Vol.90, No.5, 2021-Table of Contents

On the Cover

The present study investigated and screened the top 50 most closely interacting proteins in the flowering plant Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Jinba’ (i.e., chrysanthemum), and mapped the protein interaction network. This was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the differentially expressed proteins affected by heat stress, and clearly demonstrate the protein-protein interactions. The circles represent differentially expressed proteins, and the colors represent the differential expression of the proteins (blue for down-regulated proteins, red for up-regulated proteins). The larger the circle, the more proteins it interacted with, and the more important the protein was in the network.
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  • Pathways of Phosphorus Absorption and Early Signaling between the Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plants
  • Abstract

    This review highlights the key role that mycorrhizal fungi play in making phosphorus (Pi) more available to plants, including pathways of phosphorus absorption, phosphate transporters and plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis, especially in conditions where the level of inorganic phosphorus (Pi) in the soil is low. Mycorrhizal fungi colonization involves a series of signaling where the plant root exudates strigolactones, while the mycorrhizal fungi release a mixture of chito-oligosaccharides and liposaccharides, that activate the symbiosis process through gene signaling pathways, and contact between the hyphae and the root. Once the symbiosis is established, the extraradical mycelium acts as an extension of the… More

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  • Functional Role of miRNAs: Key Players in Soybean Improvement
  • Abstract Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) is an agro-economic crop growing across the world to cater nutrition for both human and animal feed due to the high oil and protein content in its edible seeds. The genes and QTLs associated with important agronomic traits in this crop have already been identified and validated for soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Phytophthora root and stem rot, Pythium root rot and aphid resistance, seed quality, nutrient values, and also employed for genetic improvement in soybean. In the last decade, micro RNAs (miRNAs) have been considered the effector molecules, so the detection and characterization of novel… More
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  • Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Adaptation of Millets to Abiotic Stresses: A Review
  • Abstract Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, cold, nutrient deficiency, excess salt and hazardous metals can hamper plantgrowth and development. Intensive agriculture of only a few major staple food crops that are sensitive and intolerant to environmental stresses has led to an agrarian crisis. On the other hand, nutritionally rich, gluten free and stress tolerant plants like millets are neglected and underutilized. Millets sustain about one-third of the world’s population and show exceptional tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Millets are C4 plants that are adapted to marginal and dry lands of arid and semi-arid regions, and survive low rainfall… More
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  • The BHLH Transcriptional Factor PIF4 Competes with the R2R3-MYB Transcriptional Factor MYB75 to Fine-Tune Seeds Germination under High Glucose Stress
  • Abstract It is known that the high level of sugar including glucose suppresses seed germination through ABA signal. ABI5 is an essential component to mediate ABA-dependent seed germination inhibition, but underlying mechanism needs more investigation. Previous study demonstrated the PIF4 activated the expression of ABI5 to suppress seed germination in darkness. Here we reported that PIF4 also mediated the seed germination inhibition through ABI5 under high concentration of glucose treatment. Furthermore, we found that PIF4 interacted with PAP1, the central factor to control anthocyanin biosynthesis. Such interaction was confirmed in vitro and in planta. Biochemical and physiological analysis revealed that PAP1… More
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  • Physiologic and Transcriptomic Insights into the High Alkali Response of Dunaliella salina
  • Abstract The halophilic unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina is characterized as the distinct tolerance to high salt in the field. Normally the organism is concurrently subjected with salt and alkali stress, but the feature of D. salina in response to high alkali stress was not investigated before. In this study, we used high pH stress to simulate high alkali stress and found D. salina also showed tolerance to high alkali stress, even grown under pH at 11.0, with high cell density and chlorophyll biosynthesis. High-throughput transcriptome analysis revealed the dramatically different expression of genes associated with nitrogen metabolism, lipid and β-carotene… More
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  • Proteomic Analysis of High Temperature Stress-Responsive Proteins in Chrysanthemum Leaves
  • Abstract Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental flowers in the world, and temperature has a significant influence on its field production. In the present study, differentially expressed proteins were investigated in the leaves of Dendranthema grandiflorum ‘Jinba’ under high temperature stress using label-free quantitative proteomics techniques. The expressed proteins were comparatively identified and analyzed. A total of 1,463 heat-related, differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and 1,463 heat-related, differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry after a high temperature treatment. Among these, 701 proteins were upregulated and 762 proteins were downregulated.… More
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  • Screening and Assessment of Selected Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance at Seedling Stage
