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Ecological interactions between flowers and pollinators greatly affect the plant reproductive success. To facilitate these interactions, many flowers are known to display their attractive qualities in a rhythmic fashion. In this issue, Hou et al. found that Trifolium repens could increase reproductive fitness by accurate pollination. The most suitable flower angle saved pollinators' visiting energy and enabled them to obtain the highest nectar rewards (nectar secretion and number of pollen grains). This coordination between plants and pollinators maximized the interests of them, which is a crucial factor in initiating specialized plant-pollinator relationships.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Crop Improvement and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Promoted by Moringa Leaf Extract

    Md. Abir Ul Islam1, Juthy Abedin Nupur2, Charles T. Hunter3, Abdullah Al Mamun Sohag4, Ashaduzzaman Sagar5, Md. Sazzad Hossain6, Mona F. A. Dawood7,*, Arafat Abdel Hamed Abdel Latef8, Marián Brestič9,10, Md. Tahjib-UI-Arif4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1557-1583, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021556
    Abstract Moringa leaf extract (MLE) has been shown to promote beneficial outcomes in animals and plants. It is rich in amino acids, antioxidants, phytohormones, minerals, and many other bioactive compounds with nutritional and growth-promoting potential. Recent reports indicated that MLE improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MLE-mediated abiotic stress tolerance remains limited. This review summarizes the existing literature on the role of MLE in promoting plant abiotic stress acclimation processes. MLE is applied to plants in a variety of ways, including foliar spray, rooting media, and seed priming. Exogenous application of MLE promoted crop plant… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Genetic Improvement of Betula platyphylla Suk. in China: A Review

    Qinhui Zhang1,2,#, Xiaona Pei1,#, Lianfeng Xu3,#, Xianbo Lu2, Baoyang Wen3, Yanlong Li4, Liankui Wang4, Guangzhi Dong4, Wanling Shi4, Xiaoqing Hu1,*, Xiyang Zhao1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1585-1599, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020372
    Abstract Birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), distributed in Eurasia, North America, and Australia, is a kind of cold-resistant, fast-growing, and vital pulpwood tree species. It is also one of the most important ecological restoration tree species with high values of economic benefits in Northeast China. To improve the genetic gain and expand the economic benefit of B. platyphylla, many genetic improvements have been carried out. In China, B. platyphylla is widely distributed and varied, and there are many varieties with excellent genetic characteristics. In this paper, the genetic improvement of B. platyphylla was reviewed, and the previous research results were discussed from… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Positive Effects of Biochar on the Degraded Forest Soil and Tree Growth in China: A Systematic Review

    Jingkang Zhang1, Shiyuan Zhang1, Changhao Niu1,2, Jiang Jiang1,2, Haijun Sun1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1601-1616, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020323
    Abstract Soil degradation threatens the forest sustainable productivity, particularly in afforestation system. Biochar derived from agroforestry waste or biomass can potentially improve the degraded forest soil and promote the tree growth. To expand the application of biochar for forestry productivity improvement, we here reviewed the effects and the underlying mechanisms of biochar on the degraded forest soil and tree growth. Totally 96 studies that conducted from pot to field investigations in China were summarized. The result suggested that biochar generally exerted positive effects on restoration of degraded forest soil such as that with compaction, acidification or soil erosion, which are mainly… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes in Florets’ Vertical Direction within Inflorescence Affects Pollinator Behavior, and Fitness in Trifolium repens

    Qinzheng Hou#, Wenjuan Shao#, Nurbiye Ehmet#, Taihong Wang, Yifan Xu, Kun Sun*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1617-1628, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020768
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant–Environment Interactions)
    Abstract Ecological interactions between flowers and pollinators greatly affect the reproductive success. To facilitate these interactions, many flowers are known to display their attractive qualities, such as scent emission, flower rewards and floral vertical direction, in a rhythmic fashion. However, less is known about how plants regulate the relationship between these flower traits to adapt to pollinator visiting behavior and increase reproduction success. Here we investigated the adaptive significance of the flower bending from erect to downward in Trifolium repens. We observed the flowering dynamic characteristics (changes of vertical direction of florets, flowering number, pollen grain numbers, pollen viability and stigma… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    De novo Transcriptome Analysis in Leymus mollis to Unveil Genes Involved in Salt Stress Response

