Home / Journals / PHYTON / Vol.91, No.12, 2022

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Tree peony is a popular traditional flower, which is known as the king of flowers in China. Relatively poor in vitro rooting has limited the its large-scale commercial production. In this study, a transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed to screen and identify DEGs and the associated metabolic pathways at different stages of tree peony root development under sandy loam cultivation. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses revealed many of the DEGs were involved in auxin metabolism. Which proved that auxin and the related genes were revealed to be important for the induction and formation of roots in tree peony. Then we screened and verified their functions of the rooting-related genes PsIAA27 and PsARF19. The qRT-PCR analysis and functional verification indicated that the expressions of PsARF19 and PsIAA27 in tree peony seedlings, cuttings and grafted seedlings were significant different. PsARF19 promoted root development, it might be a regulatory gene related to the formation of tree peony roots, while PsIAA27 inhibited lateral root development, and it might be involved in controlling auxin sensitivity during root formation. The results of this study may form the basis of future investigations on the mechanism mediating peony root formation. The transcriptome data will be an excellent resource for researchers interested in characterizing the rooting-related tree peony genes.
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  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    The Role of Salicylic Acid Signal in Plant Growth, Development and Abiotic Stress

    Yulan Hu1, Lulu Zhi1, Ping Li1, John T. Hancock2, Xiangyang Hu1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2591-2605, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023733
    Abstract In nature, plants are constantly affected by adverse conditions. Unlike animals, plants can resist these adverse stresses only by insisting on their original positions. Stress can be divided into biological stress and abiotic stress, abiotic stress directly affects the growth, development and yield of plants, it spans all developmental stages from seed germination to senescence. In order to adapt to changing environment, plants have evolved well-developed mechanisms that help to perceive the stress signals and enable optimal growth response. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important endogenous signal molecule in plants, which not only regulate some plant growth and development processes,… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Observation on Flower Bud Differentiation of Crape Myrtle in Red Soil Environment

    Linxue Shang1,2,3,#, Dandan Ma4,#, Sidan Hong1,2,3,#, Yu Zhao1,2,3,#, Guozhe Zhang1,2,3,#, Qingqing Ma1,2,3, Qun Wang1,2,3,*, Cuihua Gu1,2,3,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2607-2617, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022485
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Flower bud differentiation is a key component of plant blooming biology and understanding how it works is vital for flowering regulation and plant genetic breeding, increasing the number and quality of flowering. Red soil is the most widely covered soil type in the world, and it is also the most suitable soil type for crape myrtle planting. The flower buds of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) planted in red soil were employed as experimental materials in this study, and the distinct periods of differentiation were identified using stereomicroscopy and paraffin sectioning. We optimized the steps of dehydration, transparency, embedding, sectioning and… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine and Thidiazuron Promotes Highly Efficient Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Node of Mature Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars

    Abraham Lamboro1,*, Xiao Han1, Songnan Yang1, Xueying Li1, Dan Yao2, Baixing Song1, Jun Zhang1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2619-2631, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021404
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Efficient in vitro plantlet regeneration is an important step to successfully transform genes for the improvement of agronomic traits. A combination of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) plant growth regulators was applied to evaluate shoot regeneration capacity whereas α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) with 6-benzylaminopurine were tested to optimize root induction for two peanut cultivars. The result showed combination (BAP with TDZ) was found to be effective in promoting shoot. The highest shoot regeneration frequency (93%) was obtained on a medium supplemented with 4 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L TDZ while an average… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    The Endosperm-Specific Expression of YUCCA Genes Enhances Rice Grain Filling

    Huijun Jiang1,#, Kaien Zhai3,#, Xiaofan Ye3,#, Tianwei Hu2, Jieming Jiang4, Xiaoqiu Dong1, Weihuai Pan1, Jianwei Pan2, Jianxin Shou1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2633-2648, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021474
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: High-Yield Rice Physiology & Genetics)
    Abstract Grain filling is a crucial process that affects yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Auxin biosynthesis and signaling are closely related to rice yield; therefore, it is important to understand the effects of auxin biosynthesis on rice grain filling to improve crop yield. In this study, we used physiological and molecular strategies to identify the roles of auxin in rice grain filling. Exogenous application of auxin (IAA) or auxin analogues (2, 4-D) to young spikelets and flag leaves improved the seed-setting rate and yield per spike. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR assays confirmed that nine members of the OsYUCCA family of… More >

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    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Methylation Modification of MDD on the Expression of Key Genes in the Process of Saponin Synthesis in Eleutherococcus senticosus

