Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.91, No.1, 2022

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Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. In this study, an endophytic fungus (Fusarium striatum) was isolated from a P. notoginseng embryo. This soil-born fungus can cause rotten roots; black, soft roots; fewer lateral roots and leaf wilt on P. notoginseng. Application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin can prevent P. notoginseng from developing such disease. This is the first report of root rot disease caused by F. striatum on P. notoginseng in China.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Paclobutrazol and Its Use in Fruit Production: A Review

    Laura Raquel Orozco-Meléndez1, Ofelia Adriana Hernández-Rodríguez1, Oscar Cruz-Álvarez1, Loreto Robles-Hernández1, Graciela Dolores Ávila-Quezada1, Esteban Sánchez Chavez2, Damián Aarón Porras-Flores1, Dámaris Leopoldina Ojeda-Barrios1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 1-12, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016908
    Abstract There are documentary records referring to paclobutrazol (PBZ) as a growth bioregulator that inhibits the gibberellin synthesis and its application increases yields in fruit and vegetable crop productions. Its agronomic management includes it as an emerging technology to reduce vigour, promote flower induction and flower development in fruit trees with increased economic returns. Its use is banned in some countries because of concerns about residues that can cause harmful effects on the environment. Therefore, the aim of this article was to collect, analyse and summarise relevant information on the use of PBZ in fruit tree production and its possible risks… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    First Report of Fusarium striatum Causing Root Rot Disease of Panax notoginseng in Yunnan, China

    Xuan Zhou1,2,3,#, Chongyu Luo1,2,3,#, Kuixiu Li1,2,3, Dan Zhu3, Lihui Jiang1,2,3, Lixia Wu1,2,3, Youchun Li3, Xiahong He1,2,3,*, Yunlong Du1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 13-20, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016972
    Abstract Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. Root rot of P. notoginseng is one of the most serious diseases affecting P. notoginseng growth and causes wilted leaves, fewer lateral roots and rotten roots. Root rot is a soil-borne disease, and mainly occurs from June to August in Yunnan Province when the temperatures are high and the air is humid. In this study, the endophytic fungal genus Fusarium isolate E-2018.1.22-#3.2 was obtained from a P. notoginseng embryo. Fusarium isolate E-2018.1.22-#3.2 was identified as Fusarium striatum based on morphological characteristics and molecular analysis. The fungus was found to have conidiophores and… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Azospirillum brasilense and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as Alternative for Decrease the Effect of Salinity Stress in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Growth

    Ali Abdelmoteleb1, Daniel Gonzalez-Mendoza2,*, Ahmed Mohamed Elbaalawy3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 21-32, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016227
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract The salinity stress is one of the most relevant abiotic stresses that affects the agricultural production. The present study was performed to study the improvement of the salt tolerance of tomato plants which is known for their susceptibility to salt stress. The present study aimed to assess to what extent strain Azospirillum brasilense (N040) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae improve the salt tolerance to tomato plants treated with different salt concentration. The inoculant strain A. brasilense (N040) was previously adapted to survive up to 7% NaCl in the basal media. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of this inoculation… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    General and Exact Inbreeding Coefficient of Maize Synthetics Derived from Three-Way Line Hybrids

    Alejandro Ibarra-Sánchez, Juan Enrique Rodríguez-Pérez, Aureliano Peña-Lomelí, Clemente Villanueva-Verduzco, Jaime Sahagún-Castellanos*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 33-43, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016136
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Synthetic varieties (SVs) are populations generated by randomly mating their parents. They are a good alternative for low-input farmers who grow onions, maize, and other allogamous crops since the seed produced by a SV does not change from one generation to the next. Although SV progenitors are commonly pure lines, in this case a synthetic (SynTC) whose parents are t three-way line crosses, a very common type of maize hybrid grown in Mexico, is studied. The aim was to develop a general and exact equation for the inbreeding coefficient of a SynTC SynTC because of its relationship with… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Estimation of Growth and Photosynthetic Performance of Two C4 Species (Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn. and Zea mays L.) under a Low Temperature Treatment

    Abdulkhaliq Alshoaibi*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 45-55, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016434
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Pearl millet (Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are C4 grass species grown for feeding humans and animals in Almadinah Almunawwarah, which is in the western part of Saudi Arabia. During the winter, the mean temperature, which drops to 14°C, represents a major problem for the growth of these species in this region. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to investigate the growth response and the photosynthetic performance of P. spicatum and Z. mays under a low temperature stress. The treatments involved daytime and nighttime temperatures of 14/12°C (low temperature) and 24/22°C (optimum temperature). The results… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    A Study on Genotype-by-Environment Interaction Analysis for Agronomic Traits of Maize Genotypes Across Huang-Huai-Hai Region in China