    Wenting Wu1 , Yajing Zhang1, Yu Gao1, Kai Zhang2,3, Luying Zhu1,3,*, Hongxia Zhang2,3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1629-1642, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020515
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Symbiotic Associations for Nutrients Management and Complexes Formation for Better Agricultural Crops Productivity under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
    Abstract Leymus mollis, a wild relative of wheat, is very tolerant to salt stress, and has been considered as a valuable genetic resource for wheat breeding. However, the genetic basis for salt tolerance of this species is still largely unknown. In this study, de novo sequencing, assembly and analysis of L. mollis transcriptome in response to salt stress was performed. A total of 110,323 and 112,846 unigenes were generated for the NaCl-free (CK) and 180 mM NaCl-treated (CT) library, respectively. For the two libraries, 73,414 unigenes were successfully annotated in five common protein databases, and 7521 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of Exogenous Calcium Chloride on Alleviating Salt Stress in Two Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) Varieties Differing in Salinity Tolerance

    Tao Zhang*, Hongbing Yang
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1643-1658, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.019572
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Salt stress is one of the most serious abiotic stresses limiting plant growth and development. Calcium as an essential nutrient element and important signaling molecule plays an important role in ameliorating the adverse effect of salinity on plants. This study aimed to investigate the impact of exogenous calcium on improving salt tolerance in Tartary buckwheat cultivars, cv. Xinong9920 (salt-tolerant) and cv. Xinong9909 (salt-sensitive). Four-week-old Tartary buckwheat seedlings under 100 mM NaCl stress were treated with and without exogenous calcium chloride (CaCl2), Ca2+ chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and Ca2+-channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) for 10 days. Then, some important… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Seed Setting and Its Spatial Characteristics in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum)

    Dabing Xiang1,#, Yue Song1,#, Chao Song2, Yan Wan1, Xueling Ye1, Changying Liu1, Chenggang Liang3, Gang Zhao1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1659-1669, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020338
    Abstract A low seed-setting rate is the main limiting factor influencing Tartary buckwheat production under high-yield cultivation conditions. To investigate the seed setting and its spatial characteristics, two Tartary buckwheat cultivars (high seed-setting rate cultivar Qianku 3; low seed-setting rate cultivar Liuku 3) were compared by a two-year field trial in 2017 and 2018. The results showed that the Tartary buckwheat underwent simultaneous flowering and fruiting. Flowers, generated from branch, were still blooming during the mature stage of grains on stem, which resulting in a greater number of flowers and grains on the branch than those on the stem at the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Constitutive Activation OsbZIP62 Improves Plant Height and Yield through Regulating the Expression of Agronomic Traits Related Genes in Rice

    Shiqin Yang1,2,#, Tao Jiang3,#, Peilin Shen1, Shengjie Ren3, Zhun Gu1, Fangjun Feng2, Yunpeng Peng2,4, Wei Wang5, Kai Xu2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1671-1686, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018996
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract Plant height is an important morphological trait that affects crop yield. Several genes related to plant height and yield have been reported in rice (Oryza sativa L.), however, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these traits is still not completely understood. VP64 is widely used as a transcriptional activator to investigate the biological function of genes encoding transcription factors. Here, we identified a novel bZIP transcription factor OsbZIP62 that is involved in modulating agronomic traits in rice. Overexpression of OsbZIP62-VP64 (OsbZIP62V) significantly increases the plant height and yield per plant in rice. RNA-seq analysis showed that some plant height… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Sources of Nitrogen in Combination with Systems of Irrigation Influence the Productivity of Modern Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars during Dry Season in Sub-Tropical Environment