    Minghui Cui, Limei Lin, Jie Zhang, Xin Song, Shuo Wang, Jing Dong, Xuelei Zhao, Yuehong Long*, Zhaobin Xing*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2649-2668, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021631
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Biotechnology of Plant Secondary Metabolites)
    Abstract Mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase is a kind of key enzyme in the terpenoid synthesis pathway in Eleutherococcus senticosus. The results of bisulfite sequencing showed that there were three kinds of samples with a low (0.68%), medium (0.72%) and high (0.79%) DNA methylation ratio in the promoter of MDD in E. senticosus, respectively. The transcriptome sequencing results showed that the expression of MDD in E. senticosus was significantly up-regulated in the types with low DNA methylation ratios of MDD (P < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between the saponin content in E. senticosus and the DNA methylation ratio of MDDMore >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Health Risks Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil-Crop System from an E-Waste Dismantling Area

    Shengting Rao#, Jia Fang#, Keli Zhao*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2669-2685, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022416
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract

    Soil is an essential resource for agricultural production. In order to investigate the pollution situation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system in the e-waste dismantling area, the crop and soil samples (226 pairs, including leaf vegetables, solanaceous vegetables, root vegetables, and fruits) around the e-waste dismantling area in southeastern Zhejiang Province were collected. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr were determined. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr in soils were 0.94, 107.79, 80.28, and 78.14 mg kg-1, respectively, and their corresponding concentrations in crops were 0.024, 0.7, 0.041, and 0.06 mg kg-1, respectively. The… More >

  • Open Access

    REVIEW

    Heavy Metal/Metalloid Indexing and Balances in Agricultural Soils: Methodological Approach for Research

    Shahid Hussain*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2687-2697, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021158
    Abstract Heavy metal(loid) accumulation in agricultural soils is a threat to the soil capacity, quality, and productivity. It also increases human exposure to heavy metal(loid)s via consumption of contaminated plant-based foods. The detrimental effects of soil contamination also deteriorate the environment of plants and animals. For sustainable agriculture, therefore, the soil must be protected from toxic levels of heavy metal(loid)s. Studies on heavy metal(loid) balances in agricultural soils are important in predicting future risks to sustainable production from agro-ecological zones and human exposure to heavy metal(loid)s. The latest and continuous indexing of the problem seems a prerequisite for sustainable agriculture. This… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Breeding Enrichment of Genetic Variation of Grain Yield and Its Attributes in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress and Well Irrigation

    Dina Swelam1, Abdel Hamid Salem2, Manal Hassan1, Mohammed Ali2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2699-2717, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022651
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Integrating Agronomy and Plant Physiology for Improving Crop Production)
    Abstract Drought stress (DS) is one of the most critical environmental abiotic stresses for wheat production in the arid environments. Selection of high-yielding genotypes tolerant to DS can play a significant role in mitigation the negative impacts associated with DS. In the present study, generation means analysis (GMA) was used to study the performance of two crosses under well irrigation (WI) and deficit irrigation [cross I (Line 44 × Shandweel-1) and cross II (Line 20 × Sakha 93)]. Significant differences were observed for days to heading (DH), days to maturity (DM), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), number of spikes per plant (NS/P), number of… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity Associated with Olea europaea L. Growing in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Yuebo Jing*, Jihua Mao, Rongbo Li
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2719-2732, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.021989
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Mycorrhizal Fungi and Sustainable Development of Agriculture)
    Abstract Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruit trees, with high economic, ecological, cultural and scientific value. China began introducing and cultivating olive in the 1960s, and Yunnan Province is one of the main growing areas. Improving the cultivation and productivity of this tree crop species is an important challenge. Olive is a typical mycotrophic species and the potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for this plant is well recognized; nevertheless, studies of olive AMF in China are still very limited. Roots and rhizosphere soils of olive were sampled from five representative growing sites… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exploration of Genetic Pattern of Phenological Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Drought Stress

    Iqra Ishaaq1, Muhammad Umer Farooq1,2,3,4,*, Syeda Anjum Tahira2, Rizwana Maqbool1, Celaleddin Barutçular3, Muhammad Yasir5, Saira Bano2, Zaid Ulhassan6, Ghassan Zahid7, Muhammad Ahsan Asghar8, Sajad Hussain9, Kocsy Gabor8, Ulkar Ibrahimova10,11, Jianqing Zhu4, Anshu Rastogi12,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2733-2758, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022094
    Abstract Drought is the major detrimental environmental factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The exploration of genetic patterns underlying drought tolerance is of great significance. Here we report the gene actions controlling the phenological traits using the line × tester model studying 27 crosses and 12 parents under normal irrigation and drought conditions. The results interpreted via multiple analysis (mean performance, correlations, principal component, genetic analysis, heterotic and heterobeltiotic potential) disclosed highly significant differences among germplasm. The phenological waxiness traits (glume, boom, and sheath) were strongly interlinked. Flag leaf area exhibits a positive association with peduncle and spike length under… More >

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    ARTICLE

    Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System Assessment of the Nutrients Limiting and Nutritional Status of Tomato

