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Exploration of Genetic Pattern of Phenological Traits in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Drought Stress

Iqra Ishaaq1, Muhammad Umer Farooq1,2,3,4,*, Syeda Anjum Tahira2, Rizwana Maqbool1, Celaleddin Barutçular3, Muhammad Yasir5, Saira Bano2, Zaid Ulhassan6, Ghassan Zahid7, Muhammad Ahsan Asghar8, Sajad Hussain9, Kocsy Gabor8, Ulkar Ibrahimova10,11, Jianqing Zhu4, Anshu Rastogi12,*

1 Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan
2 Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Okara, Okara, 56130, Pakistan
3 Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Çukurova University, Adana, 01330, Turkey
4Department of Crop Genetics and Breeding, Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu Campus, 611130, China
5 Key Laboratory of Agriculture Products Improvement, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou, 311300, China
6 Institute of Crop Science, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Spectroscopy Sensing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China
7 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Çukurova University, Adana, 01330, Turkey
8 Agricultural Institute, ELKH Centre for Agricultural Research, Martonvásár, 2462, Hungary
9 College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an, 611130, China
10 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnologies, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, AZ 1073, Azerbaijan
11 Research Institute of Crop Husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture of the Azerbaijan Republic, Baku, AZ 1098, Azerbaijan
12 Laboratory of Bioclimatology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, 60-649, Poland

* Corresponding Authors: Muhammad Umer Farooq. Email: email; Anshu Rastogi. Email: email

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2022, 91(12), 2733-2758. https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.022094

Abstract

Drought is the major detrimental environmental factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The exploration of genetic patterns underlying drought tolerance is of great significance. Here we report the gene actions controlling the phenological traits using the line × tester model studying 27 crosses and 12 parents under normal irrigation and drought conditions. The results interpreted via multiple analysis (mean performance, correlations, principal component, genetic analysis, heterotic and heterobeltiotic potential) disclosed highly significant differences among germplasm. The phenological waxiness traits (glume, boom, and sheath) were strongly interlinked. Flag leaf area exhibits a positive association with peduncle and spike length under drought. The growing degree days (heat-units) greatly influence spikelets and grains per spike, however, the grain yield/plant was significantly reduced (17.44 g to 13.25 g) under drought. The principal components based on eigenvalue indicated significant PCs (first-seven) accounted for 79.9% and 73.9% of total variability under normal irrigation and drought, respectively. The investigated yield traits showed complex genetic behaviour. The genetic advance confronted a moderate to high heritability for spikelets/spike and grain yield/plant. The traits conditioned by dominant genetic effects in normal irrigation were inversely controlled by additive genetic effects under drought and vice versa. The magnitude of dominance effects for phenological and yield traits, i.e., leaf twist, auricle hairiness, grain yield/plant, spikelets, and grains/spike suggests that selection by the pedigree method is appropriate for improving these traits under normal irrigation conditions and could serve as an indirect selection index for improving yield-oriented traits in wheat populations for drought tolerance. However, the phenotypic selection could be more than effective for traits conditioned by additive genetic effects under drought. We suggest five significant cross combinations based on heterotic and heterobeltiotic potential of wheat genotypes for improved yield and enhanced biological production of wheat in advanced generations under drought.

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APA Style
Ishaaq, I., Farooq, M.U., Tahira, S.A., Maqbool, R., Barutçular, C. et al. (2022). Exploration of genetic pattern of phenological traits in wheat (<i>triticum aestivum</i> L.) under drought stress. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 91(12), 2733-2758. https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.022094
Vancouver Style
Ishaaq I, Farooq MU, Tahira SA, Maqbool R, Barutçular C, Yasir M, et al. Exploration of genetic pattern of phenological traits in wheat (<i>triticum aestivum</i> L.) under drought stress. Phyton-Int J Exp Bot. 2022;91(12):2733-2758 https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.022094
IEEE Style
I. Ishaaq et al., "Exploration of Genetic Pattern of Phenological Traits in Wheat (<i>Triticum aestivum</i> L.) under Drought Stress," Phyton-Int. J. Exp. Bot., vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 2733-2758. 2022. https://doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2022.022094



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