    Haiwang Yue1, Jianwei Wei1, Junliang Xie1, Shuping Chen1, Haicheng Peng1, Hongmei Cao2, Junzhou Bu1,*, Xuwen Jiang3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 57-81, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017308
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract Facing the trend of increasing population, how to increase maize grain yield is a very important issue to ensure food security. In this study, 28 nationally approved maize hybrids were evaluated across 24 different climatic conditions for two consecutive years (2018–2019). The purpose of this study was to select high-yield with stable genotypes and identify important agronomic traits for maize breeding program improvement. The results of this study showed that the genotype ╳ environment interaction effects of the 12 evaluated agronomic traits was highly significant (P < 0.001). We introduced a novel multi-trait genotype-ideotype distance index (MGIDI) to select genotypes… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    In Vitro-Propagation of Agave tequilana Weber cv. azul in a Temporary Immersion System

    Otilio Vázquez-Martínez1, Héctor Gordon Núñez-Palenius1,*, Eugenio M. Pérez-Molphe Balch2,*, Mauricio Valencia-Posadas1, Luis Pérez-Moreno1, Graciela M. L. Ruiz-Aguilar1, M. Gómez-Lim3
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 83-96, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017281
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Physiology for Crop Production and Sustainable Agriculture)
    Abstract In Mexico, there is a need to produce large quantities of plantlets for the establishment and replanting of blue (cv. azul) agave production areas. Most of these plots are within the origin denomination area (DOT, Spanish acronym) of the distilled product of this plant, known as tequila. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro-propagation protocol for Agave tequilana Weber cv. azul using segmented stems in both: solid and liquid media. A disinfection and in vitro technique were developed to obtain shoots, through plantlets collected in commercial plots, which attained 100% surface-disinfection and budding rate. At the… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Breeding Potential of Some Exotic Tomato Lines: A Combined Study of Morphological Variability, Genetic Divergence, and Association of Traits

    Shafiul Islam, Lutful Hassan, Mohammad Anwar Hossain
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 97-114, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.017251
    Abstract Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is called ‘the poor man’s orange’ due to its low price and improved nutritional values. An experiment was conducted to study the breeding potential of some exotic tomato lines by assessing various qualitative and quantitative traits conferring yield and quality attributes. Among the qualitative traits, greater variability was observed for growth type, stem hairiness, and fruit shape and size. A determinate growth habit was observed in the genotype AVTO9802 while the genotype AVTO0102 produced yellow color fruits. A significant (p ≤ 0.01) variation was also observed for the studied quantitative traits. Based on yield and traits… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Region and Elevation on Adaptation of Leaf Functional Traits of an Invasive Plant Erigeron annuus in China

    Yuanyuan Liu, Zhen Li, Lie Xu, Qiang Fu*, Yongjian Wang
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 115-128, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.015395
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract A key scientific challenge relating to the threat of invasive plants on agriculture at the region level is to understand their adaptation and evolution in functional traits. Leaf functional traits, related to growth and resource utilization, might lead to adaptation of invasive plants to the geographical barriers (region or elevation). In the field experiment, we discussed the effects of region and elevation on leaf functional traits on invasive plant Erigeron annuus in farmland habitats in China. We compared leaf size, coefficient of variation (CV) of leaf traits, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of E. annuus from three regions (east vs. center… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exogenous Glycine Betaine Reduces Drought Damage by Mediating Osmotic Adjustment and Enhancing Antioxidant Defense in Phoebe hunanensis

    Yujie Yang1, Chengshi Huang2, Zuguo Ge3, Bengeng Zhou4, Guangju Su4, Chunling Liu4, Yongjun Fei1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 129-148, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016704
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Drought stress negatively impacts growth and physiological processes in plants. The foliar application of glycine betaine (GB) is an effective and low-cost approach to improve the drought tolerance of trees. This study examined the effect of exogenously applied GB on the cell membrane permeability, osmotic adjustment, and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phoebe hunanensis Hand.-Mazz under drought stress. Two levels (0 and 800 mL) of water irrigation were tested under different applied GB concentrations (0, 50, 100, and 200 mM). Drought stress decreased the relative water content by 58.5% while increased the electric conductivity, malondialdehyde, proline, soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and antioxidant… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Changes in Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments, Cell Viability, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Two Varieties of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Subjected to Salinity Stress

    Zeenat Mushtaq1, Shahla Faizan1, Basit Gulzar2, Humira Mushtaq3, Sayyada Bushra1, Alisha Hussain1, Khalid Rehman Hakeem4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 149-168, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016231
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stresses for crop production. The present study investigates the salinity-induced modulation in growth indicators, morphology and movement of stomata, photosynthetic pigments, activity of carbonic anhydrase as well as nitrate reductase, and antioxidant systems in two varieties of chickpea (Pusa-BG5023, and Pusa-BGD72). On 20th day of sowing, plants were treated with varying levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) followed by sampling on 45 days of sowing. Recorded observations on both the varieties reveal that salt stress leads to a significant decline in growth, dry biomass, leaf area, photosynthetic pigments,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Differential Responses of Soil Organic Carbon Fractions and Carbon Turnover Related Enzyme Activities to Wheat Straw Incorporation in Subtropical China

