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Morphology, viability and germination of candelilla seeds (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc.)

Flores-del Angel ML, R Foroughbakhch, A Rocha-Estrada, ML Cárdenas-Ávila, MA GuzmánLucio, YL Hernández-Aguilar, MA Alvarado-Vázquez

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas. Ave. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 México.

* Corresponding Author: Address Correspondence to: Marco A. AlvaradoVázquez, e-mail: email

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2013, 82(all), 161-167.


Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc.) is a native plant in the desert regions of northern Mexico and the southern United States. The primary commercial use of this plant is for wax production. This study assessed the morphology, viability, and the effects of temperature in combination with chemical and mechanical scarification on the germination of candelilla seeds. Seeds were collected in four localities in northeastern Mexico. The seeds were predominantly pyriform with foveolate surfaces and brown in color; on average, the seeds measured 2.92 ± 0.26, 1.91 ± 0.22, and 1.50 ± 0.41 mm in length, width, and thickness, respectively. The average weight of 100 seeds was 0.32 ± 0.12 g. Seed viability showed a direct relationship with the color of the seed coat (thereby indicating the maturity level of the seed), with a viability of up to 86% in brown seeds, 52% in amber seeds, and 22% in gray seeds. Only brown seeds were used to assess germination after applying mechanical (sandpaper) and chemical (H2SO4) scarification, as well as two temperature (28 and 32 °C) treatments. The average germination rate was greater at 28 °C than at 32 °C for all treatments. The chemical scarification (at 28 °C) of seeds from the Lomas de Icamole locality showed the highest rate of germination (60%).


Cite This Article

APA Style
ML, F.A., Foroughbakhch, R., Rocha-Estrada, A., Cárdenas-Ávila, M., GuzmánLucio, M. et al. (2013). Morphology, viability and germination of candelilla seeds (<i>euphorbia antisyphilitica</i> zucc.). Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 82(all), 161-167.
Vancouver Style
ML FA, Foroughbakhch R, Rocha-Estrada A, Cárdenas-Ávila M, GuzmánLucio M, Hernández-Aguilar Y, et al. Morphology, viability and germination of candelilla seeds (<i>euphorbia antisyphilitica</i> zucc.). Phyton-Int J Exp Bot. 2013;82(all):161-167
IEEE Style
F.A. ML et al., "Morphology, viability and germination of candelilla seeds (<i>Euphorbia antisyphilitica</i> Zucc.)," Phyton-Int. J. Exp. Bot., vol. 82, no. all, pp. 161-167. 2013.


cc This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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