    Uttam Kumer Sarker1, Md. Romij Uddin1,*, Ahmed Khairul Hasan1, Md. Abdur Rahman Sarkar1, Md. Abdus Salam1, Md. Alamgir Hossain2, Eldessoky S. Dessoky3, Ismail A. Ismail3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1687-1708, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020645
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract In irrigated agricultural systems, nitrogen (N) and water are the vital resources for sustainability of the crop production in the modern era of climate change. The current study aimed to assess the impact of water and N management on the productivity of irrigated rice cultivars. In the context, a field observation was done at the research farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, during dry seasons in consecutive two years (2018–2019 and 2019–2020). The experiments were set up following split-plot design assigning water management in the main plots, nitrogen management in the sub-plots, and the cultivars were approved in the split-split… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Development of a New Cold-Tolerant Maize (Zea mays L.) Germplasm Using the ICE1 Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana

    Jing Qu1, Shuang Liu2, Peng Jiao2, Zhenzhong Jiang2, Jianbo Fei2, Shuyan Guan1,*, Yiyong Ma1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1709-1719, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.018854
    Abstract To develop cold-tolerant maize germplasms and identify the activation of INDUCER OF CRT/DRE-BINDING FACTOR EXPRESSION (ICE1) expression in response to cold stress, RT-PCR was used to amplify the complete open reading frame sequence of the ICE1 gene and construct the plant expression vector pCAMBIA3301-ICE1-Bar. Immature maize embryos and calli were transformed with the recombinant vector using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformations. From the regenerated plantlets, three T1 lines were screened and identified by PCR. A Southern blot analysis showed that a single copy of the ICE1 gene was integrated into the maize (Zea mays L.) genomes of the three T1 generations. Under… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Agro-Morphological Characterization and Genetic Dissection of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Genotypes

    A. K. M. Golam Sarwar1, Md. Sabibul Haque1,*, Md. Ekramul Haque2, Md. Amir Hossain3, Md. Golam Azam4, Md. Nesar Uddin1, Eldessoky S. Dessoky5, Mahmoud A. Basry6, Md. Alamgir Hossain1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1721-1743, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021069
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Linseed is a multipurpose crop and the crop needs further improvement to increase production and yield due to its high value and demand. This study aimed to assess the extent and pattern of genetic variability of forty linseed genotypes based on diverse agro–morphological and yield attributes. The field experiment was conducted following a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Linseed germplasm showed a wide range of phenotypic expression, genetic variability and heritability for 30 studied traits. A low to high phenotypic coeffi- cient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were observed. The lowest genotypic (σ2 g)… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Land Consolidation with Seedling Cultivation Could Decrease Soil Microbial PLFA Diversity

    Shen Zhang1, Yongqi Jian1, Bingjing Yan2, Jin Jin1, Jiasen Wu1, Chenfei Liang1, Juan Liu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1745-1756, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021076
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract The impact of land consolidation on the soil microbial PLFA diversity is of great importance for understanding the effective arable land usage, improving agricultural ecological conditions and environment. In this study, we collected the soil samples (0–20 cm) in experimental plots with 0 (Z0), 1 (Z1a) and 4 (Z4a) years of land consolidation in the forest station of Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, southeastern China. The results were analyzed using ANOVA for randomized block design. Compared with control (Z0), the soil pH value under Z1a treatment increased by 14.6%, soil organic carbon (SOC) content decreased by 65.4%, so did the PLFA… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biological Control of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita in Psoralea corylifolia Plant by Enhancing the Biocontrol Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum Using Press Mud

    Yasar Nishat1, Mohammad Danish1,*, Heba I. Mohamed2,*, Hisamuddin Shaikh1, Abeer Elhakem3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1757-1777, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021267
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Role of Biostimulants in the Alleviation of Biotic and Abiotic Stress)
    Abstract Meloidogyne incognita is a plant pathogen causing root-knot disease and loss of crop yield. The present study aimed to use Trichoderma harzianum as a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes and used press mud, which is a solid waste by-product of sugarcane, as a biocontrol agent and biofertilizer. Therefore, the combined application of T. harzianum and press mud may enhance nematode control and plant growth. Elemental analysis of press mud using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) integrated with an Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer revealed the presence of different elements such as C, O, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cu and Zn.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Screening of Bacillus subtilis HAAS01 and Its Biocontrol Effect on Fusarium wilt in Sweet Potato

