Vol.90, No.3, 2021-Table of Contents

On the Cover

Rhizosphere is the interface between the plant and the soil, where inhabit many organisms. Within these soil organisms, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and earthworms belong to the soil community. They are beneficial organisms at different trophic levels improving both soil fertility and structure development, thus collectively promoting plant growth. Earthworm activities redistribute mycorrhizal fungi spores and may give diversified (i.e., positive and negative) effects on root mycorrhizal colonization. Dual inoculation with earthworms and AMF strongly magnifies the response on plant growth. This is through increasing soil enzyme activities and changing soil nutrient availability, collectively mitigating the negative effects of biotic stresses. In this review, we outline the effects of earthworms on AMF root colonization and activitiy. The interaction between earthworms and AMF on plants along with suggested future research are also summarized.
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  • Interaction between Earthworms and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Plants: A Review
  • Abstract Different kinds of soil animals and microorganisms inhabit the plant rhizosphere, which function closely to plant roots. Of them, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and earthworms play a critical role in sustaining the soil-plant health. Earthworms and AMF belong to the soil community and are soil beneficial organisms at different trophic levels. Both of them improve soil fertility and structural development, collectively promoting plant growth and nutrient acquisition capacity. Earthworm activities redistribute mycorrhizal fungi spores and give diversified effects on root mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Dual inoculation with both earthworms and AMF strongly magnifies the response on plant growth through increased soil… More
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  • Mycorrhizal Networks Interacting with Litter Improves Nutrients and Growth for One Plant through the Vary of N/P Ratio under Karst Soil
  • Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) fungi affect nutrient uptake for host plants, while it is unclear how AM fungi interacting with soil litter affect plant growth and nutrient utilization through mycorrhizal networks in karst soil of deficient nutrients beyond the rhizosphere. An experiment was conducted in a microcosm composed of a planting compartment for Cinnamomum camphora seedlings with or without Glomus mosseae fungus (M+ vs. M ) and an adjacent litter compartment containing or not containing additional litter material of Arthraxon hispidus (L+ vs. L ), where the compartments are connected either by nylon mesh of 20 μm or 0.45 μm which… More
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  • Improved Tolerance of Three Saudi Pearl Millet Cultivars (Pennisetum spicatum) to Salt Stress by Mycorrhiza
  • Abstract Seeds of three Saudi pearl millet cultivars (Pennisetum spicatum) from three regions (Madinah, Khulais and Jaizan) were inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae obtained from the Agriculture Research Center of Giza, Egypt to enhance their salt tolerance. Five different NaCl concentrations (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mM) were used for treating cultivars with and without mycorrhiza. Growth rates, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), proline content and gas exchange were measured to determine the effect of salinity on these cultivars. The results indicated that compared to cultivars without mycorrhiza, all cultivars with mycorrhiza had enhanced growth and physiological parameters… More
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  • Mycorrhizal Fungal Effects on Growth, Antioxidant Capacity, and Medicine Quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis
  • Abstract A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of two commercial strains composed of mulple arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species on plant growth, antioxidant capacity, and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis in three subtropical soils from Wanzhou, Anshun and Baoshan in fields. The results showed that AMF inoculation enhanced the fungal colonization rate and activities of both succinate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, thereby, enhancing the mycorrhizal viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The concentrations of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, a+b and carotenoids), soluble sugar, soluble protein and photosynthetic capacity were higher in AMF-inoculated plants than in… More
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  • Overexpression of IbSINA5 Increases Cold Tolerance through a CBF SINA-COR Mediated Module in Sweet Potato
  • Abstract Seven in absentia (SINA) family proteins play a central role in plant growth, development and resistance to abiotic stress. However, their biological function in plant response to cold stress is still largely unknown. In this work, a seven in absentia gene IbSINA5 was isolated from sweet potato. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that IbSINA5 was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues and organs of sweet potato, with a predominant expression in fibrous roots, and was remarkably induced by cold, drought and salt stresses. Subcellular localization assays revealed that IbSINA5-GFP fusion protein was mainly localized in cytoplasm and nucleus.… More