  • Abstract This study was undertaken to investigate oxidative stress tolerant mechanisms in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) under drought genotypes through evaluating morphological, physiological, biochemical and stomatal parameters. Twenty genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought stress tolerant at seedling stage. Thirty days old seedlings were exposed to drought stress induced by stop watering for the following 10 days and rewatering for the following one week as recovery. Based on their survival performance, two tolerant genotypes viz. BD-10906 and BD-109012 and two susceptible genotypes viz. BD-10902 and RT-20 were selected for studying the oxidative stress tolerance mechanism. Drought reduced root… More
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  • The Regulatory Roles of microRNAs and Associated Target Genes during Early Somatic Embryogenesis in Liriodendron Sino-Americanum
  • Abstract Somatic cells respond to considerable stress, and go through a series of phytohormone pathways, then forming an embryo. The developmental process is recorded as somatic embryogenesis (SE). One of the key components regulating SE are the microRNAs (miRNAs). Despite previous studies, it is still not clear exactly how miRNAs exert their function of regulating targets during conditionally activated early SE. Here, we use Liriodendron sino-americanum as a model system and perform a combined analysis of microfluidic chips and degradome sequencing to study this process. We identified a total of 386 conserved miRNAs and 153 novel miRNAs during early SE. According… More
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  • Epi-Brassinolide Positively Affects Chlorophyll Content and Dark-Reaction Enzymes of Maize Seedlings
  • Abstract Brassinosteroids participate in many physiological processes in plants; however, their regulatory roles on the activities of the enzymes involved in dark phase of photosynthesis remains elusive. In this study, detached leaves and protoplasts of maize seedlings were treated with epi-brassinolide (EBR) and brassinazole followed by the determination of the contents of chlorophyll (a+b) and soluble sugars, and the activity of dark reaction enzymes and the expression of the relevant genes. The results showed that chlorophyll (a+b) content increased by 7.4% under 0.1 μM EBR treatment for 48 h; furthermore, chlorophyll (a+b) content increased by 34% in detached leaves that were… More
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  • Nanosilver-Promoted Lateral Root Development in Rice is Mediated through Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Abstract Nanosilver (10−9 m) refers to particles comprising 20–15,000 silver atoms, exhibiting high stability and specific surface area. At present, nanosilver has been used in agricultural cultivation and production. This study examined the effects of nanosilver on growth and development of rice root systems. Study results showed that fresh weight of rice belowground organs and root length both increased significantly by 5% and 25%, respectively, after rice radicles were treated with 2 ppm of nanosilver for three days. However, the H2O2 level reached its peak at 2 days from treatment, but the activities of the antioxidant enzymes CAT, APX, and GR… More
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  • Potentiality of Different Seed Priming Agents to Mitigate Cold Stress of Winter Rice Seedling
  • Abstract Seed priming has proved to be an effective pre-germination seed invigoration technique for different crops to improve seed and seedling performance under different abiotic stresses. In Bangladesh, winter rice is very often exposed to cold waves just after sowing in the nursery bed resulting in poor seed germination and seedling emergence, yellowish and thin seedlings production, and a very low survival rate. Seed priming may mitigate the cold stress during seed germination and seedling emergence and helps in the quality seedling production of winter rice. To evaluate the efficacy of different seed priming techniques in increasing seedling emergence, growth, vigor… More
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  • Knowledge Mapping of Opuntia Milpa Alta Since 1998: A Scientometric Analysis
  • Abstract Opuntia Milpa Alta is a cactus cultivated, domesticated, hybridized and selected from the plant Opuntia ficus-indica by Mexican agricultural experts, which can be used as fruit and vegetable. Opuntia Milpa Alta leaves and fruit are superior to wild varieties and suitable for storage and transportation. In 1998, Opuntia Milpa Alta was introduced to China from Mexico by the Quality Product Development Center of the Ministry of Agriculture of China. Up to now, the Opuntia Milpa Alta has been cultivated on a certain scale in China. This study aims to identify the research progress and development trends of Opuntia Milpa Alta… More
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  • Photodegradation and Removal of Diclofenac by the Green Alga Nannochloropsis oculata
  • Abstract The emerging contaminants (ECs) are organic compounds including pharmaceuticals. These products are consumed in large quantities, favoring their continuous entrance to the environment and affecting the health of living beings. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic properties of prolonged release. It is the commonest postoperative analgesic, and it is highly consumed without prescription. In recent years, the capability of microalgae to remove pharmaceuticals in water has been tested as a promising tool. In this work, the removal efficiency of diclofenac (16 µg/mL) by the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata CCAP 186/7 was evaluated. The major nutrient concentrations in Bold’s Basal… More
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  • Mycorrhizas Affect Polyphyllin Accumulation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis through Promoting PpSE Expression
  • Abstract Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, in which polyphyllin as the main medicinal component is an important secondary metabolite with bioactivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have multiple positive effects on plants, while it is not clear whether AMF increase the content of medicinal components in medicinal plants. In this study, a total of nine AMF treatments were laid to analyze the mycorrhizal effect on polyphyllin accumulation and PpHMGR and PpSE expression of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. AMF increased the content of polyphyllin in the cultivated variety with low relation to the increase of inoculation intensity. Polyphyllin… More
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