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Germination and Photosynthetic Responses to Salinity and Alkalinity in Avicenna marina Propagules

Abdallah Atia1,2,*, Ahmed Abdallah Hussain3,4, Barhoumi Zouhaier3,5

1 Department of Biology, College of Arts and Science Mahayel Asir, King Khalid University, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia
2 Research Unit, Nutrition and Nitrogen Metabolism and Stress Protein, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Campus Universitaire El Manar I, Tunis, 1068, Tunisia
3 Department of Biology, King Khalid University, Abha, 61413, Saudi Arabia
4 Faculty of Science, Abu Haraz, Gezira University, Wed Medani, 21111, Sudan
5 Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Biotechnology Center of Borj Cedria, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis, 1068, Tunisia

* Corresponding Author: Abdallah Atia. Email:

(This article belongs to this Special Issue: Plant Ecophysiology: Recent Trends and Advancements)

Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany 2022, 91(5), 1015-1026.


Avicenna marina (Forssk.) Vierh is a halophytic mangrove. The reproductive unit is green and has photosynthetic propagules. Mangroves are naturally exposed to fluctuations in some abiotic factors at the soil surface, including salinity and alkalinity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two salts including NaCl and NaHCO3 on germination processes and discuss the relationships between cotyledon photosynthesis and embryo axis growth in A. marina propagules. These propagules came from Al Birk, located on the shoreline of the Saudi Red Sea. The results showed that the studied salts did not affect neither the final germination percentage nor the embryo axis growth. However, rooting and root growth were delayed by both salts at 300 mM and were strongly inhibited by 600 mM NaHCO3. Both NaCl and NaHCO3 reduced the photosynthetic activity. These two salts did not affect the other photosynthetic parameters, including stomatal conductance, net transpiration, and intercellular CO2. Thereafter, the reduction in net photosynthesis was not related to any limitation of stomatal conductance. The early germination phase was independent of cotyledon photosynthesis, whereas rooting and root growth may be limited by reduced photosynthesis under NaCl and NaHCO3.


Cite This Article

Atia, A., Hussain, A. A., Zouhaier, B. (2022). Germination and Photosynthetic Responses to Salinity and Alkalinity in Avicenna marina Propagules. Phyton-International Journal of Experimental Botany, 91(5), 1015–1026.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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