    Chengyang Li1,2,#, Lianjun Wang1,#, Shasha Chai1,#, Yinghua Xu1,2, Chong Wang1,2, Yi Liu1,2, Jian Lei1, Xiaojie Jin1, Xianliang Cheng1, Yuanyuan Yang1, Xinsun Yang1,*, Wenying Zhang2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1779-1793, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020192
    Abstract Fusarium wilt, a disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp batatas (Fob) is an important disease in sweet potato production. Using endophytic bacteria for biological control of sweet potato diseases is one of the important ways. A Bacillus subtilis with antagonistic effect on Fusarium wilt of sweet potato was isolated from soil by confrontation culture. According to the biological characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and physiological and biochemical analysis, the Bacillus subtilis HAAS01 was named. A pot experiment was conducted for the biological control experiment of strain HAAS01, and the endogenous hormone content, antioxidant enzyme activity, soluble protein content, and related… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Antifungal Activity of Crude Extracts of Tectona grandis L.f. against Wood Decay Fungi

    Enrique Cárcamo-Ibarra1, Mauro Manuel Martínez-Pacheco2, Abril Munro-Rojas1, Jorge Enrique Ambriz-Parra1, Crisanto Velázquez-Becerra1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1795-1808, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020578
    Abstract Wood is mainly made up of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin polymers and other organic and inorganic substances, making it susceptible to deteriorate by various biological agents. Tectona grandis L.f. (Teak) is a timber species with high resistance to biological deterioration, valued for its durability, beauty, and mechanical resistance. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of crude extracts from teak on various fungi that cause wood deterioration. For this, Teak heartwood was obtained, then fragmented and pulverized until obtaining a flour which was used for compounds extraction using the Soxhlet technique coupled to a rotary evaporator through… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Triterpenoids from Uncaria rhynchophylla and Their PTP1B Inhibitory Activity

    Shuaibin Luo1, Xuemei Zhang2, Kang He1, Juan Zou1,*, Chang-An Geng2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1809-1816, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020935
    Abstract Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used for psychiatric and hypotensive purposes in China. In this study, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) part of U. rhynchophylla was revealed with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity. Subsequent investigation on the EtOAc part yielded one new triterpenoid, 3β-formyloxy-6β,19α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and four known ones, 3β,6β,19α-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 2-oxopomolic acid (3), 3β,19α-dihydroxy-6-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4) and sumaresinolic acid (5). The structure of compound 1 was determined by extensive HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. Two ursane-type triterpenoids (2 and 3) showed selective inhibition on PTP1B with IC50 values of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Assessment of Phytochemical Analysis, Nutritional Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Moringa oleifera

    Naima Asghar1, Abida Aziz1, Muhammad Farooq Azhar2 , Mohamed El-Sharnouby3, Uzma Irfan1, Iqra Rafiq1, Husnain Farooq4,5,*, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani6, Mohamed I. Sakran7, A. Altalhi8, Fahad M. Alzuaibr9, Ayman El Sabagh10,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.8, pp. 1817-1829, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.020790
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Therapeutic Efficiency of Phyto-Molecules)
    Abstract Moringa oleifera is a miracle plant rich in nutrients, antioxidants, and antibiotic properties. Present study was designed to evaluate various biochemical attributes of leaves and flowers of M. oleifera. Plant parts (leaves, flowers) of M. oleifera, collected from different roadsides of Multan district, Punjab, Pakistan, were used as experimental material. Result indicates that alkaloids, saponin, carbohydrates, fats, and protein had a high value in the aqueous extract of both leaves and flowers of M. oleifera. Whereas phenol content was high in methanolic leaves extract and the phenol contents were high in aqueous extract of flowers. The extract yield of M.… More >

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