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This article delves into the essential functions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) in enabling plants to adapt to iron deficiency. Our research demonstrates that CO and NO, by regulating auxin transport and engaging with pivotal iron-related genes, synergistically boost the plant's ability to respond to iron deficiency. This revelation unveils a novel dimension of plant physiology in coping with environmental stress.
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  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Silicon Mitigates Aluminum Toxicity of Tartary Buckwheat by Regulating Antioxidant Systems

    Anyin Qi1,#, Xiaonan Yan1,#, Yuqing Liu1,#, Qingchen Zeng1, Hang Yuan1, Huange Huang1, Chenggang Liang2, Dabing Xiang1, Liang Zou1, Lianxin Peng1, Gang Zhao1, Jingwei Huang1,*, Yan Wan1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 1-13, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045802
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Crop)
    Abstract

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a considerable factor limiting crop yield and biomass in acidic soil. Tartary buckwheat growing in acidic soil may suffer from Al poisoning. Here, we investigated the influence of Al stress on the growth of tartary buckwheat seedling roots, and the alleviation of Al stress by silicon (Si), as has been demonstrated in many crops. Under Al stress, root growth (total root length, primary root length, root tips, root surface area, and root volume) was significantly inhibited, and Al and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulated in the root tips. At the same time, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase activities,… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Ellagic Acid Enhances Antioxidant System Activity and Maintains the Quality of Strawberry Fruit during Storage

    Jian Chen1, Jing Zhang2, Gang Pan3, Dandan Huang1,*, Shuhua Zhu1
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 15-28, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045621
    Abstract Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural antioxidant, widely present in a lot of forms’ soft fruits, nuts, and other plant tissues, and helpful for promoting human health; however, its protective effect on postharvest fruit and improving the quality index of postharvest fruit have rarely been studied. In this experiment, the strawberries were soaked in 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg L−1 EA, respectively, and the influential EA on fruit quality and the antioxidant system of strawberries were studied. Compared with the control, EA treatment can reduce the browning degree and rotting rate of strawberry fruit during storage and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Variation Characteristics of Root Traits of Different Alfalfa Cultivars under Saline-Alkaline Stress and their Relationship with Soil Environmental Factors

    Tian-Jiao Wei1, Guang Li1, Yan-Ru Cui1, Jiao Xie1, Xing-Ai Gao1, Xing Teng1, Xin-Ying Zhao1, Fa-Chun Guan1,*, Zheng-Wei Liang2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 29-43, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.046078
    Abstract Soil salinization is the main factor that threatens the growth and development of plants and limits the increase of yield. It is of great significance to study the key soil environmental factors affecting plant root traits to reveal the adaptation strategies of plants to saline-alkaline-stressed soil environments. In this study, the root biomass, root morphological parameters and root mineral nutrient content of two alfalfa cultivars with different sensitivities to alkaline stress were analyzed with black soil as the control group and the mixed saline-alkaline soil with a ratio of 7:3 between black soil and saline-alkaline soil as the saline-alkaline treatment… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    Carbon Monoxide Modulates Auxin Transport and Nitric Oxide Signaling in Plants under Iron Deficiency Stress

    Kaiyue Hong1,2, Yasmina Radani2, Waqas Ahmad2, Ping Li3, Yuming Luo1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 45-61, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.046389
    Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) are signal molecules that enhance plant adaptation to environmental stimuli. Auxin is an essential phytohormone for plant growth and development. CO and NO play crucial roles in modulating the plant’s response to iron deficiency. Iron deficiency leads to an increase in the activity of heme oxygenase (HO) and the subsequent generation of CO. Additionally, it alters the polar subcellular distribution of Pin-Formed 1 (PIN1) proteins, resulting in enhanced auxin transport. This alteration, in turn, leads to an increase in NO accumulation. Furthermore, iron deficiency enhances the activity of ferric chelate reductase (FCR), as… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    REVIEW

    The IDD Transcription Factors: Their Functions in Plant Development and Environmental Response

