Table of Content

Open AccessOpen Access


Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth

Astiz V1, LF Hernández2,3

1 Laboratorio de Calidad Industrial de Granos. Chacra Experimental Integrada Barrow (convenio INTA-MAA), Argentina.
2 Laboratorio de Morfología Vegetal. Departamento de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional del Sur. Bahía Blanca, 8000.
3 Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Pcia. de Buenos Aires (CIC). La Plata, 1900, Argentina.

* Corresponding Author:Address Correspondence to: V. Astiz, e-mail:

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2013, 82(all), 297-302.


During microsporogenesis, sunflower florets might be exposed to episodes of day- and night-time temperatures exceeding 30 and 20 °C, respectively, that can affect pollen availability and consequently plant’s yield. The relationship between air temperature and relative humidity during the meiotic phase of microsporogenesis, and the quantity and quality of pollen produced by the flowers, were studied in two sunflower hybrids during two years. The hybrids were grown on irrigated plots in Bahía Blanca (38° 45’ S; 62° 11’ W) in three planting dates (PD) at a density of 5.6 plants/m2. Flowers were consecutively taken as anthesis progressed, sectorizing the capitulum in three regions (external, middle and internal), to determine pollen grain number per flower (PGF) and pollen viability (PV). Both average air temperature (AT, °C) and relative humidity (RH, %) from reproductive stage R1 to R2 [36 to 48 days from emergence (DFE), respectively] were calculated for each PD, hybrid and capitulum sectors. Pollen viability was high (> 90%) with no differences between PD, capitulum sectors and hybrids. The number of PGF, with respect to AT (19 to 31 °C) from R1 to R2, was adjusted to a second-order polynomial (R2=0.53, n=24; p<0.0004), with a maximum of 45,000 PGF between 21 and 25 °C. Above and below these values, the number of PGF showed a reduction of approximately 20%. There also was a significant positive relationship between pollen production and air RH. A maximum of 45,679 PGF was observed at 57% RH adjusting a second-order polynomial (R2=0.58, n=24; p<0.0001).Temperatures over 26 °C were supraoptimal for pollen production. It is concluded that pollen production in sunflower is determined by the cumulative effects of both air temperature and relative humidity above a critical value and not only by temperature effects at a specific developmental stage before flower opening. It remains unknown whether this observation is associated with a direct effect on the mitosis or indirectly with changes in the contribution of current photoassimilates to anthers during the meiotic phase of the microsporogenesis.


Cite This Article

V, A., Hernández, L. (2013). Pollen production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is affected by air temperature and relative humidity during early reproductive growth. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 82(all), 297–302.


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
  • 1266


  • 662


  • 1


Share Link