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  • Exploration and Validation of the Potential Downstream Genes Underlying ipa1-2D Locus for Rice Panicle Branching
  • Abstract In recent years, some super hybrid rice varieties were bred with strong culms and large panicles, which are mainly contributed by the ipa1-2D locus. A gain-of-function allele of OsSPL14 is the ipa1-2D and it can greatly increase the panicle primary branch number. However, the key downstream genes mediating this trait variation are not fully explored. In this study, we developed high-quality near-isogenic lines (NILs) with a difference of only 30 kb chromosomal segment covering the ipa1-2D locus. Using the NILs, we explored the impact of ipa1-2D on five sequential stages of early inflorescence development, and found that the locus can… More
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  • Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Prediction of the Quantitative Trait Locus qPL8 for Panicle Length in Rice
  • Abstract Rice panicle is the sink organ where assimilation product accumulates, and its morphology determines the rice yield. Panicle length has been suggested as a yield-related trait, but the genetic factor for its control is still limited. In this study, we carried out fine-mapping of qPL8, a QTL identified for panicle length in our previous work. Near isogenic line (NIL) with qPL8 exhibited elongated panicle without obvious effect on other panicle elements. With five key recombinants from NIL population, the locus was finally narrowed down to a 278-kb region, where 44 genes are annotated. By comparing the genomic sequence of two… More
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  • Phenotype Analysis and Fine Mapping of the Male Sterile Mutant ms10 in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
  • Abstract There is a positive correlation between fertility and yield, and the decrease of fertility is bound to a greatly reduced crop yield. Male sterile mutants can be used in hybrid rice. Therefore, rice male sterility has an important value in research and application, and the study of related mutants is also very vital. The mutant ms10 (male sterile 10) reported in this study was induced by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) in the indica maintainer line Xinong 1B. There was no significant difference between the ms10 and wild type in the vegetative growth stage. However, in the reproductive growth stage, ms10 More
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  • Effects of Different Potassium (K) Fertilizer Rates on Yield Formation and Lodging of Rice
  • Abstract As one of the most important nutrients for plants, potassium (K) has substantial effects on growth and development of crops. Present study was conducted in three different sites in South China in late season in 2019 with the objective to study the effects of different applied amounts of K fertilizer on yield formation and lodging of rice. Four K fertilizer treatments, K0: 0 kg potassium oxide (K2O) ha−1 (control); K1: 64.20 kg K2O ha−1 ; K2: 128.55 kg K2O ha−1 and K3 153.90 kg K2O ha−1 were applied in the field experiment. The results showed that K2 and K3 treatments… More
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  • Differential Responses of NHX1 and SOS1 Gene Expressions to Salinity in two Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Accessions with Different Salt Tolerance
  • Abstract The lignocellulosic crop Miscanthus spp. has been identified as a good candidate for biomass production. The responses of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. to salinity were studied to satisfy the needs for high yields in marginal areas and to avoid competition with food production. The results indicated that the relative advantages of the tolerant accession over the sensitive one under saline conditions were associated with restricted Na+ accumulation in shoots. Seedlings of two accessions (salt-tolerant ‘JM0119’ and salt-sensitive ‘JM0099’) were subjected to 0 (control), 100, 200, and 300 mM NaCl stress to better understand the salt-induced biochemical responses of genes involved in… More
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  • Rapid Identification of a Candidate Gene Related to Fiber Strength Using a Superior Chromosome Segment Substitution Line from Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium barbadense via Bulked Segregant RNA-Sequencing
  • Abstract Cotton is the most widely cultivated commercial crop producing natural fiber around the world. As a critical trait for fiber quality, fiber strength principally determined during the secondary wall thickening period. Based on the developed BC5F3:5 CSSLs (chromosome segment substitution lines) from Gossypium hirsutum CCRI36 × G. barbadense Hai 1, the superior MBI9915 was chosen to construct the secondary segregated population BC7F2 with its recurrent parent CCRI36, which was subsequently subjected to Bulk segregant RNA-sequencing (BSR-seq) for rapid identification of candidate genes related to fiber strength. A total of 4 fiber-transcriptome libraries were separately constructed and sequenced, including two parents… More