    Jing Liu1,*, Defeng Shu1, Zilong Tan1, Mei Ma1, Huanhuan Yang1, Ning Guo1,2, Shipeng Li1, Dayong Cui1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 63-79, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045940
    Abstract INDETERMINATE-DOMAIN proteins (IDDs) are a plant-specific transcription factor family characterized by a conserved ID domain with four zinc finger motifs. Previous studies have demonstrated that IDDs coordinate a diversity of physiological processes and functions in plant growth and development, including floral transition, plant architecture, seed and root development, and hormone signaling. In this review, we especially summarized the latest knowledge on the functions and working models of IDD members in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize, particularly focusing on their role in the regulatory network of biotic and abiotic environmental responses, such as gravity, temperature, water, and pathogens. Understanding these mechanisms underlying… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Alkaloid Biosynthesis Gene Family in Dendrobium catenatum

    Liping Yang1,#, Xin Wan2,3,#, Runyang Zhou1, Yingdan Yuan1,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 81-96, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.045389
    Abstract As one of the main active components of Dendrobium catenatum, alkaloids have high medicinal value. The physicochemical properties, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis, and cis-acting elements of the gene family members in the alkaloid biosynthesis pathway of D. catenatum were analyzed by bioinformatics, and the expression of the genes in different years and tissues was analyzed by qRT-PCR. There are 16 gene families, including 25 genes, in the D. catenatum alkaloid biosynthesis pathway. The analysis of conserved domains and motifs showed that the types, quantities, and orders of domains and motifs were similar among members of the same family,… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Effects of Heterologously Overexpressing PIP5K-Family Genes in Arabidopsis on Inflorescence Development

    Mingda Yin1,#, Rui Luo1,#, Tana Liang1, Qi Wen1, Xiaotian Liang1, Yanpeng Wen1, Xuemei Hu1, Zhiyan Wang1, Chang Gao1, Wenjing Ren1, Fenglan Huang1,2,3,4,5,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 97-117, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.031228
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Advances in Molecular Genetics and Physiology towards a Better Understanding of Agricultural Crop Plants)
    Abstract Castor is one of the top 10 oil crops in the world and has extremely valuable uses. Castor inflorescences directly affect yield, so the study of inflorescence development is very important in increasing castor yield. Our previous studies have shown that the PIP5K gene family (PIP5Ks) is associated with inflorescence development. In this study, to determine the function of each PIP5K gene in castor, a female Lm-type castor line, aLmAB2, was used to determine the relative expression levels of the PIP5Ks in castor inflorescences. Six PIP5K genes were heterologously overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, the relative expression of each gene and… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    The Effect of Soil Enzymes and Polysaccharides Secreted by the Roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge under Drought, High Temperature, and Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deficits

    Yong Qin1,2, Xiaoyu Li1,2, Yanhong Wu1,2, Hai Wang3, Guiqi Han1,2,3, Zhuyun Yan1,2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 119-135, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.046075
    (This article belongs to this Special Issue: Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Crop)
    Abstract Root exudates serve as crucial mediators for information exchange between plants and soil, and are an important evolutionary mechanism for plants’ adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, 15 different abiotic stress models were established using various stress factors, including drought (D), high temperature (T), nitrogen deficiency (N), phosphorus deficiency (P), and their combinations. We investigated their effects on the seedling growth of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and the activities of Solid-Urease (S-UE), Solid-Nitrite Reductase (S-NiR), Solid-Nitrate Reductase (S-NR), Solid-Phosphotransferase (S-PT), and Solid-Catalase (S-CAT), as well as the contents of polysaccharides in the culture medium. The results showed that the growth… More >

  • Open AccessOpen Access

    ARTICLE

    Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Its Potential Function on Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control in Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Yanhuan Lin1,#, Hua Du2,#, Zhitao Ye2, Shuqi Wang2, Zhen Wang2, Xiaojuan Liu2,*
    Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol.93, No.1, pp. 137-150, 2024, DOI:10.32604/phyton.2023.044996
    Abstract PDI is a molecular chaperone and plays an important role in Endoplasmic Reticulum quality control (ERQC). PDI participates in the refolding of the misfolded/unfolded proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis under different stresses. However, bioinformatic characteristics and potential functions of PDIs in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt) are still unknown so far. Hence, the genome-wide characteristics of PtPDI proteins in P. tricornutum were first studied via bioinformatic and transcriptomic methods. 42 PtPDI genes were identified from the genome of P. tricornutum. The motif, protein structure, classification, number of introns, phylogenetic relationship, and the expression level of 42 PtPDI genes under the tunicamycin… More >

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