    Rabia Manzoor1,*, Mohammad Saleem Akhtar1, Khalid Saifullah Khan1, Taqi Raza2, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani3, Carl Rosen4, Muhammad Khalil ur Rehman5, Nahla Zidan6, Fahad M. Alzuaibr7, Nisreen M. Abdulsalam8, Najla A. Khateeb9, Majid Alhomrani10,11, Abdulhakeem S. Alamri10,11, Javeed Ahmad Lone12, Muhammad Ammar Raza13, Ayman El Sabag
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2759-2774, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.022988
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: The Effect of Soil Quality Degradation on the Plant Growth, Quality and Food Safety in Subtropical Agroforestry Ecosystems)
    Abstract Tomato is an important field crop, and nutritional imbalances frequently reduce its yield. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS), uses ratios for nutrient deficiency diagnosis instead of absolute concentration in plant tests. In this study, local DRIS norms for the field tomatoes were established and the nutrient(s) limiting tomatoes yield were determined. Tomato leaves were analyzed for nutrients, to identify nutritional status using the DRIS approach. One hundred tomatoes fields were selected from Chatter Plain Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Sheikupura Punjab Pakistan. The first fully matured leaf was sampled, rinsed, dried and ground for analyzing P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu,… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Exploration of Distinct Physiological and Biochemical Alterations in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Varying Organic Materials, Drought and Proline Application

    Uttam Kumer Sarker1, A. N. Md. Anamul Karim1, F. M. Jamil Uddin1, Ahmed Khairul Hasan1, Najrul Islam1, Md. Romij Uddin1,*, Md. Alamgir Hossain2, Sabry Hassan3, Mohamed M. Hassan3, Mahmoud F. K. Soliman4
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2775-2789, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023112
    Abstract Chickpea yield is decreasing day by day due to drought stress, which could be an immense risk for future food security in developing countries. Management practices could be the most excellent approach to diminish loss due to this abiotic factor. The current research work was designed to explore the tolerance reaction of chickpea genotypes against management practices, through morphological and biochemical parameters and evaluate yield performance across drought prone location of Bangladesh. Four genotypes BD-6048, BD-6045, BD-6090, BD-6092 and eight management practices, e.g., severe water stress (SWS), i.e., without irrigation, 10 cm thick mulching with rice straw (MRS), 10 cm thick… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Transcriptome Analysis and Genes Function Verification of Root Development of Paeonia suffruticosa under Sandy Loam Cultivation

    Yinglong Song1,#, Wenqian Shang1,#, Zheng Wang1,*, Songlin He1,2,*, Xinya Meng3, Liyun Shi1, Yuxiao Shen1, Dan He1, Xueyuan Lou1, Yuke Sun1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2791-2812, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.023572
    Abstract Relatively poor in vitro rooting has limited the large-scale commercial production of tree peony. In this study, on the basis of transcriptome sequencing, differentially expressed genes and the associated metabolic pathways were identified in tree peony roots at different stages of root formation under sandy loam cultivation. A total of 31.63 Gb raw data were generated and 120,188 unigenes (mean length of 911.98 bp) were annotated according to six databases (NR, NT, GO, KEGG, COG, and Swiss-Prot). Analyses of the ungerminated root primordium period, induced root primordium period, and root formation period detected 8,232, 6,907, and 10,687 differentially expressed genes related… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Morphological and Phylogenetic Resolution of Diplodia neojuniperi Emerging Diplodia Top Dieback of Pinus thunbergii Parl. in China

    Xiaolei Ding, Ruiwen Zhao, Sixi Lin, Jianren Ye*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2813-2825, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.024609
    Abstract In Bazhong City, Sichuan Province, China, top dieback symptoms were found on many pine trees (Pinus thunbergii Parl). The tips of old needles first turned grayish-green and then developed into brown bands in the field. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated ITS and EF1-α indicated the pathogen of this dieback disease as Diplodia neojuniperi. Additionally, effects of temperature, pH and medium on the mycelial growth were also characterized. The most favorable temperature and pH level for mycelial growth are 25°C and 8, respectively. The optimal medium for mycelial growth is PDA medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report of D.… More >

  • Open Access

    ARTICLE

    Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollutants Removal from Rice Field Drainage with Ecological Agriculture Ditch: A Field Case

    Lina Chen1,2,3,4, Wenshuo Zhang1, Junyi Tan5,*, Xiaohou Shao1, Yaliu Qiu7, Fangxiu Zhang2,6, Xiang Zhang2,6
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.91, No.12, pp. 2827-2841, 2022, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2022.024105
    Abstract Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural drainage can cause a series of water environmental problems such as eutrophication of water bodies and non-point source pollution. By monitoring the water purification effect of a paddy ditch wetland in Gaochun, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of N and P pollutants in paddy drains during the whole reproductive period of rice. Then, the dynamic changes of nitrogen and phosphorus in time and space during the two processes of rainfall after basal fertilization and topdressing were analyzed after comparison. At last, the effect of the ditch wetland on… More >

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