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  • Comparative Metabolomics Analysis between Red- and White-Flowered Common Buckwheat Cultivars
  • Abstract Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), a specialty crop in southwest China, is not only used as a supplement to primary grain crops but also to produce beverages, such as tea and wine. To fully exploit the products made from common buckwheat flower, ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization– tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI–MS/MS) was conducted to analyze the metabolites in red- (‘Guihong 2’) and white-flowered (‘Fengtian 1’) buckwheat cultivars. A total of 784 metabolites were identified of which flavonoids were the largest group with 191 components, followed by organic acids and derivatives (126), and amino acids and derivatives (95). Besides, dozens of phenylpropanoids, nucleotides… More
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  • GC-MS Analysis of Metabolites in Filling Grains of Rice-Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) in Comparison to Conventional Tartary Buckwheat
  • Abstract Rice-Tartary buckwheat (RTB) is a special germplasm of Tartary buckwheat. In this study, the appraisal of taste quality between RTB and conventional Tartary buckwheat (CTB) was presented, and the metabolites in kernels at three typical grain filling stage (GFS) were investigated. Unlike CTB, RTB showed thin shell seeds without longitudinal furrows at maturity, which was easily artificially dehulled. Sense organ test indicated that RTB exhibited better taste quality because of the higher values of appearance, viscosity, taste and summary were appraised. In total, 92 metabolites were identified in kernels using GM-MS metabolomics platform. The levels of most metabolites changed greatly… More
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  • In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Moringa oleifera Ethanolic Extract against Tomato Phytopathogenic Bacteria
  • Abstract The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the world’s most important vegetable crops. Still, phytopathogenic bacteria affect the yield and quality of tomato cultivation, like Agrobacterium tumefeciens (At), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs), and Xanthomonas axonopodis (Xa). Synthetic chemical products are used mostly on disease plant control, but overuse generates resistance to bacterial control. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against At, Cmm, Pst, Rs, and Xa, as well as information about this plant species’ chemical composition. Antibacterial… More
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  • Antifeedant Activity of Caesalpinia coriaria Essential Oil Against Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille)
  • Abstract This study scrutinized the possibility of finding toxicant or deterrent plant metabolites against the dry wood termite Incisitermes marginipennis (Latreille). Plant deterrent agents act as repellents or antifeedants to prevent wood decay and increase its useful life. The potential of the tree Caesalpinia coriaria (Fabaceae) as a biological source of molecules with deterrent effects against the dry wood termite was assessed by a phytochemical fractionation guided by repellence and antifeedant activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaf essential oil showed geraniol to be one of the major components and its repellent and antifeedant effects were determined. Geraniol had… More
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  • Non-Polar Chemical Constituents of Atemoya and Evaluation of the Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity
  • Abstract This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of essential oil from fruits (EOAF) and the hexanic crude extract from aerial parts (At-Hex) of atemoya (Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa), a hybrid belonging to the Annonaceae family. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. OEAF was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus, and their composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Cytotoxicity was tested against human tumor cell lines HCT-116 (colon carcinoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), OVCAR-8 (ovarian carcinoma) and HL60 (leukemia) using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5- diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while antimicrobial activity was conducted by bioauthography method against eleven microorganisms… More
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  • CO2 Assimilation Rate in Production Systems for Papaya Crops
  • Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate some physiological aspects of papaya crops in semi conventional and organic production systems. The following factors assessed in this experiment were: 1. Production systems (organic and semi conventional); 2. Genotypes (Maradol and Maradona F1), and 3. Cover crop plants (Canavalia, vegetative cover and no cover). Twelve treatments were obtained -product of factors’ combination- and distributed under a threerepetition experimental design of subdivided parcels. The factors examined in this study, that changed the CO2 assimilation rate, were production system and genotype. It was determined that the greatest gas exchange in papaya crops happened… More