    Wei Dai1, Kaikai Fang1, Hui Gao1, Jun Wang1, Petri Penttinen2, Zhimin Sha1,*, Linkui Cao1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 169-183, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016407
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)
    Abstract Soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and C turnover related enzyme activities are essential for nutrient cycling. This is because they are regarded as important indicators of soil fertility and quality. We measured the effects of wheat straw incorporation on SOC fractions and C turnover related enzyme activities in a paddy field in subtropical China. Soil samples were collected from 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm depths after rice harvesting. The total SOC concentrations were higher in the high rate of wheat straw incorporation treatment (NPKS2) than in the not fertilized control (CK) (P <0.05). The concentrations of labile C fractions [i.e., water soluble… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Resorption Efficiency of Four Cations in Different Tree Species in a Subtropical Common Garden

    Yaoyi Zhang, Xiangyin Ni, Jing Yang, Siyi Tan, Shu Liao, Dingyi Wang, Kai Yue, Fuzhong Wu*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 185-196, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016117
    Abstract High rainfall in subtropical regions can leach cation elements from ecosystems, which may limit plant growth. Plants often develop efficient resorption patterns to recycle elements, but there is relatively little available information on this topic. In February 2012, a common garden was established in a subtropical forest by planting dominant trees from the area. Green and senescent leaves were sampled from 11 tree species. The concentrations of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) were determined, and the resorption efficiencies were calculated. The results showed significant K, Na and Mg resorption in most of the investigated tree species,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Biochar can Increase Chinese Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) Yield, Decrease Nitrogen and Phosphorus Leaching Losses in Intensive Vegetable Soil

    Haijun Sun1,2, Paramsothy Jeyakumar3, Hongdong Xiao2, Xuewen Li2, Jiayou Liu2, Min Yu2, Prabal Bir Jung Rana1, Weiming Shi2,4,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 197-206, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016492
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Comprehensive Effects of Biochar or other Additives after Applied to Agricultural and Forest Soils)
    Abstract

    There are few evidences on the effect of biochar on vegetable yield, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) leaching losses under intensive vegetable production soil. The current field plot scale study evaluated responses of Chinese cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) yield, N and P leaching losses using five N treatments of common N application rate according to local farmers’ practice (N100%), reducing 20% or 40% N fertilizer (N80% and N60%), and reducing 40% N fertilizer but incorporating 10 or 20 t/ha biochar (N60% + BC10 and N60% + BC20). Results showed that N80% and N60% decreased both the cabbage economic and leaf… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Crocus speciosus Leaves

    Olha Mykhailenko1,*, Ivan Bezruk1, Victoriia Volochai2, Volodymyr Mishchenko3, Liudas Ivanauskas4, Victoriya Georgiyants1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 207-221, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.016458
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Bioactive Compounds-Chemotaxonomic Significance, Antioxidant Properties, Potential Application as Food Ingredients as well as Therapeutics, and the Analytical Technology in Their Efficient Discovery)
    Abstract The numerous studies indicate leaves of plants are a rich source of bioactive compounds that can be a valuable source of compounds used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and the antioxidant property of Crocus speciosus leaves. Primary phytochemical screening of C. speciosus leaves revealed the presence of some following compound categories such as phenolic compounds, aminoacids, saponins, proteins, tannins, triterpenoids, glycosides, polysaccharides. The total flavonoids and phenolic compounds content were determined spectrophotometrically and by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. Antiradical activity was determined by ABTS radical-cation scavenging method, spectrophotometrically. The total… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Suspension Culture and Somatic Embryogenesis of Korean Pine

    Chunxue Peng1,2, Fang Gao1,2, Hao Wang1,2, Iraida Nikolaevna Tretyakova3, Alexander Mikhaylovich Nosov4,5, Hailong Shen1,2,*, Ling Yang1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.1, pp. 223-238, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.015523
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Tree Somatic Embryogenesis and Application)
    Abstract Korean pine is an important afforestation tree species in Northeast China, which has a high ecological and economic value. Although regeneration of somatic embryogenesis using immature zygotic embryos of Korean pine as explants has been successful, it cannot be applied to automation and large-scale production. Therefore, we urgently need a method that can increase the output of somatic embryos (SEs) to meet the needs of large-scale production. We used Korean pine 1–1 and 1–100 cell lines as research materials to evaluate the effects of inoculum-density, culture time, orbiting speed, vessel volume, plant growth regulator (PGR) concentration, and carbon source on… More >

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