352, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.347
    Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential element for many organisms, although in high concentrations it may become toxic, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, bean plants received different application rates of Se (0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 µM) in the form of selenite and selenate to evaluate the activity of the detoxifying enzymes of H2O2. The results indicated that the activity of these enzymes in bean plants depended on the chemical form of Se: selenite at rates of 20 µM or greater diminished biomass and yield, increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD).… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaf photosynthetic characteristics in eight shaded Malaysian filmy ferns

    Nurul Hafiza MR, KT Yong, N Osman, A Nasrulhaq-Boyce
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 353-361, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.353
    Abstract The photosynthetic characteristics of eight Malaysian Hymenophyllaceae filmy ferns from shady habitats were investigated in this study. Chlorophyll content was highest in Trichomanes meifolium, followed by Cephalomanes obscurum, Hymenophyllum serrulatum, H. denticulatum, H. javanicum, H. acanthoides, H. exsertum and H. blandum, with values ranging from 3.3 to 8.6 mg/g fresh weight. Soluble protein content was remarkably high in H. serrulatum, with values of 53 ± 3.50 mg/g, followed by H. denticulatum, H. acanthoides, T. meifolium and the other species. Protein to chlorophyll ratios in the filmy ferns were low as expected, except for in H. serrulatum, H. acanthoides and H.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Delimitation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. from Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae Juss.) based on leaf morphology

    Usama K Abdel-Hameed
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 363-367, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.363
    Abstract In Egypt there are two different species that are commercially marketed under the same trade name of Neem: one is Azadirachta indica A. Juss., and the other is Melia azedarach L. In this paper, leaf morphological characters (e.g., lamina architecture, stomatography, petiole and blade micromorphology) of both taxa were described and illustrated to aid in the identification and differentiation between the two misidentified taxa. The obtained results concluded that leaf morpho-anatomical characters will not only provide criteria for their correct taxonomic authentication, but would also serve as future standard data for the quality assessment of the pharmaceutical preparation of botanical… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Leaf and stem anatomy of three halophytic Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae) from Argentina

    Pérez Cuadra V y PM Hermann
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 369-377, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.369
    Abstract Species belonging to the tribe Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae), called jumes, are rich in salts, reflecting its halophytic nature. The leaf and stem anatomy of Allenfolfea patagonica, Heterostachys olivascens and H. ritteriana were studied. The material, collected in the Salitral de la Vidriera located 30 km from Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires, Argentina), was fixed, dehydrated, embedded and stained with traditional techniques for plant anatomy. The foliar abaxial epidermis of the three species had papillate cells, while the adaxial one, usually did not. The stomata were sunken in the abaxial epidermis of the three species, and of the adaxial one of A. patagonica;… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Fruit development of two high oleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars

    Franchini MC1, AC F lemmer1, LI Lindström1, MA David2, PA Fernandez3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 379-388, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.379
    Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe fruit development in two high oleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars during four growing seasons. Pericarp histogenesis, and dynamics of pericarp and seed dry weight and fruit water content were studied. The dynamics of the pericarp and seed growth was similar between cultivars and years. The pericarp completed its growth before the seed. Pericarp potential size was already set at anthesis as no cell division was observed at this time. Maximum pericarp dry weight was achieved 8 days after anthesis, when cell wall lignification concluded. At this time, twinned prismatic simetric crystals… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphoanatomical functional traits in xerophytic species of a saline environment

    Pérez Cuadra V, V Cambi
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 389-396, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.389
    Abstract The halophytic community of Salitral de la Vidriera (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) has species with different morphoanatomical functional traits. The aim of this study was to compare these traits in four species, two Asteraceae (Baccharis spartioides and B. tenella) and two Frankeniaceae (Frankenia juniperoides and F. pulverulenta). Leaves and stems were treated under traditional techniques for anatomical study. Leaves the of Asteraceae and F. pulverulenta were amphistomatic while in F. juniperoides they were hypostomatic. All species showed trichomes and only the Frankeniaceae had salt glands. The mesophyll was isolateral in Asteraceae, and dorsiventral in Frankeniaceae; the number of foliar vascular… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Influence of woody species on aerial growth of perennial grasses in semi-arid rangelands of central Argentina

    Blazquez FR1,2,3, DV Peláez1,3,4, RJ Andrioli1, OR Elia1,2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 397-405, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.397
    Abstract The interaction between woody and grass species in semi-arid rangelands of central Argentina was assessed through the evaluation of the impact of woody species on grass growth over a 2-y period. The study comprised two morpho-physiologically different woody species and two cool-season perennial grass species highly preferred by domestic livestock. The study involved the assessment of total green length (TGL) and number of green leaves (NGL) per tiller in grasses growing beneath the canopy of woody species and in open rangeland areas. Soil temperature, pH and water, nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter content were estimated at the same study sites.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Contribution of different bud types to community regeneration on a typical steppe under various enclosure durations in Inner Mongolia, China

    Qian J1,2, Z Wang1, Z Liu1, W Kuang1,2, CA Busso3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 407-414, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.407
    Abstract Understanding the changes in the total bud bank, and its contribution to community regeneration, in response to grassland enclosure to livestock grazing, is crucial for grassland management. Despite its importance, the contribution of the total bud bank and that of different bud types to community regeneration as a whole have been rarely explored. The vegetative offspring recruited from different bud types was investigated in grasslands having different enclosure durations to livestock grazing on a typical steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Total vegetative offspring density was significantly higher (p<0.05) under continuous grazing than in fenced grasslands, but no significant changes were… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effect of prescribed fire on forage production and nutritive value of the perennial grass Saccharum griffithii

    Gul B1, M Islam2, S Ahmad3, S Gul1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 415-421, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.415
    Abstract The effect of fire on growth and nutritive value of Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Boiss-ravennae (Linn.) Murr. hybrid, a low palatable perennial grass in the semi-arid region of the highlands of Balochistan, Pakistan, was evaluated during 2008 and 2009. Prescribed fire treatments were applied in February 2008 and 2009 at the dormant stage of vegetation. Different growth parameters (tiller height, tiller number/plant), forage production (fresh, dry) and nutritive value (crude protein, ash) were compared with control (unburnt) plots. Fire increased the number of tillers, and the fresh and dry forage production in both years. Fire also improved the crude protein… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed germination after freezing in high-mountain plant species: Implications for ski-run restoration

    Díaz-Miguel M1, J Castro2, PA García3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.83, pp. 423-429, 2014, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2014.83.423
    Abstract The construction of a ski slope implies a strong environmental impact as a result of the removal of the vegetation cover. The need to protect the soil requires a rapid restoration of vegetation, which is often done with commercial seed mixtures that can cause a negative impact on these high mountain ecosystems. Thus, the use of seeds of native species is essential, especially in areas rich in endemic species. The compaction of snow as a result of the preparation of the ski slopes causes the soil to freeze. This hinders the germination of seeds, especially those of shrub species. This… More >

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