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  • Laboratory-and Field-Phenotyping for Drought Stress Tolerance and Diversity Study in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)
  • Abstract Drought susceptibility and low genetic variability are the major constraints of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) production worldwide. Development of an efficient pre-field drought phenotyping technique and identification of diversified drought tolerant lentil genotype(s) are therefore vital and necessary. Two separate experiments were conducted using thirty diverse lentil genotypes to isolate drought tolerant genotype(s) as well as to assess their diversity. In both of the experiments, significant (p ≤ 0.01) variation in genotype (G), treatment (T) and G X T was observed for most of the studied traits. In experiment I, genotypes were examined for drought tolerance at the seedlings stage… More
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  • Genome-wide Analysis of a Plant AT-rich Sequence and Zinc-binding Protein (PLATZ) in Triticum Aestivum
  • Abstract Plant AT-rich sequence and zinc-binding protein (PLATZ) is a plant transcription factor that has been studied in corn. PLATZ can non-specifically bind to sequences rich in A/T bases to induce transcriptional repression. It is involved in the regulation of dehydration tolerance in seeds. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis to identify and characterize wheat PLATZ(TaPLATZ)genes. We identified 49 wheat PLATZ genes by searching the wheat genome by using known PLATZ gene sequences from rice, Arabidopsis, and maize. Phylogenetic analysis on PLATZ gene sequences from different species was performed. We found that PLATZs could be divided into three groups. The… More
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  • Rapid Propagation of Rhynchostylis retusa in Vitro
  • Abstract An efficient regeneration system of Rhynchostylis retusa was established to provide technical reference for the application of tissue culture tube seedlings in production. The mixtures of callus and protocorm from aseptic germination were used as explants. The optimal media of each stage was selected for callus proliferation, protocorm occurrence and growth, rejuvenation and rooting via a single, complete combination and orthogonal experiment. The results showed that the optimal medium for callus proliferation, protocorms occurrence and growth was 1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium adding 50 g·L−1 banana puree, 0.1 mg·L−1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 1.5 mg·L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 1.0 mg·L−1 More
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  • In Vitro Propagation of Agave guiengola Gentry Using Semisolid Medium and Temporary Immersion Bioreactors
  • Abstract Agave guiengolaGentry is an endemic plant from a very small locality in Oaxaca, Mexico. Its conservation status is fragile and can rapidly worsen. Because of its scarcity, this agave has been used solely for ornamental purposes, but it could have other uses if more plants were available. In vitro propagation by enhanced axillary sprouting from stem segments was attained using Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium (MS) as well as basal medium supplemented with cytokinins 6-Benzylaminopurine (BA) or 6-(γ,γ-Dimethylallylamino)purine (2iP). The best treatment for shoot induction in semisolid medium consisted in MS supplemented with 2 mg l–1 BA, obtaining a mean… More
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  • Study of Spectral Response Characteristics of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) to Particulate Matters Based on Hyper-Spectral Technique
  • Abstract Haze is mainly caused by the suspended particulate matters in the air, of which the particulate matters pollution harms leaf vegetables. In this paper, oilseed rapes at four different growing periods were investigated in a simulated particulate pollution environment. In combination of hyper-spectral technology and micro examination, the response of hyper-spectral characteristics of the leaf to particulate matters was investigated in-depth. The hyperspectral, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of leaf were obtained. The deposition and adsorption of particulate matters on the leaf were observed by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), modified red… More
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  • A New Record of Aspergillus vadensis (Ascomycota) Isolated from Soil in Yunnan Province, China
  • Abstract During a survey of soil fungi in Yunnan Province, several isolates of Aspergillus were obtained. Based on morphology and molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA gene (ITS), β-tubulin and calmodulin (CaM) genes sequences, two isolates were identified as Aspergillus vadensis (section Nigri). A phylogenetic tree, detailed descriptions, illustrations and scanned electron microscopy morphology are provided for the new isolates. This is the first record of A. vadensis from China. More
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