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Heavy Metal/Metalloid Indexing and Balances in Agricultural Soils: Methodological Approach for Research

Shahid Hussain*

Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan

* Corresponding Author: Shahid Hussain. Email:

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2022, 91(12), 2687-2697.


Heavy metal(loid) accumulation in agricultural soils is a threat to the soil capacity, quality, and productivity. It also increases human exposure to heavy metal(loid)s via consumption of contaminated plant-based foods. The detrimental effects of soil contamination also deteriorate the environment of plants and animals. For sustainable agriculture, therefore, the soil must be protected from toxic levels of heavy metal(loid)s. Studies on heavy metal(loid) balances in agricultural soils are important in predicting future risks to sustainable production from agro-ecological zones and human exposure to heavy metal(loid)s. The latest and continuous indexing of the problem seems a prerequisite for sustainable agriculture. This review provides some background information and then summarizes key methodological approaches for studies on indexing and balance of heavy metal(loid)s in agricultural soils. In the end, important soil and health indices are explained that may be useful in understanding the extent of the problem. The provided information would contribute to sustainable heavy metal(loid) management in the agricultural soils, high crop production, better soil protection, and ultimately to human health.


Cite This Article

Hussain, S. (2022). Heavy Metal/Metalloid Indexing and Balances in Agricultural Soils: Methodological Approach for Research. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 91(12), 2687–2697.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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